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tinople by a power so ambitious, so was easy at Olmutz, but he, too, was unscrupulous, so utterly regardless of incredulous; he did not believe that good faith as Russia, would be fol- the English or French seriously thought lowed by the subjugation of the Otto- of war. Deceived by his ambassadors, man provinces in Asia, and would and the spies who infested every close up for ever the Black Sea. court in Europe, and intoxicated by Russia would soon command the adulation, he flung defiance in the face Archipelago, the Mediterranean, and of Europe. Before submission take the Adriatic, and cover with its deadly place, much remains to be done. The shadow the whole of Europe. We fleets of Russia must be burnt or confess that we have been slow to sunk, her fortresses dismantled, her arrive at these convictions; we have arsenals ruined ; and even after this, been long unwilling to believe that the we doubt whether she will sue for man who, on various and important peace. But whatever be the sacrioccasions, rendered good service to fices we are called on to make, whatthe cause of order in Europe, would so ever the burdens we are destined to wantonly and so recklessly disturb it. bear, whatever the effusion of blood But whatever the high claims to pub- and the waste of treasure, we must lic admiration which the Emperor submit to all in order to pull down Nicholas was once supposed to pos- that Colossus; we must face every sess,

he has now entered on a career difficulty; we must be deterred by of spoliation which must be at once no danger, discouraged or dismayed arrested, and at any cost. The culp- by no reverses, swayed from our purable weakness of our ministers—and pose by no prayers or seduction, particularly of one man, on whose seduced by no treachery at home or head, we conscientiously believe, much abroad, until we shall have attained of the responsibility of our present our object. All this we must make situation rests—has already produced up our mind to do, for we have no incalculable evil. Yet it is not too choice. We must show the Emperor late. The Emperor Nicholas must be of Russia and the entire world that placed under the ban of Europe ; he we have not degenerated, as he may must be the excommunicated of na- have been led to believe by his old tions. Those who have not entirely and respected friends; that we are made up their minds to crouch before ready to prove our title as the most the Attila of modern days, must now powerful nation of the earth; that stand forth, and manfully struggle for though England has arrived at full independence and existence. The maturity, she is not yet rotten ; that fact should not be concealed ;—the England is not as yet quite prepared war we are now engaged in is a war to descend to the level of the Turkish of life or death, as between Russia and Empire ; and that it would be a grievWestern Europe, and our preparations ous error on his part to form his nofor it must be commensurate with its tion of Englishmen from his “old magnitude. We have already paid friends” in the Cabinet. We must for the credulity or connivance of our render our enemy powerless, or we Government. The Emperor Napoleon must make up our minds to renew never believed that Spain or Russia, the contest again and again. Had we when these countries were invaded, any other at the head of the Governwould offer serious resistance, and he ment than the man to whose hands paid dearly for his incredulity. Neither are intrusted the destinies of our must we persuade ourselves that the Empire, we might cherish the hope of Emperor Nicholas will submit. Sub- an honourable peace-a peace that mission after so much arrogance would would run no risk of being disturbed be destruction. He is Czar and Auto- for a long time to come, and wbich crat, and to yield to the enemies he would be the reward as well as the bas so insolently provoked, would be to termination of the sacrifices we are acknowledge himself as an erring mor- making, and the struggle we have tal-his infallibility would be gone for entered upon. At all events, we trust ever. He has allowed many occa- that the spirit of our country will sions to slip by when a not dishonour- revolt against dishonour, and that no able arrangement was possible. It peace will be imposed on us until it

shall be put out of the power of Rus- dertaking, we have the example of sia again to convulse Europe.

