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AN

HISTORICAL CONNECTION

OF THE

OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.

COMPRISING THE

HISTORY OF THE JEWS AND NEIGHBOURING NATIONS,
FROM THE DECLINE OF THE KINGDOMS OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL

TO THE TIME OF CHRIST.

BY

HUMPHREY PRIDEAUX, D.D.,

DEAN OF NORWICH.

TO WHICH IS ADDED

AN ACCOUNT OF THE RABBINIC AUTHORITIES,

BY THE REV. A. M'CAUL, D.D.

CANON OF ST. PAUL'S, AND PROFESSOR OF HEBREW AT KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON.

NEW EDITION, REVISED,
WITH NOTES, ANALYSES, AND INTRODUCTORY REVIEW,

BY J. TALBOYS WHEELER,
AUTHOR OF THE "AXALYSES AND SUMMARIES OF OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT HISTORY,"

“ GEOGRAPHY OF HERODOTUS," ETC., ETC.

IN TWO VOLUMES.- VOL. II.

LONDON:

WILLIAM TEGG AND CO., 85, QUEEN STREET,

CHEAPSIDE.

MDCCCLVIII.

110.c. 35.

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EDITOR'S ANALYSIS OF PRIDEAUX'S CONNECTION.

EGYPTIAN AND JEWISH HISTORY FROM THE COMPLETION OF THE CANON OF

SCRIPTURE UNTIL THE TRANSLATION OF THE SCRIPTURES INTO GREEK,

B. C. 291 To 277.

I. Conclusion of the reign of Ptolemy I. Soter, B. C. 291—285.

Accession of Eleazar to the high priesthood, and Antigonus Socho to the presidentship

of the Sanhedrim: rise of the Mishnical doctors.-Jewish traditions concerning Simon

the Just. ---Demetrius attempts to recover the Asiatic empire of his father Antigonus.--

Unsuccessful expedition of Demetrius into Asia.—Death of Demetrius.–Story of the in-

cestuous marriage of Stratonice with Antiochus son of Seleucus Nicator.–Ptolemy Phila-

delphus raised to the throne during the lifetime of his father.

II--17

II. Reign of Ptolemy II. Philadelphus to the completion of the Septuagint,

B. C. 284–277.

Completion of the Tower of Pharos.—Death and Character of Ptolemy Soter. — Image

of Serapis brought from Pontus to Alexandria.--Origin and character of the worship of

Serapis.-Foundation of the college and library at Alexandria.--Demetrius Phalereus,

the first governor of the Alexandrian Library and Museum.- Death of Demetrius Phu-

lereus.-

War between Lysimachus and Seleucus.-- Defeat and death of Lysimachus.-

Seleucus Nicator treacherously slain by Ptolemy Ceraunus.-Ceraunus slain by an ir-

ruption of the Gauls, under Belgius, into Macedonia.-Antiochus Soter succeeds Šeleucus

Nicator in the Syrian empire.—Gauls, under Belgius, vanquished and expelled from Mace-

donia by Sosthenes.--Second irruption of Gauls under Brennus and Acichorius : its un-

successful termination.—Remnant of the Gauls pass into Asia Minor and settle in Ga.

latia.

17–32.

III. Greek translations of the Hebrew Scriptures, B. C. 277.

Year of the execution of the Septuagint, according to Archbishop Usher. - Historical

review of the different accounts of the Septuagint translation.-Statement of Aristeas,

a supposed officer of Ptolemy Philadelphus, that the Septuagint was executed by seventy-

two interpreters. --Statement of Aristobulus, an Alexandrian Jew: a copy of Aristeas. –

Statement of Philo, another Alexandrian Jew: a copy of Aristeas with additions.-

Statements of Josephus and Eusebius: copies of Aristeas, with a variation as to the

money paid for the redemption of the captive Jews.-Statement of Justin Martyr: a

copy of Aristeas, with further additions.-- Ancient Fathers adopted the account in Jus-

tin Martyr.-Statement of Epiphanius : a further corruption of the story by false tradi-

tions.-Examination into the truth of the matter.-I. That the Septuagint was really

executed in the time of the Ptolemies.-II. That the book bearing the name of Aristeas is

a manifest fiction.-(1.) The author must have been a Hellenistic Jew. (2.) The amount

said to be paid by Ptolemy is incredible.—(3.) The seventy-two questions and answers

are palpably spurious.—(4.) The selection of six Hebrew scholars from each tribe, to

VOL. II.

