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Barcelonet. Michael, into which all the great streets run. The hurt time. He died at Croydon in Surrey in June Barclay.
port is wide, spacious, deep, and fafe ; defended on 1552. He is generally allowed to have improved the Barclay. the one fide by a great mole, and on the other shelter. English language, and to have been one of the politest
ed from the west wind by two mountains that advance writers of his time. He composed several original
BARCELONETTA, a town of France in the degree ; and was soon after appointed professor of civil
wards made him counsellor of state and master of reE. Long. 6. 40. N. Lat. 44. 26.
quests. Barclay, in the year 1581, married Ann de BARCELOR, a town of Asia, in the East Indies, Mallaville, a French lady, by whom he had a son, who on the coast of Malabar. It is a Dutch factory, where became a celebrated author, and of whom the reader they carry on a considerable trade in pepper. E. Long. will find an account in the next article. This youth 74. 15. N. Lat. 13. 45.
the Jesuits would gladly have received into their soBARCELOS, a town of Portugal, with the title ciety. His father refused his confent, and for that of a duchy. It is feated on the river Cavado, over reason these disciples of Jesus soon contrived to ruin which there is a handsome bridge. W. Long: 7.0. him with the duke his patron. Barclay now embark. N. Lat. 41. 20.
ed for Britain, where King James I. offered him con-
to comply, he returned to France in 1604; and, foon
History of the Gun-powder Plot, a pamphlet of fix
Barclay, clay's book concerning the power of the Pope. Two Star; in allufion to the prophecy of Balaam, “There Bard. Harcohebas.
years after he published Icon Animorum. He was in. shall a star arise out of Jacob.” He proclaimed himself vited to Rome by Pope Paul V. and received a great the Messiah ; and talking of nothing but wars, victodeal of civility from Cardinal Bellarmin, though he had ries, and triumphs, made his countrymen rise against written again't him. He died at Rome in 1621, the Romans, by which means he was the author of while his Argenis was printing at Paris. This cele- innumerable disorders : he ravaged many places, took brated work has since gone through a great number of a great number of fortresses, and maifacred an insi. editions, and has been translated into moit languages. nite multitude of people, particularly the Christians. M. de Peirese, who had the care of the first edition, The emperor fent troops to Rufus, governor of Jucaused the effigies of the author to be placed before the dea, to suppress the sudition. Rufus, in obedience, book; and the following diitich, written by Grotius, exercised a thousand cruelties, but could not finish his was put under it :
attempt. The emperor was therefore obliged to send Gente Caledonius, Gallus natalibus, hic eft, Julius Severus, the greatest general of that time ; Romam Romono qui decet ore loqui.
who attained his end without a direct battle: he fell BARCLAY (Robert), one of the most eminent among on them separately ; cut off their provisions ; and at the Quakers, the son of Colonel David Barclay, de- lall the whole contest was reduced to the fiege of Bitscended of the ancient family of Barclays, was born at ter, in the 18th year of Hadrian. The impoítor perilhed Edinburgh in 1648. He was educated under an uncle there. This war cost the Romans a great deal of blood. at Paris, where the Papists used all their efforts to draw BARD, a word denoting one who was a poet by: him over to their religion. He joined the Quakers in his genius and profesion; and “who fung of the bat1669, and distinguished himself by his zeal and abili- tles of heroes, or the heaving brearts of love." Offian's ties in defence of their doctrines. In 1676 he pub- Poems, I. 37. lished in Latin at Amsterdam his Apology for the Qua- The curiosity of man is great with respect to the kers; which is the most celebrated of his works, and transactions of his own species; and when such transesteemed the ftandard of the doctrine of the Quakers. actions are described in verse, accompanied with music, The Theses Theologica, which were the foundation of the performance is enchanting. An ear, a voice, fkill Kuims's this work, and addressed to the clergy of what fort so- in instrumental music, and, above all, a poetical genius, Sketebes, ever, were published before the writing of the Apology, are requisite to excel in that complicated art. As such sk. V. and printed in Latin, French, High-Dutch, Low- talents are rare, the few that poffeffed them were high-fect. ita Dutch, and English. The dedication of his