Charles XII. of Sweden, and the It is impossible that the termina- more recent one of Napoleon I. But tion of the war, if indeed the present if we will not traverse the desolate generation is destined to behold its steppes of Russia, we may do what is termination, can leave the Czar in the still better; we may restore the balpossession of the same territorial ad- ance of power in Europe, which has vantages by means of which he has existed only in name for nearly the defied and menaced Europe. The status last forty years. If the preponderance quo which some eight or ten months of Russia, during that period, has not since might have been conceded, would thrown every other Continental power now be defeat, if peace were unfortu- into the shade, it has at all events nately made on such conditions. The done its best to exhaust their strength mere maintenance of the integrity of by compelling them to keep up ruinthe Turkish empire, and the evacua- ous armaments. She must, therefore, tion of the Principalities, would then be reduced to proportions of a more bave been accepted, less as an acknowmodest kind, and give up a portion of ledgment of complete satisfaction, than the vast provinces which she has about of regard for the general peace. sorbed. Georgia and the Caucasus More will now be demanded. Aus do not suffice for the object we ought tria and Prussia may contend for these to have in view, because they have in objects only, and profess themselves reality added nothing to her power, satisfied with their attainment; but but have rather been a drain on her the maritime powers contemplate, we resources. The Crimea derives its hope, more general measures for the principal, if not its only importance, re-establishment of peace on a solid from Sebastopol, and the vicinity of basis, and the prevention for the future Odessa. The loss of these ports would of acts suggested by ambition as grasp. inflict a fatal blow on her as a mariing and unscrupulous as the world time power; but the advantages she has ever had the misfortune to suffer would thus lose she would soon refrom. Russia not only must be driven cover by land. Deprived of her ports from tbe Principalities, but she must in the Black Sea, her undivided efforts disgorge a no small portion of the would be directed to the augmentation spoil of which she has hitherto been of her armies, and she would still be left in quiet possession. The Black formidable to the west of Europe, and Sea must not again be a mare clausum above all, to Germany. Bessarabia like the Lake of Azoff. Austria and is not of much importance ; Finland the rest of the German states are in- counts only a million of population ; terested that the mouths of the Da- and if that territory reverted to Swepube, the great outlets of their eastern den, it is doubtful whether she could trade, shall not be blocked up at the retain it long in presence of so powercaprice of an overreaching power. ful a neighbour. The aggregate poSome one, besides, must pay the ex- pulation of these territories scarcely penses of the war. It is not Turkey, amounts to five millions, and Russia the party originally aggrieved, that would have still sixty millions at her will be called on to do so. It cannot command. To reduce her within a fair be England and France, for the party proportion, she must be forced to quit that pays is the conquered, and not her hold of Poland, which, with the the conqueror; and we will not insult addition of Courland, Livonia, and either of these great nations by sup- Esthonia, might be formed into an posing that they will retire from the independent state, and Russia, though field until the common foe lies power- still a first-rate power, would cease to less for evil before them. When we be a permanent menace to Europe. say that Russia must be deprived of The reconstitution of Poland is, in the means of again convulsing Europe, fact, a necessity of war, and the prinwe do not mean to recommend an ciple of those who resist a war of agadvance into her territory, nor that gression, is to deprive the aggressor our armies shall dictate terms of peace of the power to repeat his attacks. at Moscow. Were there no other This, so far as we understand, is the reasons to deter us from such an un- chief point of difference between the maritime and the German powers. the re-establishment of the kingdom The object of Austria and Prussia of Poland, as a protective measure appears to be the evacuation of the against Russia, angmented by the Ottoman territory; and that evacua- territory which Russia appropriated tion they conceive to be sufficient. at the first partition, and the Baltic The aim of England and France is provinces, would necessitate the ceshigher. We not only require that the sion by those powers of Gallicia and Principalities shall be evacuated, and Posen. For eighty years they have that the integrity of the Ottoman been in possession of those territoempire shall be respected, but we de- ries, which, during that space of time, mand security that the aggression have very probably become reconciled which we resist shall not be repeated; to the change. They retained them that the public peace shall not be at the re-establishment of the Duchy wantonly disturbed; and, consequent- of Warsaw 'and the Kingdom of Poly, that the means by which Russia land. But supposing that danger may be enabled to do so shall be would result from the contiguity of curtailed. The contest between Russia Polish provinces to a separate and and Turkey is unequal and perilous- independent kingdom of Poland, it dangerous to other states, and ruinous would be more than compensated by to the latter; and this state of things the relative weakness of Russia, must end. We are no friends, in against which the new kingdom would general, to those acts which transfer serve as a barrier, and the increased cities, districts, and states from one distance from their frontier of a power sovereign to another, whatever be the wbich, for the last forty years, has boundaries, natural or imaginary, that been dangerous both in its friendship may be marked out for them. But and its hostility, and which lowers such transfers have been made on their dignity as first-rate powers, as other occasions where the cause was it menaces their independence. It not so just, where the danger was not does not necessarily follow that a so great, and where the object pro- great nation loses its influence by a posed by them has not been attained. partial loss of territory. CompensaThey have been made by conquerors in tion is always to be found. Compare despite of all law, or right, public or England of the present day with Èngprivate. They have been made to sa- land when it lost its American colotisfy ambition or vengeance, and often nies. France also had made great by means of the foulest treachery, and conquests, and she also had counted the most flagrant disregard of every on preserving for ever the Rhine and moral obligation. We do not see why Savoy. The loss of these frontiers that which has been effected for evil, did not eventually weaken her influshould not now be done in the cause ence among the states of Europe. She of justice, peace, and humanity. When did not cease to be a first-rate power, the word restitution is mentioned, the and wbat she lost in mere territory she name of Poland is one of the first that has gained in unity and compactness. occurs. The desperate design has been We have said that we do not generalattributed to Russia of restoring Polish ly approve of a system of indiscriminate independence by way of intimidation transfer of territory from one state to against Austria and Prussia, who another by a mere dash of the pen, participated in the successive spolia- by the establishment of “natural tions of that once independent, but ille boundaries,” or any other line of governed kingdom, and from whom limitation, without regard to those Russia would now tear Gallicia and moral boundaries, which, though Posen. As both these powers are effected in the beginning, under the equally interested in guarding against influence of accident, have been the loss of those possessions, it is no rendered indelible by time and the doubt for that object that they have babits which time brings forth and mutually bound themselves to the de strengthens. The removal of old fence of each other's territory, and to land-marks is, on principle, deserving that we may also trace their desire to of condemnation, and to such iniquimaintain the status quo ante bellum. tous partitions of territory as have

