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was very prodactive, M. Barbié du Bo- Julius II.; as well as the other celebrated cage, the French dragoman at Bagdad, colossal statues of Melpomené, Ceres, &c. states, in a letter dated 11th of May, The Pope Jately visited the public pri1824, that, profiting by his last journey sons, examined the most secret dungeons, to Syria, he bad transported his collec- their government, fuoxi, &c. und interrotion of antiquities to Aleppo ; whence it gated many of the prisoners upon the r was his intention to send it to Paris, in treatment. He departed highly pleased order that it might be presented to the with the state in which he found them, Royal Library. Unfortunately this ralu- and left marks of his satisfaction with able collection was very much impaired the conduct of the guoler and turnkeys; and reduced by the earthquake that oc

he also distributed money among the curred in Syria on the 13th August, 1822. prisoners.-A similar visit was once paid

New Route' to Italy. --The beautiful to the prisons by Beoedict XIV, "The road of Prosilippo, begun by the French in amelioration of the prison regimen, from 1811, and carried on with much art up to the observations made by the saine sovethe foot of the mountain near Puzzuoli, reign in his visits, characterized in a is continued upon the same plan by the manner bighly honourable the vigilance Austrians, and will be completed imme- of the chief of the catholic religion. diately. The trenching which these works Petrarch. Professor Meneghelli bas made necessary, has been the means of lately addressed a paper to the Abbé discovering tombs, inclosing skeletons, Talia, entitled Supra due Lettere Italiane and vases with money placed in the attribuite al Petrarca: “Upon two Italian mouths of the skeletons.

Letters attributed to Petrarch." These A succession of earthquakes was expe.

two letters were published by M. Poscolo rienced in Tuscany between the 12th and in his essays on the Italian Poet. On 13th of August. Several of the shucks comparing with them the fac simile now were so strong as to excite great appre- preserved in the seminary of Padua, the hensions ; and in one place a wall was authenticity of which is incontestable, it thrown down.

is plainly to be seen that these letters Rome.--In removing the masses of thic are not autograplis. M. Meneghelli has entablature of the Temples of Jupiter also found many passages in contradiction Tonans and Concord, recovered last year able in the life of Petrarch, in bis age, and

with circumstances more or less remarkunder the Campidoglio, adhering to a little building existing between the two in his style.- Revue Enclyelmp. Temples themselves, there has been found a small votive altar of marble, which de- American Lilerature. The publication termines the age and the use of the little of books is so much cheaper in this counedifice, by the following inscription :- try than in Great Britain, that nearly all DIVAE . PIAE

we use are American editions. According FAVSTINAE

to reports from the custom-hou es, made VIATOR . Q

under a resolution of the Senate in 1822, AB , AER , SAT

it appears that the importation of books That is, Divae Pine Faustinue l'iutor Quars bears an extremely small proportion to tor Ab Aerario Saturni. It, therefore, be- the American editions. The iinported longed to the younger Faustina, and was books are the mere seed. It is estimated erected to her, after her death, by Viator, that between two and three millions of Questor of the neighbouring treasury of dollars' worth of books are annually pubSaturn. Signor Luigi Mariui haviug oc

lished in the United States. It is to be casion to rebuild a wall in his house, on regretted that literary property here is the level of the present street, which is held by an imperfect tenure; there being much above the ancient, the workmen riis- no other protection for it than the procovered the external circular part of the visions of an inefficient Act of Congress, Theatre of Pompey. It corresponds with the impotent offspring of an absolute Eng. the many five remains of the saine Thea- list statute. The inducernent to take tre which are still seen in the vaults of copyrights is therefore inudequate, and the Palace Pio. Besides fragments of a large proportion of the most valuable columns, &c. a female statue was found, American books is published without any nine or ten palms in height, wanting the legal title. Yet there were 125 copyhead and arms, aud the drapery much da- rights purchased from Janury 1822 to maged, but in a good style. It is well April 1823. There have been eight edikuown that near this place were found the tions, cumprising 7500 copies, of Stewart's Hercnles called Commodiano, which is Philosophy, published here since its apnow in the Museum Pio-Clementino, and pearance in Europe thirty years ago. Five the other very famous Hercules called huvdred thousand dollars were the capital the Torsi di Belvidere, in the time of invested in one edition of Rees's Encyclo