Apology to ly esteemed; and hence the profession of a bard, King Charles II. is very remarkable for the uncom- which, belide natural talents, required more culture mon frankness and fimplicity with which it is written. and exercise than any other known art. Bards were Amongst many other extraordinary passages, we meet capital persons at every festival and at every solemnity. with the following : “ There is no king in the world Their songs, which, by recording the atchievements who can fo experimentally testify of God's providence of kings and heroes, animated every hearer, must have and goodness ; neither is there any who rules so many been the entertainment of every warlike nation. We free people, so many true Christians; which thing ren- have Hefiod's authority, that in his time bards were as ders thy government more honourable, thyself more common as potters or joiners, and as liable to envy. considerable, than the accession of many nations filled Demodocus is mentioned by Homer as a celebrated with lavish and superstitious souls. Thou haft tasted bard; and Phemius, another bard, is introduced by of prosperity and adversity ; thou knoweft what it is to him deprecating the wrath of Ulysses in the following be banished thy native country, to be over-ruled as well words: as to rule and sit upon the throne ; and being oppressed, “ O King! to mercy be thy soul inclin'd, thou haft reason to know how hateful the oppressor is “ And spare the poet's ever-gentle kind : both to God and man: if, after all those warnings and “ A deed like this thy future fame would wrong, advertisements, thou dost not turn unto the Lord with “ For dear to gods and men is sacred song. all thy heart, but forget him who remembered thee in Self-taught I sing ; by heav'n, and heav'n alone, thy distress, and give up thyself to follow luft and va- “ The genuine feeds of poefy are fown; nity, surely great will be thy condemnation.”-He “ And (what the gods beftow) the lofty lay, travelled with the famous Mr William Penn through “ To gods alone, and godlike worth, we pay. the greatest part of England, Holland, and Germany, “ Save then the poet, and thyself reward ; and was every where received with the highest respect; “ 'Tis thine to merit, mine is to record.” for though both his conversation and behaviour were
ODYSSEY, viii.. suitable to his principles, yet there was such liveliness Cicero reports, that at Roman festivals, anciently, the and spirit in his discourse, and such serenity and cheer- virtues and exploits of their great men were sung. The fulness in his deportment, as rendered him extremely fame custom prevailed in Peru and Mexico, as we learn agreeable to all sorts of people. When he returned to from Garcilaffo and other authors. We have for our his native country, he spent the remainder of his life in authority Father Gobien, that even the inhabitants of ta quiet and retired manner. He died at his own house the Marian islands have bards, who are greatly admi. at Ury on the 3d of October 1690, in the 42d year red, because in their songs are celebrated the feats of
their ancestors. BARCOCHEBAS, or rather BARCOCHAB, a But in no part of the world did the profession of Jewish impostor, whose real name was Akiba ; but he bard appear with such luftre as in Gaul, in Britain, and I took that of Barcochab, which fignifies the Son of R in Ireland. Wherever the Celtæ or Gauls are men
of his age.
P. 306. .
Bard. tioned by ancient writers, we feldom fail to hear of them for their protection. At all festivals and public Bard.
their druids and their bards; the institution of which assemblies they were seated near the person of the king Plair's Dif-two orders, was the capital distinction of their manners or chieftain, and sometimes even above the greatest fertation,
and policy. The druids were their philosophers and nobility and chief officers of the court. Nor was the
subliited among them, as chief members of the flate, they occasionally received from their patrons when
manners, which appears to have had a deep and lafting port. Nay, so great was the veneration which ihe • Lib. xv. influence. Ammianus Marcellinus gives them this princes of these times entertained for the persons of 6.9. express testimony, that there flourished among them their poets, and so highly were they charmed and de
the study of the most laudable arts ; introduced by the lighted with their tuneful strains, that they sometimes
it is probable, were the disciples of the druids, un- prince, finging and playing in concert for his enterDe Bel. Gal.doubtedly made a part. It deserves remark, that, ac- tainment. Every chief bard, who was called Allah 1.6.
