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college had been shut up. The city did not then extend north of Murray street. The books and accounts of the corporation during the Revolutionary War were taken away by Mr. Cruger, treasurer, who joined the British army and left the country. In 1784 the Exchange on Broad street was converted into a market

a place. Much difficulty was found in tracing out and securing the public property, of every description. At different dates La Fayette, John Jay, lately arrived from Europe, Baron Steuben, and especially General Washington, received the freedom of the city, and the latter an address of congratulation and thanks. The streets were cleaned for £150 per annum, and wells and pumps repaired for £140 per annum. Lot 116 Chatham street was leased for 21 years for £6 per annum, and lot No. 18 of the same street, for the same term, for £4 per annum.

The corporation offered any accommodation in their power to the Federal Congress. In 1785 the first Congress of the United States after the war was organized in the City Hall, corner Wall and Nassau streets. The Bank of New York went into operation. In 1786 St. Peter's, the first Roman Catholic Church, was built in Barclay street. The State, until the present year, presented no instance of divorce in any case whatever. In 1788 the New York city library was kept in a room in the City Hall. The adoption of the new Constitution of the United States was celebrated by a grand federal procession. In 1789, April 30th, General Washington was inaugurated in the open gallery of the old City Hall, facing Broad street; and at the conclusion of the ceremony the collected thousands shouted with one heart, “ Long live George Washington.” Broadway opened through the fort to the Battery. The City Hall was repaired and enlarged for the accommodation of Congress, at a great expense for that day, the whole done under the direction of Major L'Enfant, who received the thanks of the corporation, the freedom of the city, and an offer of 10 acres of land of the public property, which last he politely declined. The salary of the mayor commuted for £600 per annum. In 1790 the salary of the mayor was £700 per annum. The population of the city, December 11th, was 29,906. In 1791 the city was divided into seven wards. One hundred lots of ground in Broadway and adjacent streets in the vicinity of the New York hospital, 25 by


100 feet, were offered for sale at £25 per lot. In 1792 the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen was incorporated, and Mechanic Hall built. Mayor's salary £800 per annum. A museum was allowed in the City Hall. In 1795 the new almshouse on Chambers street was built, and contained 622 paupers. who were supported at an expense of £8,319 15s. 7d. per annum. South street laid out 70 feet wide, and ordered that no water lots be farther laid out, and no more buildings be erected in that direction. The Park theatre erected. Powles Hook ferry leased for £250 per annum. Water street was laid out, which limited the city on the East river. In 1796 a lot on the southwest corner of Broad and Wall streets was purchased by the corporation for £800. All the printing of the corporation done for £35 per

In 1797 the Brooklyn ferry leased for $2,000 per annum. Free schools were established. In 1798 the Park theatre was completed, and the proprietors petitioned for the erection of a portico over the sidewalk, which was not granted. A street commissioner was appointed. The Chamber of Commerce and citizens petitioned the corporation to fortify the city, and $50,000 were appropriated and expended for the purpose. The yellow fever prevailed from July to November, and 2,086 persons died.

The Manhattan Company in 1799 received an unlimited charter for supplying the city with pure and wholesome water, with a capital for the purpose, with the privilege of using their surplus funds in banking operations, and an exclusive use of the springs on the island for a supply. What this company have never been able to do has been effectually done by the Croton water works of the city. The old Exchange in Broad street was ordered to be taken down. December 20th the news of the death of General Washington was received, the bells of the churches were ordered to be muffled and tolled from 12 to 1 o'clock, until the 24th, the citizens were recommended to wear crape for six weeks, and a funeral oration was delivered by Gouverneur Morris in St. Paul's church. In 1800, eight lots of ground, a part of the present Washington square, purchased by the Corporation for $1,000. In 1801 the United States Navy Yard at Wallaboght, Brooklyn, was established. The Brooklyn ferry at Fulton street was leased for $2,600 per annum. Broadway ordered to be continued and opened through Thomas Randall's land, called the Sailors' Snug Harbor, to meet the Bowery, and the hills levelled and carted into Fresh Water pond (now Canal street), which to this time was the northern limit of this street, and far beyond the settled parts of the city. The total valuation of real estate in the city was $21,964,037. A City Hall was voted to be erected, and after much doubt and hesitation, the sum of $250,000 was devoted to the object, and contracts were entered into, and the foundation stone was laid September 20th, 1803, with due ceremony, by Edward Livingston, Mayor, and by the corporation, though the prevalence of an epidemic in some measure damped the ardor of the citizens. In 1804, July 11, the duel between Colonel Burr and General Hamilton occurred, in which the latter was mortally wounded, and died the next day to the great grief of the citizens. Colonel Burr after this event fled as a fugitive to France, and after many years returned to the United States, to be neglected. December 18th a great fire destroyed 40 stores and dwellings, 15 on Wall street, 17 on Front street, and eight on Water street, with a loss of between one and two millions of dollars. It was supposed to be the work of incendiaries. In 1805 the New York Free School was incorporated. The upper part of Broadway was regulated and paved. The yellow fever prevailed in the summer, and 280 persons died. The inhabitants of the city numbered 75,770, one third of whom left their dwellings. In 1806 the first successful attempt at navigation by steamboats by Fulton and Livingston took place on Hudson river. In 1809 the Historical Society was established. In 1811 a great fire in Chatham street consumed from 80 to 100 houses. The Brick Church and the jail narrowly escaped. "July 4th the Corporation met in the new City Hall, in the Mayor's room. In 1812 the old City Hall in Wall street was ordered to be sold, and the new City Hall was finished. June 20th war was declared with Great Britain. November 12, the Brooklyn Fulton ferry was leased to Robert Fulton for $4,000 per annum for seven years, upon condition of establishing new steamboats upon it. In August an experiment was made with gas lights in the Park. In 1814 there were 3,212 free holders; owners of personal estate over $150, 5,612; tenants, 13,804; jurors, 4,138; aliens, 3,495; slaves, 976. The population was 92,148,


