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of a calm world and of a long peace,” should, when the pressure of want was removed, have been reformed, and become useful members of society in their various callings. Although drunkenness, the vice of the colony, does no doubt prevail, Temperance societies flourish: thousands never touch spirits. The numbers who rise from the class of labourers to that of employers, sufficiently attest this. The most squeamish, therefore, of “the undetected portion of the community,” need not fear contamination from breathing the same air. In Port Phillip and South Australia, however, the evil is of minor importance ; for although many, after the termination of their sentences, have been attracted there, both from New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, although occasionally a practised eye may discover some "who walk wide between the legs, as though they had gyves on," still, as a class, they are insignificant, and being universally looked down upon, are not likely to be of any injury.

In all parts of the world difficulties present themselves in providing a system of education adapted for all classes : a new and unusual obstacle presents itself in some parts of Australia,

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from the very scattered nature of its population. How can it be possible in the remote country, where families reside at several miles distance, to send the children to attend daily school? How can the parents afford to place them in any boarding establishment? Yet this evil, great as it is, is not of so serious a magnitude as might at first be imagined. The far greater proportion of men with families, live either in the townsor in their immediate neighbourhood, where no difficulties need intervene; and the State affords support to all, for the separate education of all classes and creeds; concurrently with which, there is a system of national education established, similar to that in use in Ireland. Few, comparatively, are therefore without the means of instruction. It has been generally observed, that the few families who are employed in the remote bush are composed of very young children, whose parents for a few years accumulate their wages, and then settle near town ; partly with a view to the benefit of their rising family. The Govern

. ment is now laying out small inland townships, each of which will form a nucleus for population, and as the Education Board is ready to establish a school wherever 30 children can be collected,



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much facility will be thereby given for the furtherance of this essential object, upon which the best interests of the colony vitally depend. Ignorance is the prolific parent of vice; if, therefore, the colonists wish to reclaim from crime those whose fathers have expiated their guilt by banishment; if they wish to avoid the ruinous police and gaol expenditure, which must otherwise fall on them from the proximity of penal settlements; if they would avoid the misery from which we in England now suffer, and attempt to mitigate by our Ragged Schools and other charities—let them be liberal in their educational efforts, let them anticipate the evil before it has reached a magnitude with which it will be difficult to grapple.

At Sydney there is a good school for the sons of the gentry of the colony, and also at the King's school in Parramatta a sound course of study is pursued. There are some schools in Melbourne for children of the upper classes, at which a good education may be obtained; others are still required. It is contemplated also to establish at Sydney a university, and to support it liberally from the public funds; this, if carried out, will prove of incalculable advantage, not

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only to New South Wales, but to the neighbouring colonies.

In all the towns in Port Phillip there are ministers of religion, and churches of every denomination, although not sufficient for their wants. What adequate provision can be made for a population so rapidly increasing ? Even if sufficient in one year, it must be deficient in the next The constant exertions therefore, not only of the colonies, but also of the religious societies in England, will be required to keep pace with the wants of this most interesting community.

In the country, near the towns, Divine Service is now performed regularly by clergymen of the Church of England, each of whom celebrates worship at stations, school-houses, or private residences, until permanent churches can be erected; several are now built, and many more

l are in progress. By the celebration of Divine Service in the morning at one station, and at another a few miles distant in the afternoon, and by taking different places on alternate Sundays, much has been already effected towards affording the ordinances of religion to the people.

Schools, under the care of these ministers, are rising in various quarters, by which their means



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of usefulness will be much increased. Even in the remote interior, arrangements have been entered into for the establishment of an itinerating clergy, whose influence must prove most beneficial.

The Bishop of Melbourne, in his Report to the Diocesan Society, states that in the Ballan district there is no station at which Divine Service is not now performed, either by the resident clergyman or by the owner. It would be unjust to other denominations, not to mention that they have also made exertions in this good work, although, not as yet, it is to be regretted, to the same extent as the Church of England.

The proposal to locate clergymen in the bush, has in every instance been responded to with the the greatest eagerness by the residents ; and it is hoped and believed that before long there will be few parts of Port Phillip in which the comforts of the gospel, and the ordinances of religion, may not be enjoyed by the inhabitants. Even the solitary shepherd may be accessible. A well-arranged plan for the lending of tracts and useful books, would meet with every encouragement. Most of these men are delighted to read anything to wile away the tedious day. If an

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