cording to his account the druidical institution first Redan, or doctor in poetry, was allowed to have 30
to the Roman government, yielded up their arms, and
to the sound of musical instruments. In the first stages
po. instances occur in Ollian's poems. On all important etry and music seem to have been always united; every
occafions, they were the ambassadors between contend. poet was a musician, and sung his own verses to the Ofian, ing chiefs; and their persons were held sacred. “Cair- found of some musical instrument. This, we are directly
bor feared to stretch his sword to the bards, though told by two writers of undoubted credit, was the case
voice shall be heard in other ages, when the kings of poems to the sound of an instrument not unlike a lyre.” fe&. 31. Henry's
Temora have failed.”—The bards, as well as the « The bards, (according to Ammianus Marcellinus to f Lib. xv.
druids, were exempted from taxes and military servi- as above hinted), celebrated the brave actions of illu-6.9. Vol. i.
ces, even in times of the greatest danger; and when itrious men in heroic poems, which they sung to the P. 365.
they attended their patrons in the field, to record and sweet sounds of the lyre.” This account of these
Lat. 53. 40:
Bard ral strain, and by many particular passages, of the heretics ; against whom, we are informed by St Je. Bardewick !!
of Olian. poems
“ Beneath his own tree, at inter- rome and Eufebius, tie wrote a multitude of books: yet Bardela
vals, each bard sat down with his harp. They raised had he the misfortụne to fall, himself, into the errors
the song, and touched the Itring, cach to the chief he of Valentinus, to which he added some others of his # Vol. II. loved I."
own. He taught, that the actions of men depend p. 112, 113. The invention of writing made a considerable change altogether on fate, and that God himself is subject to
in the bard-profession. It is now an agreed point, that necessity. His followers went further, and denied the
no poetry is fit to be accompanied with mufic, but resurrection of the body, and the incarnation and death Kuins's what is fimple : a complicated thought or description of our Saviour; holding that these were only apparent Sketcbes,
requires the utmost attention, and leaves none for the or phantastical
in its progress to maturity, is enriched with variety of feated on the river Ilmenau, in E. Long. 10. 6. N.
BAREITH, a town of Germany in Franconia, in
BARDARIOTÆ, in antiquity, were a kind of belonging to the margrave of Brandenburg Bareithe
time ; but at length returned to Amsterdam, where
BARGAIN AND SALE, a species of conveyance in
land of the bargainee ; and becomes by such bargain a BARDED, in heraldry, is used in spcaking of a trustee for, or seized to the use of, the bargainee ; and horse that is caparisoned. He bears fable, a cavalier then the statute of uses completes the purchase : or, as d'or, the horse barded, argent.
it hath been well expressed, the bargain first vests the BARDESANISTS, a feet of ancient heretics, use, and then the statute vests the possession. But as. thus denominated from their leader Bardefanes, a Sy- it was foreseen that conveyances, thus made, would rian of Edessa in Mefopotamia. Bardesanes, born in
Bardesanes, born in want all those benefits of notoriety which the old the middle of the second century, became eminent, af- common-law assurances were calculated to give; to preter his conversion to Christianity, for his zcal againīt vent therefore clandestine conveyances of freeholds, it
Barge was enacted in the same seffion of parliament by statute bour, but it was destroyed by the Venetians. E. Long.
27 Hen. VIII. c. 16. that such bargains and sales 17.40. N. Lat. 41.31. Bari.
hould not enure to pass a freehold, unless the same be Bari, or Terra di Bari, a territory of Italy in made by indenture, and enrolled within fix months in the kingdom of Naples, of which the abovementioned one of the courts of Westminster-hall, or with the custos city is the capital. It is bounded on the north by the rotulorum of the county. Clandestine bargains and Capitanata, on the north-west by the Ulterior Princifales of chattel intereits, or leases for years, were pato, on the south by the Bafilicata, on the south-east thought not worth regarding, as fuch interells were by the Terra de Otranto, and on the north-east by the very precarious till about fix years before ; which also gulph of Venice. It has no considerable river except occafioned them to be overlooked in framing the fta- the Offanto, which separates it from the Capitanata. tute of uses : and therefore such bargains and sales are The air is temperate ; and the soil produces plenty of not directed to be enrolled. But how impossible is it corn, fruit, and saffron: but there are a great many to foresee, and provide against, all the consequences of serpents, and spiders called tarantulas. See Aranea. innovations ! This omislion has given rise to the species The principal towns are Bari the capital, Frani, Anof conveyance by LEASE and RELEASE,
dria, Bavo, Bilonto, Conversano, Monopoli, PoligniaBARGE (hargie, Dutch), a vessel or boat of state, no, Barletta, and Malletto. The two first are archifurnished with elegant apartments, canopies, and cu. episcopal, and all the rest episcopal. Thions; equipped with a band of rowers, and decorated BARILLA, or BARILHA, ihe name of a plant cul. with fags and ftreamers: they are generally used for tivated in Spain for its ashes, from which the purest processions on the water, by noblemen, officers of state, kinds of mineral alkali are obtained. or magistrates of great cities. Of this sort, too, we There are four plants, which, in the early part of may naturally suppose the famous barge or galley of their growth, bear so strong a resemblance to each other Cleopatra, which, according to Shakespear,
as would deceive any but the farmers and nice obserLike a burnish'd throne
These four are, barilla, gazul (or, as some call Burnt on the water : the poop was beaten gold
it, algazul), foza, and salicornia or salicor. They are
all burnt to ashes; but applied to different uses, as Purple her fails; and so perfumed, that The winds were love-fick with them: the oars were silver, guish farmers mix more or less of the three laft with
being possessed of different qualities. Some of the roWhich to the tune of flutes kept time, and made
the first ; and it requires a complete knowledge of the The water which they beat to follow faster,
colour, taste, and smell of the ashes to be able to de. As amorous of their strokes
tect their knavery.
height above ground is four inches : each root pushes That yarely 'form'd their office.
out a vast number of little stalks, which again are sub
divided into smaller sprigs resembling samphire; and There are likewise other barges of a smaller kind, for all together form a large spreading tufted bush. The the use of admirals and captains of ships of war. These colour is bright green ; as the plant advances towards are of a lighter frame, and may be easily hoisted into maturity, this colour vanishes away till it comes at last and out of the ships to which they occasionally belong. to be a dull green tinged with brown.
Barge is also the name of a flat-bottomed veffel of Gazul bears the greatest affinity to barilla, both in burden, for lading and discharging ships, and removing quality and appearance : the principal difference contheir cargoes from place to place in a harbour. lists in its growing on a ftill drier salter earth, con
BARGE-Couples, in architecture, a beam mortifed in- fequently it is impregnated with a ttronger falt. It to another, to strengthen the building.
does not rise above two inches out of the ground, BARGE-Course, with bricklayers, a term used for spreading out into little tufts. Its sprigs are much that part of the tiling which projects over without the fatter and more pulpy than those of barilla, and are principal rafters, in all sorts of buildings where there still more like samphire. It is sown but once in three, is either a gable or a kirkin-head.
four, or five years, according to the nature of the soil. BARGAMASTER, BARMER, or Bar-MASTER, Soza, when of the fame fize, has the same appear. in the royal mines, the iteward or judge of the barmote. ance as gazul; but in time grows much larger, as its
The bar.master is to keep two great courts of bar- natural foil is a strong falt marsh, where it is to be mote yearly; and every week a small one, as occalion found in large tufts of sprigs, treble the size of barilla, requires.
and of a bright green colour, which it retains to the BARGHMOTE, or BARMOTE, a court which laft. takes cognizance of causes and disputes between mi- Salicor has a stalk of a deep green colour inclining ners.-By the custom of the mines, no person is to fue to red, which latt becomes by degrees the colour of any miner for ore-debt, or for ore, or for any ground the whole plant. From the beginning it grows upin variance, but only in the court of barmote, on pe- right, and much resembles a buih of young rosemary. nalty of forfeiting the debt, and paying the charges at Its natural foil is on the declivities of hills near the law.
fult marshes, or on the edges of the small drains or chanBARI, a very handsome and rich town of Italy, in nels cut by the husbandmen for the purpose of watering the kingdom of Naples; the capital of Terra di Bari, the fields : before it has acquired its full growth, it is and an archbishop's see. It is well fortified, is feated very like the barilla of those seasons in which the on the gulph of Venice, and had formerly a good har- ground has been dunged before lowing. In those