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make up the seventy-two, can only be a Jewish invention.—(5.) Seven interpreters would have sulliced as well as seventy-two.--(6.) The book contains many statements contrary to history.—III. That Aristobulus's statement is a mere copy of Aristeas, and his Commentaries are the work of a later age.-IV. That Philo's additions are mere Jewish traditions.-V. That Josephus in his variation from Aristeas is guilty of a manifest error. VI. That Justin Martyr and the Fathers who followed him were too credulous.-VII. That the statement of Epiphanius is taken from a later and equally false Aristeas.-VIII. That a Greek version of the Scriptures was really gradually made for the use of the Alexandrian Jews.-IX. That a copy of this version was laid up in the Alexandrian library : the Scriptures unknown to the heathen world until after the time of our Saviour.---. That the credit of the Septuagint increased with the spread of Christianity: character of the old Syrian version.-XI. That the subsequent Greek version of Aquila was executed in opposition to the Septuagint.-Greek versions of Theodotion and Symmachus. --Character of the three Greek versions, of Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus.— The four Greek versions collected by Origen in the Tetrapla, with the fifth, sixth, and seventh editions in the Hexapla and Octapla.—Order and arrangement of Origen's edition. Prodigious labour bestowed by Origen upon the Septuagint: introduction of obelisks, asterisks, lemnisks, and hypolemnisks. - Subsequent history of Origen's edition. The three ancient editions of the Septuagint, viz. Ist, By Pamphilis and Eusebius ; 2ndly, By Lucian; and 3rdly, By Hesychius.— The three modern editions of the Septuagint. 1st, The Complutensian edition of Cardinal Ximenes.-2ndly, The Aldine edition.— 3rdly, The Roman edition of Sextus V.-The Alexandrine MS.-The Grabian edition.

32-61.

BOOK II. JEWISH, EGYPTIAN, AND SYRIAN HISTORY, FROM THE COMPLETION OF THE SEPTUAGINT

TO THE SETTLEMENT OF THE JEWISH NATION UNDER THE SELEUCIDÆ, B. C. 276 TO 176.

I. Conclusion of the reign of Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, B. O. 276—247. Antigonus Gonatas, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, obtains the kingdom of Macedonia. -Antiochus Soter frees Asia Minor from the Gauls.- Alliance formed between Ptolemy II. and the Romans.—Alliance between Ptolemy II. and the Lacedæmonians and Athenians against Antigonus Gonatas : its ill success.-- Death of Sotades, the satirical poet. --Magus, governor of Cyrene and Libya for Ptolemy II., revolts and becomes king.- Death and history of Philetærus, the founder of the kingdom of Pergamus.-Death of Antigonus Socho, president of the Jewish Sanhedrim.-Rise of the Sadducees. — Foundation of the city of Nicomedia.--Syrian history: death of Antiochus Soter and succession of Antiochus Theus.

Berosus, the Babylonian historian, dedicates his history to Antiochus Theus.--- Ptolemy II. draws all the East India trade from Tyre to Alexandria.-Cyrene and Libya : Magas attempts a reconciliation with Ptolemy II.- Death of Magas.Tragical amour of Apame, the widow of Magas.-- Apame exasperates Antiochus Theus against Ptolemy II. -War between Antiochus Theus and Ptolemy II.- Egypt: Aratus of Sicyon assists Ptolemy II. in the enlargement of his library.—Syrian empire: revolt from Antiochus Theus of the provinces eastward of the Tigris. - Jewish history: elevation of Onias II. to the high priesthood. —Peace between Antiochus Theus and Ptolemy II., by the marriage of Antiochus with Berenice the daughter of Ptolemy.-Fulfilment of the prophecy of Daniel concerning the marriage of the king's daughter of the south with the king of the north. - Death of Arsinoe, sister and wife of Ptolemy II.- Death and character of Ptolemy II.-Character of Ptolemy II.-Founded numerous cities.His immense riches.

61–75. II. Reign of Ptolemy III. Euergetes, B. C. 246-222. Syrian history: poisoning of Antiochus Theus and accession of Seleucus Callinicus.Ptolemy III. conquers all the Syrian empire westward of the Tigris.–Story of the seven stars of the hair of Berenice.-Ptolemy III. sacrifices at Jerusalem and returns to Egypt. -Seleucus Callinic is allies with his brother Antiochus, and attempts the recovery of his Syrian dominions from Ptolemy.—Peace between Ptolemy and Seleucus.- War between Seleucus and Antiochus.--Syrian empire curtailed on the western side by Eumenes, king of Pergamus.- Death of Eumenes: succession of Attalus to the kingdom of Pergamus.-Syrian empre curtailed on the eastern side by Theodotus and Arsaces.-Continuation of the war between Seleucus and Antiochus.-Defeat and death of Antiochus. - Ptolemy enlarge the library at Alexandria, and appoints Eratosthenes to be library

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75–88.

