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phenomena are not produced, aby any1 weightsąd measures, and monies of all changes of temperature, or by common, trading countries by official experiments electrical repulsion, and concludes that op verified standards. The experiments they are of a novel kind. anton 900 bos were made by Robert Bingley, Esq. the
Weights and Measures TA communica; King's Assay Master of the Mint; and the tion from Mr. D. Gilbert states, is that the calculations by Dr. Kelly, who planned object of the late parliamentary commisa and conducted the general comparison, sion of weights and measures, was to re: and in 1821 published the results in the
the res commend a minimum of alteration of the Universal Cambist, under the sanction of four kinds of measures of length of of su- His Majesty's Government. The underperficies, of solidity i of this last as con- taking was originally patronized and retaining concrete substances or weight. The commended by the Board of Trade. The commission found the said a weights and standards were procured from abroad by measures perfect to all practical purposes, circular letters issued by Viscount Castlethey have in consequence recommended reagh and Earl Bathurst, Secretaries of that they should be left unaltered, selecting State for the Foreign and Colonial Defor philosophical purposes the three-feet partments; and the whole plan was esfule of Sir George Shuekburgh, as the iden- sentially promoted by Lord
Lord Maryborough, tical one, because the trigonometrical sur- Master of the Mint.woda 19010, 20:19 srey has been made from it. We purpose The Temperature, at considerable depths that copies of this scale should be dispersed of the Caribbean Sea. Captain Sabine over the kingdom; and they have given found the temperature of the water, at the length of the pendulum and of the a depth of 6000 feet, in latitude 20 N.
French metre in parts of this scale. Su- and long, 834 W. near the junction of perficies, of course, follows linear mea- the Mexican and Caribbean Seas, to be sure. The Troy pound is unaltered ; du- 45° 5, that of the surface being 83o. He
plicates of this are about to be made, and, infers, that one or two hundred fathoms ás a matter of scientific curiosity, a foot more line, would have caused the thermoor an inch of water is compared
with it. meter to descend into water at its maxiThe Avoirdupois pound being probably mum of density as depends on heat; this within two grains of 7000, is made this inference being on the presumption that exact number. In the third division all the greatest density of salt water occurs, is absolute confusion; there something as is the case in fresh water, at several must be done ; and as the great body of degrees above its freezing point. the people are interested chiefly in ale and Scotch Antiquaries.— The Society of Scotbeer measures, it has been thoughít best to tish Antiquaries lately heard two very inteapropose the new measure between these resting original historical documents read j twoja but instead of an exact arithmetical by Mr. Macdonala. One was an order
mean, to vary it a little for the purpose of signed "Huntly,” for the disbursement in making it weigh 10 pounds of water,
by of 401. for perfuming (or embalming) the which mean its rectification will be most body of Henry Darnley the other was Ju easy, at any time, by ineans of a pair of an order for providing suitable mourning scales.
for the Queen, and was signed by her own in weights of Foreign
Foreign fair hand. Copies of these very curious
H countries, which
h were some time since documents were left with the Society. vi transmitted to the British Government,
Ibi Fossil Shells. T By Lewis Weston Dilltyn, and compared with English standards, Esq. F.R.S. -Mr. Dillwyn remarks, that have been lately deposited at the London Mint, in a commodious cabinet
constructs beauty turbinated "univalve of the older
from ed for the purpose, where they are to be which he can find any record, belongs to carefully preserved, for permanent refe-- the herbivorous genera, and that the farence. This national collection is the first mily has been handed down through all
of the kind ever made on a great scale, the successive strata, and still inhabits tolthough long, considered a desideratum. our land and waters. On the other Its utility, which has been already
exten hand, all the carnivorous genera abound bir sively proved, may be further experienced in the strata above the chalk, but when
comparatively, extremely rare in simpaired. The following account of this shell has been detected in any lower