pædia. Of a lighter kind of reading of Félou. I send you the description be nearly 200,000 copies of the Waverley has given me of it; though incomplete in novels, comprising 500,000 volumes, have several respects, it still possesses consiissurd from ibe American press in the last", derable interest.nine years. Four thousand copies of a The position of the rock of Felou is not Jate American novel were disposed of in-. exactly laid down. It appears by M. Demediately on its publication. Five hun-* ranton's report, that he took six days in dred dollars were paid by an enterprising re-descending from thenee to Bakel, pasp bookseller for a single copy of one of ing through the kingdom of Gallam. these (the Waverley) novels, without any He had first commenced his journey by copyright, merely, by prompt repnulica- setting out from Alliguel, on the frontiers tion, to gratify the public eagerness to of Bondou, a little above-Sansanding, on read it. Among the curiosities of Ame- the river Palémé. In the course of four rican literature we must mention the iti- days he had crossed over a part of the nerant book-trade. There are, we un- kingdom of Bambouk, passiog through derstand, more than 200 waggons which the villages of Kakaya, Gaelke-Moko, travel through the country laden with Borkone, Sayola (near which he saw a books for sale. Many biographical ac- gold-mine,) Farbaconta, Silmana, and afcounts of distinguished Americans are terwards through the desert which sephtbns distributed. Fifty thousand copies of rates Bambouk from Kasso. On the fifth Mr. Weem's Life of Washington have been day be arrived in the neighbourhood of published, and mostly circulated in this the Felou. way throughout the interior. Education, I have hopes tbat we shall obtain some the sciences, the learned professions, the information, either through M. Duraaton church, politics, together with ephemeral or M. de Beaufort, respecting the Cataract and fanciful publications, maintain the of Gowina, and those which are supposed prousin respectable activity. The modern to lie farther up the river. I have not as inunuals of literature and science, maga- yet heard any new particulars concerning zines, journals, and reviews, abound in ihem. the United States, though they have to 2dly. I extract from the instructions cope with a larger field of newspapers which I drew up for M. de Beaufort prethian elsewhere. Ingersoll.

vious to his departure, the following

notes, relative to the geographical posiLetter from M. Roger, Governor of Senegal, tion of Bakel and of Saint-Joseph in the M. Jomard.

kingdom of Gallani, which the Society Saint-Louis, 14th August, 1824. wishes to ascertain': must defer for some time longer According to Durand's Atlas


Long writing to you respecting the several ob- According to M. Dussault jects treated of in your letter of the 29th

The ancient Fort of St. Joseph.;

According to Durand's Atlas May last, particularly as far as regards According to the Chart of the the advancement of an Expedition for the Travels of Mungo Park .... 14 35 00 10 00 00: ptırpose of exploring the banks of the

According to thic Map of the

15 30 00 19 15 00 Niger, (an enterprise of the greatest in- According to M. Dussault.... 14 38 00 14 19 00 terest, and the success of which it would Great confidence may be placed in the give 'me 'great happiness to forward by observations so carefully made by M. any means in my power.) For the pre- Dussault, who renewed them at several sent, I shall confine' myself to sending places, during the years 1818 and 1819, yon a few documents respecting two of which he passed in the upper districts of the questions which you have addressed the Senegal. It appears, according to him, to me in the name of the Society of Geo- that the position of Bake and of Saintgraphy:

Joseph is much nearer to the mouth of 1st. Nothing of a positive nature was that great river than has been supposed ; as yet known respecting the Cataracts of that they lie nearly 20 farther towards the Ba-Fing, or Senegal. The Moors and the west than they are laid down in DoNegroes who had travelled in that country rand's Atlas, and that the difference is had only given, on this bead, incomplete, still greater in the map of the travels of vagnie, and often contradictory relations. Muogo Park. I had interrogated several

M. Dussault has also determined the the subject, but without being able to ob- position of Moussala, a village situated tain any satisfactory information. on the banks of the Senegal above Saint

M. Þuranton, a merchant of Gallam,' Joseph. It lies in latitude 14° 34', and was the first to furnish us with documents longitude 14°03' 30"; which proves that containing any details of a positive vature the river continues to direct its course,' upon this subject. This traveller ascended in proportion much more towards the east the river, towards the end of Inst January, than towards the South. as far as the cataract formed by the rock

(Signed) "ROGER

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RURAL ECONOMY. fuerit 1911s, 18)