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keeper.—War between Seleucus and Arsaces.--Arsaces takes Seleucus prisoner, and establishes the Parthian empire. ---Jewish history: failure of Onias II. to pay the tribute to Ptolemy, and arrival of Athenion the Egyptian ambassador.-Joseph gains the favour of the Egyptian ambassador, and proceeds to Egypt to excuse Onias to Ptolemy.-Joseph obtains from Ptolemy the farming of the revenues of Cale-Syria, Phænicia, Judæa, and Samaria.--True date of the concluding year of Joseph's office.- Death of Seleucus Callinicus in Parthia.—Syrian history: short reign of Seleucus Ceraunus.-Antiochus Magnus secured on the throne by Achæus.- Media and Persia revolt from the Syrian empire, under Molon and Alexander.-Great earthquake at Rhodes : history of the Colossus and its overthrow.-Death and character of Ptolemy III.

III. Reign of Ptolemy IV. Philopator, B. C. 221–204. Flagitious character of Ptolemy Philopator : death of Cleomenes, king of Sparta.Syrian empire : Antiochus Magnus unsucessfully attempts to recover Syria Proper from Ptolemy, and Media and Persia from Molon and Alexander. -Antiochus crosses the Ti. gris in person against Molon and Alexander, and recovers Media and Persia.-Death of Hermias.-Antiochus prepares to recover Syria Proper from Ptolemy and Lesser Asia from Achæus. --Commencement of the campaign of Antiochus against Ptolemy : capture of Seleucia.-Theodotus, governor of Cæle-Syria for Ptolemy, declares for Antiochus.Antiochus captures Tyre, Ptolemais, and Damascus.-Four months' truce between Antiochus and Ptolemy. - Renewal of the war : successful campaign of Antiochus against Ptolemy's general Nicolas.--Decisive battle of Raphia, between Ptolemy and Antiochus : retreat of Antiochus.-Cæle-Syria and Palestine again submit to Ptolemy.-Ptolemy visits Jerusalem, and enters the Holy of Holies.--Simon son of Onias II., high priest : deplorable condition of the Jews.-Antiochus concludes a treaty with Ptolemy by the cession of Cæle-Syria and Palestine.-Decree of Ptolemy degrading all the Jews at Alexandria who would not sacrifice to the gods.-Ptolemy resolves on destroying all the Jewish nation, beginning with those in Egypt.–Story of the miraculous preservation of the Jews in the Hippodrome at Alexandria : revocation of all the decrees. ---Third Book of the Maccabees : its history and character.-Syrian empire : Antiochus Magnus allies with Attalus king of Pergamus, and prepares to reduce Achæus.—Antiochus captures Sardis, and beheads Achæus.- Egypt : revolt of the Egyptians against Ptolemy.-Syrian empire: Antiochus recovers Media from Arsaces II., king of Parthia. - Antiochus makes a successful campaign in Parthia and Media.— Treaty of peace between Antiochus and Arsaces II.--Antiochus carries on a useless war with Euthydemus king of Bactria.Egypt: murder of Arsinoe, the wife of Ptolemy.—Sosibius, the minister of Ptolemy, compelled to give way to Tlepolemus.-Syrian empire : treaty of peace between Antiochus and Euthydemus: Antiochus renews his alliance with the king of Media.—Great reputation of Antiochus.- Egyptian history: death of Ptolemy IV. Philopator.

88-106. IV. Reign of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes to the conquest of Palestine by Antiochus the

Great, B. C. 204–198. Egyptian history : Agathocles aims at the regency.--Rising of the people, and execution of Agathocles, Agathoclea, and Oenanthe. - Regency of Sosibius.—Syrian history : league between Antiochus and Philip V., king of Macedon.- Egyptian court send an embassy to Rome.-Extraordinary chronological error of the Jewish historians.- Roman embassy to Antiochus and Philip, and intervention in Egypt.- Aristomenes guardian of the young Ptolemy: preparations against the invasions of Antiochus and Philip.—War in Asia Minor between Antiochus and Attalus: successes of the Egyptian general Scopas in Judæa. — Antiochus utterly defeats Scopas, and thoroughly subdues Palestine and Cæle-Syria.

107–110. V. Judea a Syrian province : conclusion of the reign of Antiochus the Great,

B. C. 198—187. Jewish nation gladly submit to Antiochus, and are treated with great favour. -Antiochus renews his attempt to subject all Asia Minor, and projects the marriage of his daughter Cleopatra with Ptolemy.-History of Pergamus: death of Attalus and accession of Eumenes. -- Philip of Macedon utterly defeated by the Romans at Cynocephalus.--Greek cities of Asia call in the aid of the Romans against Antiochus.-Roman embassy dismissed by Antiochus.-Rumoured death of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes : Antiochus leaves Asia fur Egypt.--Origin of the rumour in the frustrated conspiracy of Scopas against the life of Ptolemy.-Ptolemy attains his majority, and is solemnly enthroned. -- Antiochus returns to Asia Minor, and is joined by Hannibal.—Jewish history: death of Simon, and accession of Onias III.-Egyptian history : Eratosthenes, second library-keeper at Al

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