open to doubt, however, whether been often witnessed, we may trace many of the great convulsions of more regular, united, and compact Europe. Yet many may not disap- form to those dominions. The obprove of the idea, said to be contem- stacles, however, appear, in the plated in certain quarters, of indem- actual territorial division of the west nifying Austria and Prussia in the of Europe, insurmountable, and thereevent of a long war, where the condi- fore Prussia is forced to maintain, on tion of a lasting peace may require that account alone, an immense milithe constitution of the kingdom of tary establishment. It would not Poland, of which Gallicia and Posen perhaps be difficult to induce the should form integral parts. It is ad- petty states, inserted here and there mitted that the scattered and dis- in the Prussian dominions, to consent jointed state of the dominions of to an annexation which would effectuPrussia materially diminishes ber ally protect them, and indemnify strength, and weakens the influence Prussia, and give her the compactness to which she is justly entitled in of which she stands so much in need. Europe. It must be remembered also Changes of a more important nature that the possession of Warsaw places have, within a short period, taken Russia in such a position that the place in the constitution of the GerPrussian monarchy may be attacked manic body ; and there is no reason in its very centre. Should Austria, why, for so useful and so general an for instance, make war on Prussia, object, a new organisation should not she would, by gaining over Saxony, be effected. Several small states which is by no means difficult, be have already given up an independwithin a short march from Berlin; ence, which was only productive of and the danger to the Rhenish pro- evil to them, and have become invinces of that kingdom, in the event tegral parts of her territory; and they of a rupture with France, is so obvious do not appear to repent of what they as to require no argument beyond the have done. We believe that at no dismerest knowledge of their geographi- tant period the force of circumstances cal position. France, in fact, can at will produce some such modification any time scarcely move a brigade to- as that we refer to, whatever be the wards her northern frontier, that future condition of the Germanic Conalarm is not excited, and explanations federation-whether it be wholly disdemanded. The frontier of that part solved, or divided into two great of the Prussian monarchy which lies branches, the northern and the southon the southern shore of the Baltic, ern unions; but we think that the is, in the south and east, sufficiently conduct of Russia renders it more continuous ; but towards the west necessary and more practicable now. the territory is much broken up, and The first mediatisation

was effectseveral small independent states are ed to the general satisfaction; it almost entirely enclosed in the Prus- should have been carried farsian dominions—they are known in ther; for thirty-eight separate France by the expressive term enclaves. states too