",)!!!) ter On Fertilizing the Blossoms of Pear of the corymbus of the pear, as soon as it Trees. By the Rev. George Swainer-An could conveniently be done, would have a almost general unproductiveness as to similar good effect in invigorating the rethe fruit of the superior, varieties of maining ones, and causing them to set i pear trees, bas long been the subject of with greater certainty. With this view, complaint with horticulturists, both of in the spring of 1821, as soon as the three, South and North Britaiq. Among the lower blossoms of the corymbi began to first prizes offered by the Caledonian shew their white faces, I set to work with Horticultural Society, was one " for the my sharp-poioted scissors on two pear communication of the best means of bring trees, the one the Gansell's Bergamot's ing into a bearing state full-grown fruite above mentioned, and the other a Brown trees, especially some of the finest sorts Beurré, and in as short time as I could of French pears, which (it is stated), have properly thinned two dozen bunches though apparen:ly in a very healthy and of grapes, I divested both these trees of luxuriant condition, are yet in a state of at least three-fourths of their budding' almost total barrenness; and the Presi. honours. On the Beurré, this operation, dent of the London Horticultural Society, subsequently, appeared to have the best, in bis paper on the cultivation of the Pear. effect ; for there was scarcely an instance, tree, remarks, that “ the pear-tree exer- in which the three remaining blossoms cises the patience of the planter during a did not set, which afterwards produced longer period, before it produces fruit, the finest crop of pears I have yet gatherthan any other grafted tree which finds á ed froin that tree. But on the intractplace in our gardens; and though it is able Gansell, although the blossoms at subsequently very long lived, it generally, first seemed to set, and many of them did. when trained to a wall, becomes, in a few not fall off till Midsuunner, when they years, unproductive of fruit." But I have were nearly as large as common gooseno need, at least for my own conviction, to berries, yet not a single pear arrived at refer to the testimony of others for proof maturity. By dissecting many of the larg.'. of the existing grievance, possessed as I est of those which fell off last, and comam myself of a striking instance of this paring with them some of the Beurrés of untoward disposition in an individual of the same age and size, it was plain that the genus Pyrus, which bas for a long the kernels of the former had not been im: 1 time balled all my attempts to alter its pregnated. This circumstance induced infertile habits ; it is that of a Gansell's me to think that there must be some imBergamot, which has grown for twenty perfections in the essential parts of the years or more in its present situation blossoms. In the following spring of against a wall, part of wbich has a south- 1822, on attending to the blossoms of west, and part a'south-east aspect. This this tree, which blooms earlier than tree has all the appearance of health, and other pear-tree which I bare, they apsufficient luxuriance, and bas been for peared to me to remain much longer in a several yćars constantly covered with a globular state without expanding, than protusion of blossoms at the proper sea- any other variety of pear whieli I Lare, son, but has never before this borne had an opportunity of noticing. I fapcied more than three or four pears in any one likewise that the pointal was fit for imyear, and most frequently not a single pregnation before the anthers were ripe;

It never occurred to my observa- and eren before the petals expanded i tion before the year 1920, when I was and from the peculiarly slender and delimuch occupied in the artificial impregna- cate make of the latter, as it struck me, tion of different kinds of fruit, that, out I supposed that it ceased to be in a proof from nine or fewer, to fistcen or more per state as soon as it became exposed to florets, of which the cluster (botanically the sun and air ; I therefore concluded, corymbus) of the pear-trce consists, only that there might possibly be a chance of the three lower ones (generally speaking) obtaining fruit, by depriving the blossoms set, or, in other words, are effectually im. of their petals before they expanderl, and pregnated for fruiting. Recollecting the inclosing with each floret in this state, practice of the best gardeners, of topping within a paper envelope (as is my mode their early beans, 1. e. of pinching off with of effecting artificial impregnation), a the fore-singer and thumb the uppermost riper blossom, viz. one that had just begun, blossoms, some apparent, and others in to diffuse its farina, either one of its own, embryo, of the general spike, for the pur- or, preferably, of some other variety of pose of setting the lowest and earliest pear, Accordingly, on the 27th of March, ones, which would otherwise, in most 1822, I began this operation, and in a day cases, prove abortive, I conceived, that, or two had tied up, in the manner just removing the upper and central blossoms mentioned, twenty-seven blossoms. Ten




of these envelopes contained blossoms of only pear now on the tree which set uathe Beurré pear, which it not blooming turally, and on which po operation was so carly as the Gansell) were the only performed, was produced on a cluster of ones I could then find in a state of expan- blossoms, at the extremity of a leadin? sion. Foarteen (to make up, with the liorizontal slot of last year, which did foriner number, two dozen) contained not make its appearance till after the blossom from the same tree, and three others had dropped off. This circumblossoms of the pound pear. From the stance, by the way, proves that the fruitlatter presenting a large and coarse ap- ing buds of the pear do not invariably repearance, I had very little expectation. I quire three years for their perfection, intended to bave done many more, but the since the bud, naturally the most preweatber getting colder, and being myself ductive on the tree in question, could not not quite in health, I neglected it till it have been visible at farthest before the was too late. The papers were not taken middle of last summer. As the pears are off till the 15th of April, on which day the now from five and a half to seren and a weather began to be warmer, without sun- half inches in circumference, I consider shine. You will please to observe, that I them as past all danger of failure, or bad previously cut off fr : in all the corym- rather, that they will only fail through bi with which the tree was abundantly the application of violence. Three are in furnished in every part, all the blossoms, a line within the space of twelre inches except the three lower ones, as in the for- near the centre of the tree, and on. is on mer year; and that baving tied up but one a branch which I considered, at the time of these in each corymbus, I immediately of the operation, to be the most unlikely cut off the two remaining ones. The blos- to succeed, as being in the most exposed soms were operated on in different parts situation. and aspects of the tree ; for part of it, as Whether the result of the abore detailI said before, faced the south-east, and ed experiments be such as to authorize part the south-west. Of the ten blossoms, an expectation that artificial assistance trented with the Beurré pear, eight set, in vegetable fecundation will hereafter two of which afterwards fell off, but I sus. beconie of so much importance to garpect not fairly, and six are now proceed- deners in the instances just alluded to as in ing to maturity. One only of the fourteen, those at present recognized, of the cuwhere its own blossoms were useit, now cumber, the melon, the early bean, and remains. Of the three wherein the pound the hautbois strawberry, inust be left to pear was concerned, the whole failed. The futurity to ascertain.--Trans. Horti. Soc.

USEFUL ARTS. Patent to William JONES, of Bedwellly, the consuinption of coal in the operation in the county of Monmouth, Engineer; of puddling. for certain Improvements in the Manufac- New Screw.- Mr. Alfred Churchill, of turing of Iron. This inrention consists Batavia, United States, has invented a of an improvement in the manufacturing new screw, which is thus spoken of in the of iron, in that process of it called pud- American Papers :--" The screw is condling, by re-heating refined metal, pig, cave, and ineshes with admirable reguor other crude iron, in a stove or fur- larity with the cogs placed in a circular nace, either attached to or detached from wheel, which is noved with ease and rathe puddling furnace, in which the same pidity with the application of small power. is intended to be worked; but the stove To shew its immense strength, it is only or furnace being attached to the puddling necessary to mention that the thread of furnace is preferred, and leated with the the screw in its evolution presses at all same fire as the one by which the pud- times upon four of the cogs of a wheel dling furnace is worked; and when so containing elever cogs, and may be so re-beated, then by charging the puddling constructed, if necessary, as to encircle furnace with the hot refined metal, pig, five elevenths of a circle." -The same or other crude iron, or by charging the Mr. Churchill is said to have inrented a puddling furnace with refined metal, pig, new and ingenious hydraulic model ; " ils or other crude iron in a heated state, power for raising bids fair to excel nny whereby a charge of iron in the puddling preceding principle wbatever, where the furnace is wurked, and brought into balls height required should not exceed the fit for rolling or bammering, in mnch half of the diameter of the wheel used in less time than by the usual mode of listing and discharging the water." charging the puddling furnace with cold Machines for singeing Cotton goeds by the refined metal, pig, or other crude iron, flame of Gus.-Mr. Ilall, of Basford, has and a considerable saving is prodnced in recently taken out a patent for a method of clearing calicoes, muslins, and other apparatus used by founders. The cloth cotton goods, from the loose fibres which being passed quickly between the fame lic on the surface, and wbich untit them and the aperture, the air rusbes through for the use of calico-printers. This is it with cousiderable force to supply the effected by passing them over a continuons vacuuin in the chamber, and causes the filme of gas, equal in length to the width flame to impinge on the surface with of the piece. This invention, or rather power sufficient to destroy the loose another invention of the same kind, tibres, without injuring in the least the which preceded it, and for which Mr. texture of the cloth. The process bus in Hall took out a patent several years ago, this respect a great superiority over the was applied to clearing lace from fibre. old method of singeing on a red-bot iron, The invention completely answered the which required very great care and dexpurpose for which it was intended, and terity on the part of the workinen to avoid had the effect of increasing greatly the damaging the goods. In the present mebeauty and the value of the lace fabrics. ihnd, scarcely any thing is left to the The process was perforined by passing care of the workmen ; the machine dues the lace quickly over a continuous Name every thing except presenting the end of

gas, placed under a sort of chimney, a fresh piece. lo quiltings, in corded, to cause a draught through the fabrie. checked, or striped muslins, and other But though this plan auswered extremely goods of which one part of the surface is well for open textures like lace, it was raised above the rest, the new method posobvions that it would not be equally suc. sesses a very great advantage over the old. cessful when applied to the singeing of An easily procured substitute for a chalycalicoes, muslins, and other closely beate spring has been discorered by Dr. woven goods; because it was not easy, Hare, in America. If several pieces of by rarefaction alone, to cause a draught silver coins, and several pieces of thin that would impel the flame with adequate iron plate cut to the same size, be done force against the surface of the cluth. up alternately in a pile, and secured in To obviate this difficulty Mr. Hull con- this state by a string lapped and tied trived the machine in which, instead of round them, leaving the ends of the the chimney, a tube, with a longitudinal string loose, as the means of lifting up slit, is placed over the fame of the gas : tliis pile; then, if into a jug of clean the tube communicates with a chamber, Water this pile be inserted, and left for in which a partial vacuum is caused by a au bour or two, the water will acquire as sort of air-puinp, which is in principle strong a chalybeate taste, as that of inasy pretty nearly the reverse of the blowing springs medicinally resorted to.


PATENTS LATELY GRANTED. F.IJ. W. Nerdham, of David-street, Middlesex, J. T. Hodgson, of Lambeth; for improvements for an improved method of casting steel. Oct. 7. in the construction and manufacture of shoes, or

W. Foreman, Esq ot Bath, for improvements in substitutes for shoes, for horses and other cattle, the construction of stem-ogines.

Oct. 7 and method of applying the same to the feet. F. Benecke, of Deprlord, and D. T. Shears and October 7, 1024. J. H. Shears, of Flexi market, for iniprovements in P. Chell, of Kensington; for improvements on the making, preparing, or producing, of spelter or machinery for drawing, loving, and spiuuing, flax, zinc. Communicated to thein by a foreigner, Oct. 7. wool, Waste silk, or other fibrous substances.

P. Alejre, of Kerazıle-la-Frontera, iu Spain, now October 14, 1824. residing at Caleb-place, Commercial-roud, for au J. G. Bodmer, of Oxford street, Mancliester; improved aud more economical method of genera- for improvements in the machinery for cleaning, ting steain, applicable lo steam engines, and other carding, drawing, rosing, and spinging of cotton useful purposes. October 7, 1821.

and wool. October 11, 18.1. H. Jeffreys, of Bristol, for an improved flue or J. Guun, of Hart-street, Grosvenor-square ; for chimney for Turnaces and other purposes, Oct. 7. improvenients on wheeled Carriages. October 14,

R. Dickinson, of Southwark; tür improvements 1821. in the manurarture and construction of metal casks W. P. Weise, of Tonley.street, Surrey; for im. or barrels, for the conveyance of goods and pro- provements in the preparing of, and making, waterdacts by sea or otherwise, October 7, 182 1. proof cluth, and other material, for the manufac

F. Richman, of Great Pulteney-street, Golden- iuring hats, bonnets, and caps, and wearing square; for improvements in the construction of apparel, and in manufacturing the same therefrogi. fire escapes; parts of which improvements are October 14, 1821. hkewise applicable to other purposes. October 7. H. Maniolt, of Fleet street; for an improvement

8. Wilson, of Strenthwin; for improvements its on water-closets. October 14, 1824. machinery or making relucts and other cut-works, J. Fellow, of Manchester, Lancashire, weaver ; Communicated to hiin by certain foreigners residing for improvements in power-loons, for weavmg abroad. October 7, 1884

various articles, October 11, 1821. J. tlam, of West Coker; for an improved proces H. Alaudslay and J. Field, of Lambeth; for a for manufacturing vinegar. October 7, 1821. method and apparatus for continually changing the

M. Busli, of West Hani, Essex; or improve- water used in boilers for generating steam, parments in machinery or appar al us for printug cali. ticularly applicable to the boilers of stam-vessels coes and other fabrics. October i. 1826.

nraking long voyages, by preveuling the deposiJ, Shaw, of Milltown, Derbyshire; tor transverse tion of salt or other substances contained in the spring slides for trumpets, trombones, Prencia wiler, at the saine Lime retaining the beat, saving horus, bugles, and every other musical instrument fuel, and rendering the boiler more lasting. (c. of the line ualure. October 1, 1021,

tot 14. 184.

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