which was less by 2,312 than in 1810. The Literary and Philosophical Society was instituted. October 29, the steam frigate launched. The interments this year amounted to 1,794. In 1815 the news of peace with Great Britain was celebrated with great rejoicings. In 1816 the duties on merchandise imported amounted to $16,000,000. In July, 1817, the Erie canal was begun near Utica. In 1818 the public wharves, piers, docks and slips sold for one year for $+2,750. In 1821 Mr. John Randall, Jr., finished his maps and surveys of the north part of the city and island, having been engaged in it, under the direction of the commissioners, for ten years, at a cost of $32,485. In January the harbor was closed by ice for the first time since 1780. The citizens crossed on the ice to Powles Hook, and some to Staten Island. The distance from Cortlandt street to the Jersey shore was found to be a few feet over a mile. In 1822, July, the yellow fever appeared, and most of the city south of the City Hall was vacated, and the infected district fenced in ; 388 died of the fever. November 25, burials in Trinity churchyard discontinued. In 1823 interments were forbidden South of Canal street. Washington square formed and regulated. The New York Gas Light company incorporated. In 1924 1,600 houses were erected. In 1825 the Merchants' Exchange commenced in Wall street. The city was divided into 12 wards. May 11th gas pipes were laid on Broadway, from Canal street to the Battery, on both sides. October 26th the completion of the Erie canal was announced by the firing of cannon through the whole line, from Buffalo and back in 12 hours. November 4th the first canal boat arrived, and was greeted with great rejoicing. In 1827 the Merchants’ Exchange was completed. In 1829 the American Institute in the city of New York was instituted. In 1832 the cholera swept off a great number of inhabitants. The whole number of deaths in July was 2,467, in August, 2,206; during the year, 10,359. In 1833 the number of pupils taught in the public schools was 6,140 boys, 4,320 girls, total, 10,460. In 1834 the number of inmates at the Almshouse at Bellevue in January was 2,011, of whom 1,051 were natives, and 960 foreigners. On the night of the 16th of December, 1835, occurred the great fire, which swept over between 30 and 40 acres of the most valuable part of the city, covered with stores and filled with rich merchandise. The number of buildings burned was 648, and the amount of property destroyed was estimated by a committee appointed for the purpose at nearly $18,000,000. The Merchants? Exchange and the South Dutch Church were burned. It is proof of the great wealth of New-York that they were able to bear such a loss without feeling it more. Few failures resulted from it. The burnt district was immediately rebuilt, with additional convenience and beauty.


CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES IN NEW YORK. The era of Congregationalism in New York dates from the formation of the present Broadway Tabernacle Church. Prior to that time there had existed in the city several feeble Congregational churches, some of which hardly lived long enough to have a history, or even a name. Most of these enterprises were frustrated by unforeseen circumstances, mainly in consequence of the extraordinary pecuniary embarrassments of the times, involving many of the leading Christian men of this city in ruin. Only one or two of this class remain. The Broadway Tabernacle Church was established on a firm basis, and for a time was the only strong and healthy Congregational church in New York. Its prosperity demonstrated the fact that Congregationalism could flourish on this soil; and awakened the numerous friends of this system of church polity, the sons of New England, residing in New York and Brooklyn, to the importance of having churches in which they could worship God after the manner of their fathers. Accordingly in the Winter of 1844 (January 29th) a number of gentlemen in Brooklyn, partly at the instance, and by the personal influence of Mr. Hale, formed the Church of the Pilgrims, and erected a substantial and imposing edifice of stone (at a cost of $65,000), on the corner of Henry and Remsen streets. To this enterprise Mr. Hale contributed $2,000. This church is free from debt, and in a highly flourishing condition, under the ministry of the Rev. R. S. Storrs, Jr.

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