GerThe extensive Prussian territory on many. The actual condition of the both banks of the mighty river which Confederation, with those petty indeFrance is 80 often accused of coveting pendent sovereigns, with the people for her frontier, is divided into the puzzled as to whom they really owe provinces of Westphalia and the allegiance, whether to the Princes Rhine; and this portion is separated separately, or to the Diet, can be from the rest of the kingdom, satisfactory or profitable to no one or from its Eastern states, by except to Russia. It is by means of Hesse-Cassel, Brunswick, part of those petty states that this Power has Hanover, &c. In Saxony there are been able to keep up a constant ansome detached portions of territory tagonism between Austria and Prusbelonging to Prussia, and the Canton sia, and intervene in the squabbles of Neufchâtel in Switzerland is under of the German sovereigns among each her sovereignty. The Prussian gov- other, as often, and, we fear, as sucernment is painfully conscious of so cessfully, as she fostered the anarchy vicious a system, and for many years of Poland when Poland was indeattempts have been made to give a pendent. These states, moreover, are


many for

utterly unable to protect themselves might be offered to her in the event against revolution. We have seen, of such a modification of the map of not many years since, Electoral Hesse Germany, and of her voluntary cession forced to annul its constitution, and of Gallicia for the new kingdom of otherwise submit to degradation under Poland. Several persons who consider the menaces of Austria, and in spite of such a creation as feasible and necesthe sympathy of Prussia, who silently sary, have suggested the annexation put up with the affront. But the con- to that empire of the Danubian prindition of the people of the petty states cipalities, and a portion of Bessarabia, of Germany is not more anomalous the rest being reserved in order to and more perplexing than that of the give to the southern provinces of sovereigns. Many of these princes hold Poland an outlet to the Black Sea. commissions, and serve, not nominally, The natural advantages of Gallicia but really, in the armies of the great are unquestionably great; its riyers powers; receive pay, act under the are abundant, and well suited to the orders of a minister or a general; are purposes of commerce and irrigation; liable to be placed under arrest for its climate is tolerably equal; the any real or imaginary breach of dis billy country which forms its centre cipline or neglect of duty, and to be is fertile, and that fertility is susceptried by court-martial and degraded tible of much improvement by drainfrom their rank, or to be ignomini- ing, the swamps of the numerous ously dismissed from the service. It valleys which intersect the hills; and is absurd to talk of independence the soil of that part of the valley of under such circumstances; and it is the Dniester, which once formed part impossible that princes, placed in such of Podolia, and the tracts lying along a condition, can command respect, or the banks of the San, are equally rich. enforce obedience from their own sub- We admit that these are advantages jects. The complete mediatisation of which would make a state loth to those states could scarcely be unaccept- part with a territory possessing them. able to the people, and could not be But we believe that Moldo-Wallachia dishonourable to the princes; and there is not inferior in this respect to Galis more than one that would be desir- licia. The soil of these provinces ous of annexation to Prussia. These is well watered by the Aluta, the might be left in possession of their Jalomnitza, the Argish, the Sereth, domains, and, as a compensation for and other affluents of the Danube. the loss of rank, and of an imaginary These streams are navigable for a conindependence, might be officially ad- siderable distance. Neither is the mitted into the royal family of Prussia, climate unhealthy, except in the with priority regulated by the import- marshes of the Danube, where endemic ance of their respective states. The fever prevails at certain seasons, but consorts of sovereigns of great nations which drainage and agricultural imare often selected from among these provement would remedy. The richest families ; indeed, it seems to be gene- alluvial soil is found in almost all the rally admitted that their principal country which stretches towards that vocation is to furnish husbands and great stream; and in the primary wives to the great families of Europe. formations of the Carpathian mounIt may hereafter be a proper subject tains, gold, silver, copper, mercury, for consideration, whether Prussia, iron, and other metals, are found in being allowed the option of keeping abundance. The population of Galthe duchy of Posen, or of receiving in licia amounts to about four millions; compensation the petty states which that of Moldo-Wallachia, if not more, so inconveniently interrupt the con- is at least equal to it. The Princitinuity of her dominions, would have palities only require peace, and a any insurmountable objections to the paternal government, to reach a high re-establishment of the kingdom of Po- degree of prosperity, and would in land, where such re-establishment was every respect amply compensate indispensable to the balance of power Austria for the transfer of Gallicia. in Europe, and to her own safety. They would give her a valuable outlet

We may say a few words respecting to the Black Sea, and her territory, Austria, and the compensation that rounded off by the rich valley of the

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