important collection is inscribed on the bed than the lower bolite?' He thinks, cabinet: The Foreign weights here de that a further examination will prove, posited, having been duly verified, were that neither the aporrbaides, nor any of transmitted to London in the year 1818, those few undoubtedly carnivorous spe
by the British consuls abroad, in pursuads dies, which have been found in the sewydance of a general plan for comparing the condary formations, were furnished with
on 19 yam9919 91 to HELEST
predaceous powers, but that they belong pieces are cemented together by caoutto a subdivision of the trachelipoda chouc dissolved in coal tar oil, the adzoophaga, which feed only on dead ani- hesion is such that when the two are mals,
torn asuuder in the dark, there is a bright Supposed Effect of Magnelism on Crys. flash of electric light, similar to that protallization. The following is an experi- duced by separating plates of mica, by ment first made by Professor Maschmann, breaking Rupert's drops, or by breaking of Christiana, and confirmed by Pro- barley-sugar, or sugar-candy. Upon tryfessor Hanstein, of the same city; we ing this experiment with different subshould not have noticed it but for these stances, it was found that flashes of light names. A glass tube is to be bent into were distinctly produced, by tearing a syphon, and placed with the curve quickly a piece of cotton cloth.-Edin. downwards, and in the bend is to be Jour. x. 185. placed a small portion of mercury, Rectification of the Compass. - The Board sufficient to close the connexion between of Longitude has voted the sum of 5001 the two legs; a solution of nitrate of to Mr. Peter Barlow, for his simple insilver is then to be introduced until it vention for correcting the local attraction rises in both limbs of the tube. The pre- of ships. It consists of a plate of iron cipitation of the mercury in the form of abaft the compass, which being regulated an arbor Diana will then take place, so as to correct the effects of the ship in slowly, only when the syphon is placed any one place, does the same in all places. in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic This mode of avoiding error must be of meridian; but if it be placed in a incalculable value to navigation. plane coinciding with the magnetic me- Preparation of Kermes Mineral.- Acridian, the action is rapid, and the cording to M. Fabroni, a much finer crystallization particularly beautiful, kermes mineral is obtained by using taking place principally in that branch of tartar in place of the alkali employed in the syphon towards the north. If the the usual process. Three or four parts syphon be placed in a plane perpendicular of tartar should be mixed with one part to the magnetic meridian, and a strong of powdered sulphuret of antimony, and magnet be brought near it, the precipi- heated red in a crucible until the cessatation will recommence in a short time, tion of fumes indicates that the tartar and be most copious in the branch of the is all decomposed; the mass is then to syphon nearest to the south pole of the be dissolved in hot water, filtered, and magnet.
left to cool, when abundance of fine Levels in London above the highest Waler- kermes will be deposited, of a very deep mark,
colour. The abundance of kermes thus
obtained does not at all interfere with North End of Northumberland
the quantity and beauty of the golden Street, Strand
19 7 6 sulphuret, afterwards obtained by the adNorth of Wellington Street,
dition acid to the mother liquor.-Ann. Strand
35 60 de Chim xxv. 7. North of Essex Street, Strand 27 00 Palimpsest MSS.--An interesting paper, West of Coventry Street 52 0 0 was read at the Royal Literary Society South of St. James's Street 13 3 0 lately, by Archdeacon Nares, upon the South of Air Street, Piccadilly 49 8 0 subject of Palimpsest MSS. so denomi. North of St. James's Street 46 7.0 nated from llant and yod, to cleanse ? West of Gerard Street
61 0 or wire, because the parchment on which North of Drury Lane
65 0 they are written had been cleansed of the South of Berners Street 74. 30 first writing, and used from motives of South of Stratford Place 59
economy for a second. This cleansing North of Regent Street 70 00 or erasure, however, not being complete, South of Orchard Street 70 0 the earlier writing has been frequently North of Cleveland Street 80 10 O detected under the later, and thus valuCentre of Regent's Circus .
0 able ancient fragments have been brought North of Gloucester Place 72 30 to light. The Ancients themselves had North side of Aqueduct crossing
their Palimpsests. These were of a dif. Regent's Canal
102 6 0 ferent kind, however leaves or books so Opposite South End of King St..
prepared that one writing could easily be Great George Street
5 6 0 expunged to make way for another, and The whole of Westminster, except the they were employed by authors for corAbbey and part of Horseferry Road, is recting their works, &c. (See Plutarch below the level of tbe highest tide. De Garrul. ---Catullus, Carm. 22.--and'
Electricity on Separation of Parts. Cicero, Ep. ad Fam.) and could never bide In the water-proof cloths manufactured any valuable matter. The modern paby M. Mackintosh of Glasgow, where two limpsests, on the contrary, have spened
3) to us some great discoveries; and pro- cus.” These Orations had been written mise many more. The first Rescript Ms. in the quarto formi, but partly erased and of which any important use was made, folded into the octavo size, to give place was (it is believed) the Codex Ephrem, to the sacred poetry of Sedulins. The or Codex Regius of Paris, now in the latter was judged to be as ancient as the Royal Library, (No. 9.) The latter writing sth century the original not later
than consists of 209 leaves confusedly placed, the 2d or 3d. The MS. had belonged to aud containing certain works of the Syrian ! very ancient monastery at Bobium, or Ephrem, in Greek; hut the more ancient Bobbio, in the Milanese; repated to have' appears to have had the whole of the been founded by St. Columban, who also Old and New Testament, in Greek charae- formed the Library, in which a greater ters held by the learned to belong to member of Rescript MSS, have been found the 6th or 7th century. Some collations than any where else.-M. Mai next pubof the N. T. have been obtained from this lished a second volume of fragments of the Old still remains unexplored. The three other Orations of the great Roman next great discovery recorded is of Ul. orator; with some ancient and unknown pbilas, Bishop of Gothland, who in the Commentaries.
These treasures, sopfourth century invented a new character, posed of the 4th century, were concealed and translated the whole scriptures into under a Latin translation of the Acts it from the Greek: Portions of this work of the Council of Chalcedon. In 1815, (long last, with the exception of the four three volumes of unpublished works were gospels preserved in the Codex Argen- brought to light, consisting of large porteuse at Upsal) were found in 1775, in the" tions of the Orations of Symmachus the Augustan Library at Wolfenbuttel, under last of the Romani orators, and liitherto a more modern MS. of the Origines of only known by his Epistles,)-other paIsidorus. The MS. of Isidorus in fact, negyrics, and particularly one of the consisting of 330 leaves, was made up of younger Pliny: The MSS. adjudged to portions of several older books, and the 7th or 8th century. -Several inedited among the rest a fragment of Galen, pro- Fragments of Plautus, and especially of bably the oldest known MS. of a medical the Vidularia, a lost comedy, followed. book.--The next investigator of this class. Only twenty lines of this play had been of MSS. was Paul James Bruns, the co- preserved by Priscian and Nonnius. The adjutor of Kennicott in his great work of next more extensive and successful lathe Hebrew Collation. He discovered at bour was that of drawing from another Rome, in 1773, a fragment of the Olst MS. of the same kind, very considerable book of Livy, in a Rescript MS. of the remains of the celebrated orator Fronto, Vatican library. This was published, who flourished under Hadrian. This and has been admitted into the later edi. African Cicero now forms two octavo votions of the historian. It contains part, lumes, instead of existing in a few scat
A and it is to be lamented only a small part tered sentences quoted by other authors. of the war with Sertorius in Spain. Bruns. The matter consists, besides Orations, of afterwards investigated the Bodleian Li- fragments, entitled Principia Historiæ, brary, and published in 1782-3-4, an ac and some light playful pieces ; Epistles count of the Palimpsests it contained to Antoninus Pius; two books to Marcus Yet, notwithstanding these remarkable Aurelius, two to Lucius Verus, two books successes, no other publication of this of Letters to his friends, and other Episnature appeared till 1801, when Dr. Bar- tles. The whole is a noble acquisition to rett, of Trinity College, Dublin, produced the Republic of letters. Reprinted at bis Gospel of St. Matthew, from a Re- Frankfort 1816. M. Mai's next discoscript in the Library of that College. it very was of Commentaries upon Virgil appears to have been rewritten in the 12th by Asper, Longus, Scaurus, &c. and anoor 13th century, upon portions of much nymous writers; and lastly, in 1820, ibis more ancient books.
indefatigable scholar made some farther But Signor Angelo Maï has been the discoveries of Ulphilas, mentioned near great discoverer in this way, in our own the commencement of this notice. Since times. In 1813, he translated anony. then he has been transported from the mously a large part of an Oration of Iso. Ambrosian Library to the Vatican, where crates de Permutatione; and in 1814, . like, or even greater success attends his, appeared as a public labourer among Pa researches! In a
a Palimpsest volume, limpsests. His first work was “ Certain containing various treatises of St. Augushitherto unpublished Orations of Cicero, tine, be found the long lost books of viz. those for Scaurus, Tullius, and Flac- Cicero de Re Publica.—The history of
these extraordinery successes in this peFrom being chiefly written in letters culiar line of research will, as the learned of silver.
Archdeacon earnestly impressed, stimu
late scholars in every part of Europe, benefit of letters. Knittel, Barrett, and where large collections of ancient Mss. Mas, supply every instruction necessary are deposited, and particularly in Britain,' for the pursuit; and every M$. from so rich in such treasures, to examine whe- the 7th to the 14th century may be Pather similar materials may not be found limpsest. in other libraries, and deciphered for the
FRANCE. * A republication has taken place at Paris of the fragments on Roman Law, disco
Ignazio Vescovalli, the well known vered by the laborious and learned An- dealer in works of art, has built a rotunda gelo Maï, in a palimpsest Ms. in the behind his house, which he has adorned Vatican. The tities of these fragments with the best statues and bnsts in his are, De Empto et Vendito ; De Usu magazine. Among them are the three Fructu ; De Dotibus et Re Uxoria ; De fauns, which he found in 1822, in digging Excusatione; Quando donator intelliga- pear. St. Lucia, in Selci. He has very tur revocasse voluntatem ; De Dona- judiciously had all the repairs done in tionibus ad legem Cinciam ; De Cognito- plaster of Paris only, a mode which should ribus et Procuratoribus. Unfortunately,
be generally adopted.
Rome has to lament the loss of the numerous chasms in the manuscript have pot perunitted the developement of the Chevalier Tambroni, who died in January. whole of the author's observations on the He was a native of Bologna, consul-geneabove important subjects.
ral of the kingdom of Italy at Rome, and M. le Comte Orloff, the Russian sena
had been intended for some years past for tor, amateur in all that is scientific and the place of keeper of the imperial gallery literary, and during several years a resi- of paintings in the Belvedere at Vienna, dent in France, has just published a work but never received the decree appointing in three volumes, entitled, Voyage dans him. He has written several archæolo. une partie de la France. It is written in gical dissertations, and last summer disthe form of letters, and is both interesting Giornale Arcadico loses in him one of its
covered the ancient town of Bovilla. The and instructive. A new literary journal is announced
most active contributors, and his friends for the month of May~"Revue Euro
an agreeable and well informed compa
nion. péenne, ou productions de l'esprit bumain en France, en Angleterre, en Italie,
SICILY. en Allemagne." The publication is to be Sicilian Literature.-In 1821 and 1822, monthly, and in bulk about ten sheets 8vo. only about fifty-six works were published; It proposes to give information of all the but it would seem that the list contained works published, discoveries made, pro- in the Bibliothèque Italienne cannot be gress ascertained, &c. in the arts and complete, for there is but one political sciences in every country of Europe ; and work, “ On the right of Sicily to National is to be published in English at London, Independence,” by Baron Fr: Ventura. French at Paris, Italian in Italy, German Sicilian literature is equally poor in its in Germany, &c. Already the contribu- journals. There is a publication called tors and editors are appointed. In France, the Iris, a journal of sciences, letters, and MM. Arnault, Jouy, Jay, and Etienne ; arts; but it is not very expensively got in other words, the liberal coterie litteraire up, being principally composed of exof Paris are named as the chief writers in tracts from foreign journals. The the French department of this European Abeille, which served as a Literary Gaenterprize.
zette for Sicily, was so badly supported, A young French poet, wbo possesses an that it ceased at the twelfth number. The astonishing facility, proposes to impro- Journal de Médecine, in which are pub
vise publicly, in French, something very lished the observations made at the great & extraordinary,-a Tragedy in five acts, hospital of Palermo, may be interesting to
and a grand Opera in three acts. This the class of individuals for which it is inyoung man, M. Eugène de Pradel, has but tended. There is no contest in the career just left Sainte Pelagie, where he has been of the drama. In the years 1821, and imprisoned during five years for political 1822, Sicily produced only two meloopinions. During these five years he has dramas. The greater part of the works applied closely to study, and has published which issue from the Sicilian presses reseveral works in prose and in verse. late to antiquities and the fine arts.
209 26,4°, 88.19301'444491 30 119090 50 wi to "
Of the Teniples of Seli nubraum.- Txvo. Tilni apy The hero, whose figure is about
high, of a robust make, to make excavations is the ruins of the - and with the legs quite detached, stands, celebrated Temples of Selinuntium inand I as I said, in the middle, with the upper they were rewarded for their trouble by part of the body turned to the spectator; the discovery of a great many works of but the legs and thighs quite in profile, sculpture, architectural fragments, and so that the feet are placed one before the painted ornaments. One of these artists other in a parallel direction. The head died at Selinuntium, of a fever caused by has al stalling affected expression, partithe beat, exertion, and bad air ; and as cularly in the mouth ; has no beard ; and soon as the government was informed of
one eye which is still preserved, seems possession of all the works that were open. The hair is regirlarly enrled'on the fragments were added to the little collec- gious fulness of the parts which give the Lion of the University, where there is also bero his epithet is observable, and in a part of the antiques previously obtained which it agrees with the figures on the from the ruing of . Tyndaris, -by Mr. ancient Sicilian Vases, appears to be quite
Faghan, an Englishman. As I had al- naked, and we see only the short sword | ready heard, both at Rome and Naples, hanging across the back, while the belt is
of these Selinuntium sculptures, I has- merely indicated bg 'n stripe over the tened, on my arrival here, to visit them ; 'breast, painted red. He has the band and will give you a short description, upon his breast, and with the other holds which I shall perhaps be able to render one of the side figures. These hang down i more, complete, when I shall bave seen perfectly alike and regular on the right and examiped the ruins where they were and left, with bent knees, and bands found. The works belong to the remains crossed upon the breast. The arm of Herof two Doric Temples, one of which is' cules is thrown round the one on the left, within the citadel, or acropolis; and the so that the hand above the knees is less other without, at a place now called “ 1 visible; the right-hand figure, however, Pilorie Besides a great number of small' has only the heel on the shoulder of the fragments, such as hands, feet, pieces of hero ; but we do not see the lance, which, drapery, and four hends, three bas-reliefs according to the narrative of Pzetzes, have been found, which are presumed to be, keeps it balanced. The beads are very Metopes. All these works are of a pretty ill formed, and besides iech injured by compact lime-stone, or tuffa, which has the effects of the air. The hair is not so however suffered considerably in many regularly curled, and three braids bangon places, from the influence of the atmo- each side of the head. Both figures are
style is that of the old Greek likewise quite naked ; only bands, or fetSchool ; and, though I will not here ven- ters, are to be seen above the instep and ture to determine accurately the time or above the knees. Though in all these place, they evidently have a considerable figures there is no trace of character, resemblance to the celebrated Ægian Sta- "properly so called, of beauty of form or of tưes. The workmanship, however, is far expression, yet we remark the rude be
more rude, the'attitudes much more un- 'ginnings of that style, the strict'and con"natural, and the forms much more con- sequent developement of which was to
ventional. Of the three Metopes, as they lead Grecian art to the highest suimit of are called, two are so i preserved, that perfection, together with the regular, and.
doubt remains, on the whole, as to as it were, architectural disposition of the their original measure and form. The works of sculpture, which serve as orna. third, however, appears to have been 'ments to buildings. The second Metope brought to the same size and shape by represents Perseus, who is cutting off the repairing. The two Metopes are flat, but head of Medusa, in which he is assisted by bare' above and below a square plate; the Minerva. The hero of Mycene is also in tower one upon which the figure stands the middle of the piece: the head and the belongs to the architrave, and the upper upper part of the body fronting the specto the cornice. The lower band (plate) tator, and the lower part in profile: - On is 94 inches high, the metopé 3 feet 81 his head he has the winged hat upon reinches, and the upper band about 8 inches 'gülår hair. The expression of the counhigh; the projection of the band on which tenance is also that of a peculiar smile, the figures stand is about 6 inches. This and the eyes are entirely closed, as the
first piece contains thiree figures, which action requires. The armour is not to be undoubtedly represent Hercules Melamo observed, but from the middle of the body pyges, which is the middle fignire, and down towards the knees bangs a regularly Passalus and Alkmon, the two sons of plaited piece of drapery. On the legs are VOL. XII. NO. XLI.