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you have taken to prevent bad people coming to trade among us.

If
any

come without your license, we will turn them back ; and we hope our nation will determine to spill all the rum that shall hereafter be brought to our towns.

Father, -We are glad to hear that you are determined to appoint an agent that will do us justice, in taking care that bad men do not come to trade among us; but we earnestly entreat you, that you will let us have an interpreter, in whom we can confide, to reside at Pittsburgh. To that place our people and other nations will long resort: there we must send what news we hear when we go among the western nations, which we are determined shall be next spring. We know Joseph Nicholson-he speaks our language so that we clearly understand what you say to us, and depend on what he says.

If we were able to pay him for his services, we would do it; but when we give him land for pay, it has not been confirmed to him, and he will not serve any longer unless you will pay him. Let him stand between us and you, we eatreat you.

Father,---You have not asked of us any surety for peace on our part; but we have agreed to send nine Seneca boys to be under your care for education ; tell us at what time you will receive them, and they shall be sent at that time,

This will assure you that we are indeed at peace with you, and determined to continue so. If you can teach them to be wise and good men, we will take care that our 12tion shall be willing to be instructed by them.

Signed in the presence of

Joseph NICHOLSON, Interpreter:
THOMAS PROCTOR,

TIMOTHY MATLACK.
Philadelphia, February 7, 1791.

The subscriber, the Secretary of War, has submitted your speech of yesterday to the President of the United States, who has commanded him to assure you of his good wishes for your happiness, and that you may have a pleasant journey to your own country.

The Governor of the Western Territory will appoint you an interpreter, whenever one shall be necessary

The President of the United States does not chose to interfere on this point.

The President of the United States thinks it will be the best mode of teaching you how to raise corn, by sending one or two sober men to reside in your nation, with proper implements of husbandry. It will therefore be proper that you should, upon consultation, appoint a proper place for such persons to till the ground : they are not to claim the lands on which they shall plough.

The President of the United States also thinks it will be the best mode of teaching your children to read and write, to send a schoolmaster among you, and 'not for you to send your children among us ; he will therefore look out for a proper person for this business.

As soon as you shall learn any thing of the intentions of the Western Indians, you will inform the Governor of the Western Territory thereof, or the officer commanding at Fort Washington, in order to be communicated to the President of the United States.

Given at the War Office of the United States,

the 8th of February, 1791. (Copy.)

Knox, Secretary of War,

130

TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES,

A Treaty between the United States of America, and

the Tribes of Indians called the Six Nations.

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The President of the United States having deteros mined to hold a conference with the Six Nations of Indians, for the purpose of removing from their minds all causes of complaint, and establishing a firm and permanent friendship with them; and Timothy Pickering being appointed sole agent for that purpose ; and the agent having met and conferred with the Sachems, Chiefs, and Warriors of the Six Nations, in a general Council : