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GERMANY.

same author has also just published a no less than 17 vaudevilles in the course Collection of Letters on the Politics, Li- of the year. By M. Armand-Dartois terature, and Manners of the Year 1823. there have been only 13; by M. Francis, It is not without a good sprinkling of 10; by Messrs. Frederic de Courcy and choses bonnes et piquantes.

Brazier, 9 each; Messrs. Desangiers, The Academyof the Fine Arts has lately Mélesville, Henri Dupin, and Théaulon, elected the six following foreign associates, have reached only to their 8th. viz. Messrs. Alvarès, sculptor ; Lunghi,

THE NETHERLANDS. engraver; Rossini, musical composer ; The six Universities in the kingdom of Schiackel, architect ; Thorwaldsen, sculp- the Netherlands contain the following protor; and Zingarelli, musical composer. portion of students. Liege, 446 ; Ley

French Dramatic Review of 1823.-Two den, 402; Utrecht, 377; Louvain, 326 ; bundred and nine new pieces compose this Ghent, 286 ; Groningen, 290 ; Total, budget ; and be it observed that the Pano- 2127. Whilst in France every effort is rama Dramatique, which used to furnish made to check the progress of general eduits fair share, suddenly closed in the cation, in the Netherlands the Governmonth of July. It is true that a great ment fosters and encourages it by buildnumber of these productions are already ing and endowing schools of all kinds. laid on the shelf. Of 360 living dramatic In the last year no less a sum tban anthors (including the contingent of the 242,246 florins was wholly devoted to departments) whom France has had the these objects, out of a revenue by no means happiness to possess, the works of 161 over-abundant. This amount is entirely were represented at Paris in 1823 ; only independent of provincial and local expen151 enjoyed that benefit in the preceding diture for the same purposes. year, and 129 in 1821. It appears, therefore, that in time there will be enough of Heyné.—This celebrated philologist has them for the whole world. Of the 209 left behind him a valuable collection of novelties, 36 were performed by the inde- drawings illustrative of Homer. They are fatigables of the Gymnase ; the Vaudeville executed by Tischbein, and accompanied had 33 ; the Variétés stopped at 24. Thou with explanations. After the death of sleepest, Brunet! The mania for arrange- Heyné the publication was interrupted, mens has diminished this year. In 1822, but it is now recommenced under the diamong the pieces called novelties, about rection of Dr. Schorn. Two parts have forty arrangés might be reckoned. The already appeared, and the third will be imagination of authors has been much ready in the course of the present month. less idle in 1823. Seven tragedies and The commentaries are such as every sixteen comedies, of which only three archæologist must value. The drawings were in five acts, have appeared in the themselves are full of spirit, and the entwo Théâtres Français. To make amends gravings most carefully executed.The there were 163 vaudevilles hatched in collection of paintings belonging to the these 365 days, that is, almost half a one brothers Boisserie, at Stuttgart, is geneevery evening; leaving altogether out of rally known to be the most perfect in Ger the question the Spectacle of M. Comte, many in respect to its specimens of old M. Seveste's theatres, &c. The most German art. The best pictures in the brilliant success in the high class has gallery are publishing in the lithograbeen that of l'Ecole des Vieillards, Pierre phic style. The execution is uncomde Portugal, la Neige, les Deux Cousines, monly beautiful, and marked with a preand the ballet of Cendrillon; at the se- cision, clearness, and truth, not common condary theatres. Julien, l'Interieur d'un to this branch of art. The prints afford a Bureau, l'Heritiere, les Cuisinieres, les very fair specimen of the style, character, Grisettes, Polichinelle Vampire, la Fausse and merit of the original masters. M. Clé, and l'Auberge des Adrets. The Boisserie has at the same time accompamost striking failures have been those of nied them with some instructive and erul'Homme aux Scruples, l'Intrigue au dite remarks. The whole publication does Chateau, la Fille du Commissaire, M. honour to the liberality of the publisher, Raymond, le Major, la Folle des Alpes, and the talent and diligence of the author. and Adelie. M. Scribe's fertility has in- The celebrated work of Professor Creucreased this year. In 1822, 16 of hiszer, entitled “Symbols and Mythologies pieces were performed, and 17 in 1821. of the Nations of Antiquity," is at length This year he has produced 18 works, one completed. In no other work (not even in fonr acts; and only one (le Bourgeois in that of Jacob Bryant) has the mythode la rue Saint Denis) has failed. M. Car- logy of the ancients ever been so commonche, to whom belongs the accessil, is pletely and intelligibly explained. A not much behindhand. He has produced scholar of Professor Creuzer is at present

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occupied with another work on the my. them is the ploughshare that served to thology of the Northern nations, in the trace the extent of the city, “which apsame spirit and manner. The first volume pears from its having been found in a has already appeared, which relates to the beautiful Mosaic room, where the insig. fabulous creeds of the people adjacent to nia of the Supreme Magistrate were to be the Baltic.

scen." In an adjoining court-yard a Tieck, the distinguished German critic Temple was discovered, in which stood a and poet, whose studies upon old English marble basin, the drain from which was dramatic literature are so well known, has connected with two leaden pipes, and orwithin a very short period published a namented with a dog's head. The Mosaic work called “ Shakespeare's Vorschule" foor represented a beautiful mask of a (the Predecessors of Shakspeare). It river god, probably of the river Naetison, contains a long preface and three drama, which flows through the town : the basin tic pieces, viz. « Robert Green's Wonder- was perhaps used for the purification of ful Saying of Father Bacon;" “ Arden of the priests after the sacrifice. A stairFevershain," and “ Haywood's Lan- case in the same temple led to a lower cashire Witches." The former transla- apartment, from which a narrow perpentions and writings of Tieck upon the sub- dicular issue led to an opening in the upper ject of the old English stage have not room, perhaps for the use of the oracle. only extended the reputation of Tieck, Many pipes were found, forming a conbut have also taught the Germans that all nexion between the hill and the town; the genius and talent of England were also large bricks with inscriptions, among not engrossed by that mighty and all-ac- which are those of the families Vettidia complished genius. Tieck's labours in and Gavia; many pieces with encaustic this respect have already had a beneficial painting; cinerary urns of chalk and terra effect in Germany. The introductory pre- cotta, urns of glass, with bones wrapped face is full of interesting and ingenious in amianthus ; glass lachrymatories; some remarks, but contains many critical errors. also of earthenware, which may therefore

Immermanze. This young poet, in be referred to the time of the Republic. whom is centred much of the hope of Ger. Lastly, sacrificial vessels : one of these is many, has recently published a new of marble, a few inches in circumference, tragedy, with the title of “ King Fe- and resembles in its form what is called riander.” It is founded on a passage in the grave of Antenor at Padua. On a the Thalia of Herodotus. It is clever, spot called Laterano a large building was and promises greater things; but the de- discovered, containing many rooms adornfects are many and palpable.

ed with Mosaic; perhaps it was the pub

lic granary, corn having been found in In the Giornale Arcadico there is an ac- some of the rooms, in others beans and count given by M. Giov. de' Brignoli di millet, undamaged, only turned black, In Brunnhof, of the result of the search for the same place (which should rather indiAntiquities undertaken since 1817, in the cate it to have been a sepulchre) were ancient Forum Julii, near Udine, in found sixty-two sarcophagi of terra cotta, Friuli. It speaks first of the extraordi- partly in the walls, partly in the floor. nary success of the measures adopted One of these has been opened, and careunder the direction of Count Mich. della fully closed again. A figure in relievo is Torre e Valsassina. They sought for the recognised as: Jupiter Viminalis by the probable boundaries of the ancient town, triangular head-dress, by the stiff hair according to the well-known principles (capelli paludosi), the thick beard, the and ceremonies of

Varro with which colo- dress, which is a kind of twisted mail ; nies were usually founded, and every thing by the legs, which are spread out like was found as it ought to be. ("Fisso those of a horseman, though the eagle beegli i punti dove doveano farsi i scavi e tween them is wanting. Near it were ciò che in ciascun punto, ricercare do found stones with bas-reliefs, “con le veasi. Il fatto ha pienamente corrisposto sempega di che mangiano il nettare," (?) alle meditate indicazioni. La vanga e la with dolphins and wild aniinals—all symmarra non vennero mai profondate in- bols of the same divinity. A very beautiful darno, nè mai fù altro ritrovato che quan- alabaster head of the bearded Bacchus to in quel sito ritrovarsi dorea."). They appears to belong to a Cippus. An Isis soon found the Astiludium, the Campus, may be considered as extremely remarkand Circus of Flora ; Temples of Rubigo, able, on account of its small size. In the of Jupiter Viminalis, of Mercury, of the little town of Rualis (called in the middle Fratres Arvales; the Market-place, Pub ages Arvalis) the Temple of the Arvalian lic Magazines, &c.—The various things Priests has been discovered : this is shown already dug up form a Muscum. Among by a great number of graves regularly ar

ITALY.

ranged, in which hodies were found on the badly preserved; it is of Parian marble, one side with the flask, on the other with and was found in the little town of Rubigcorn. A considerable building, in which naco, near the city, in the very same place band-mills were found, is supposed to where, above 200 years ago, an inscriphare belonged to the Magistratus annona- tion was discovered with Deo Ruligini Tis. Another, which was adorned with sacrum. The figure is nearly of the size very beautiful Mosaics and encaustic of life, and the Temple, according to cuspaintings, was probably the residence of tom, near the Circus of Flora ; it decides the civil magistrate; at least an inscrip- the question whether Rubigo is a god or tion found in it, M.AVLO....M.III. AC. III, a goddess, the gender being different in .... is interpreted to mean, Menses tres different authors. The statue is evidently acta causa tertio. A Mosaic in another a female figure; she holds one hand on building represents the ludus latrunculo- the left breast, and the other hand suprum : the ground resembles a chess, ports a basket of fruit on her head, which board; the divisions are triangular, alter- has a wreath of ears of corn and leaves. nately black and white; and on a red At the same place were found likewise border a house, a bridge, a triangle, &c. extremely beautiful Corinthian capitals, An altar bears the inscription Jovi sacrum. with olive leaves; the abacus of one ends Fasces, with charred rods, are on a very exactly as in the Temple of Vesta at Rome. beautiful Mosaic like that found in Saltz- Other architectural remains give evidence burg. On an altar of burnt stone there of a richly-decorated edifice. In some was a Mosaic, likewise of burnt stone : fields, which are still called le corti, i. e. upon it were a small bronze Mercury and coorti, the ancient Campus Martius was an Assis Calpurnica, Farther, a very ele- found, full of military insignia, of a quagant Genius of bronze, various medals of drangular form, according to the Roman gold, silver, and bronze gilt, struck in custom, and about four miles long. (Can honour of the Britannic and Pannonian this be correct?) In others was the AsLegions. The discovery of these precisely tiludium, or Castrametatio, with all the indicates the place where the battle was divisions of the legions, and a large fought between Æmilianus and Volusia- pavement of bricks, which was between nus, near to a little stream which even the infantry and the cavalry. On the spot at this day is called Rivo Emiliano. The allotted to the latter were many bridles, Ordo equestris of the Republic, perhaps a quantity of iron trappings belonging to that of the above-mentioned P. Vetti• the harness of the horses, and complete dins, in whose inscription are the words sets of shoes. Many Lombard and Gothic Equo publico; l'ordine sacerdotale del por- monuments are of the times of Totila and celleto, (?) both provided with two but Narses, Vitiges, Belisarius, and still later. tons to fasten them to the chlamys; many lo a place in the present town, Giudecca, pateræ, one of which is of metal with a or according to the pronunciation of the handle, another without a handle, of country, Zugiata, Count Mich. della Torre Corinthian brass ; lamps, some with conjectured there might be Hebrew mofigures, one with circles round it, and numents, and found accordingly, at the therefore belonging to a patrician family; depth of five metres (about fifteen feet,) little square bells, two currycombs, many nine large beautifully written Hebrew and styles for writing, of bronze, iron, silver, Chaldee inscriptions, which, according to and Corinthian brass. There are nume- Abbé Venturi, in Verona, and the asrous gold, silver, and bronze coins, from surance of German Rabbis, are far more the times of the Republic down to the ancient than our era, and must be dated, latest Emperors; many also of the Goths, according to one, 900 years, and accordthe Lombards, and the Patriarchs of ing to others, 1600 years before the birth Aquileia. Among these coins are many of Christ. that are rare, and some inedited; many The Museum which has been collected ornaments, as bracelets, ear-rings, neck- by means of these researches is very well laces, jewels, pastes; numerous weapons arranged, in a large gallery in the buildof all kinds, and stones of various sizes, ing formerly belonging to the Clerici resuch as were thrown from the Ballista. golari somaschi, near the Gymnasium of The statue of the Divinity in whose honour the town. the Ludus Rubiginis was performed, is

RURAL ECONOMY. Upon the Culture of the Pine-apple, with the glass ; and the piers being formed of out Bark, or other Hot-bed. By T. A. loose bricks (without mortar), were capaKnight, Esq.- I had no intention whatever ble of being reduced as the height of the to attempt to raise pine-apples till the au- plants iocreased. The temperature of the tumn of 1818, when I received from one house was generally raised in hot and of my friends some seeds of the inango, bright days, chiefly by confined solar heat, and soon afterwards some more seeds of from 950 to 105°, and sometimes to 1100, that and other tropical fruit-trees. I then no air being ever given till the temperaresolved to erect a hot-bouse, chiefly for ture of the house exceeded 95°; and the the purpose of attempting to cultivate the escape of heated air was then only in a mango; but I had long been much dissatis- slight degree permitted. In the night the fied with the manner in which the pine temperature of the house generally sunk apple plant is usually treated, and very to 70°, or somewhat lower. At this much disposed to believe the bark-bed, as period, and through the months of July Mr. Kent has stated it, “ worse than use- and August, a sufficient quantity of pigeon's less," subsequently to the omission of dung was steeped in the water, which was roots by the crowns or suckers. I there given to the pine plants, to raise its colour fore resolved to make a few experiments nearly to that of porter, and with this upon the culture of that plant; but as I they were usually supplied twice a day in had not, at that period, (the beginning of very hot weather; the mould in the pots October,) any hot-house, I deferred ob- being kept constantly very damp, or what taining plants till the following spring gardeners would generally call wet. In My hot-house was not completed till the the evenings, after very hot days, the second week in June, at which period I plants were often sprinkled with clear began my experiment upon nine plants, water, of the temperature of the external which had been but very ill preserved air ; but this was never repeated till all through the preceding winter by the gar- the remains of the last sprinkling had disdener of one of my friends, with very in- appeared from the axillæ of the leaves. adequate means, and in a very inhospitable It is, I believe, almost a general custom climate. These, at this period, were not with gardeners, to give their pine plants larger plants than some which I have sub- larger pots in autumn. I nevertheless sequently raised from small crowns (three cannot avoid thinking it wrong; for the having been afforded by one fruit) planted plants at this period, and subsequently, in the middle of August, were in the end owing to want of light, can generate a of December last ; but they are now be- small quantity only of new sap; and conginning to blossom, and, in the opinion of sequently the matter which composes the every gardener who has seen them, pro- new roots, that the plant will be excited mise' fruit of great size and perfection. to emit into the fresh mould, must be They are all of the variety known by the drawn chiefly from the same reservoir name of Ripley's queen-pine. Upon the which is to supply the blossom and fruit ; introduction of my plants into the hot and I have found that transplanting fruithouse, the mode of management, which it trees in autumn into larger pots, has ren. is the object of the present communica- dered their next year's produce of fruit tion to describe, commenced. They were smaller in size and later in maturity. I, put into pots of somewhat more than a therefore, would not remove my pino foot in diameter, in a compost made of plants into larger pots, although those in thin green turf, recently taken from a which they grow are considerably too river-side, chopped very small, and pressed small. As the length of the days diminishclosely whilst wet into the pots; a cir- ed, and the plants received less light, their cular piece of the same material, of about ability to digest food diminished. Less an inch in thickness, having been inverted food was in consequence dissolved in the unbroken, to occupy the bottom of each water, which was also given with a more pot. This substance, so applied, I have sparing hand ; and as winter approached, always found to afford the most efficient water only was given, and in small quanmeans for draining off superfluous water, tities. During the months of November and subsequently of facilitating the re- and December, the temperature of the moval of a plant from one pot to another, house was generally little above 50°, and without loss of roots. The surface of the sometimes as low as 48o. Most gardeners reduced turf was covered with a layer of would, I believe, have been alarmed for the vegetable mould obtained from decayed safety of their plants at this temperature ; leaves, and of sandy loam, to prevent the but the pine is a much hardier plant than it growth of the grass roots. The pots were is usually supposed to be; and I exposed then placed to stand upon brick piers, near one young plant in December to a temperature of 32o, by which it did not ap- an extremely simple labourer : he does not pear to sustain any injury: I have also know a letter or a figure; and he never been subsequently informed by Sir Har- saw a pine plant growing till he saw those ford Jones, who has had most ample op- of which he has the care; if I were abportunities of observing, that he bas fre- sent, he would not know at what period of quently seen in the East the pine-apple maturity to cut the fruit ; but in every growing in the open air, where the sur- other respect he knows how to manage the face of the ground carly in the mornings plants as well as I do ; and I could teach showed unequivocal marks of a slight any other moderately intelligent and atdegree of frost. My plants remained tentive labourer, in one month, to manage nearly torpid, and without growtlı, during them just as well as he can; in short, I do the latter part of November and the not think the skill necessary to raise a whole of December ; but they began to pine-apple, according to the mode of culgrow early in January, although the tem- ture I recommend, is so great as that reperature of the house rarely reached 60°; quisite to raise a forced crop of potatoes. and about the 20th of that month, the The expense of fuel for my hot-house, blossom, or rather the future fruit, of the which is forty feet long by twelve feet earliest plant became visible; and subse- wide, is rather less than sevenpence a-day quently to that period their growth has here, wbere I am twelve miles distant appeared very extraordinary to gardeners from coal-pits ; and if I possessed the who had never seen pine plants growing, advantages of a curved iron roof, such as except in a bark-bed, or other hot-bed. those erected by Mr. Loudon, at BaysI believe this rapidity of growth, in rather water, which would prevent the too rapid low temperature, may be traced to the escape of heated air in cold weather, I enmore excitable state of their roots, owing tertain no doubt that the expense of heatto their baving passed the winter in a very ing a house forty-five feet long and ten low temperature comparatively with that wide, and capable of holding eighty fruitof a bark-bed. The plants are now sup- ing pine plants, exclusive of grapes or plied with water in moderate quantities, other fruits upon the back wall, would not and holding in solution a less quantity of exceed fourpence a-day. A roof of profood than was given them in summer. In perly curved iron bars appears to me also planting suckers, I have, in several in- to present many other advantages ; it may stances, left the stems and roots of the old be erected at much less cost, it is much plant remaining attached to them; and more durable, it requires much less exthese have made a much more rapid pro- pense to paint it, and it admits of more gress than others. One strong sucker was light.— Tran. Hort. Soc. thus planted in a large pot upon the 20th Eggs and Potatoes.-The Scotch method of July, and that is beginning to show of preserving eggs, by dipping them in fruit. Its stem is thick enough to pro- boiling water, which destroys the living ducé a very large fruit; but its leaves are principle, is too well known to necd farshort, though broad and numerous; and ther notice. The preservation of potatoes, all the gardeners who have seen it appear by similar treatment, is also a valuable wholly at a loss to conjecture what will and useful 'discovery. Large quantities be the value of its produce. In other may be cured at once, by putting them cases, in which I retained the old stems into a basket as large as the vessel conand roots, I selected sinall and late snck- taining the boiling water will admit, and ers, and these bave afforded me the most then just dipping them a minute or two at perfect plants I have ever seen; and they the utmost. The germ, which is so near do not exhibit any symptoms of disposi- to the skin, is thus “ killed,” without intion to fruit prematurely. I am, how- juring the potatoe. In this way several ever, still ignorant whether any advantage tons might be cured in a few hours. They will be ultimately obtained by this mode should then be dried in a warm oven, and of treating the queen-pine ; but I believe laid up in sacks or casks, secure from the it will be found applicable with much ad- frost, in a dry place. Another method of vantage in the culture of those varieties of preserving this valuable root is, first to the pine which do not usually bear fruit peel them, then to grate them down to a till the plants are three or four years old. pulp, which is put into coarse cloths, and I shall now offer a few remarks upon the the water squeezed out by putting them facility of managing pines in the manner into a common press, by which means they recommended, and upon the necessary are formed into flat cakes. amount of the expense. My gardener is

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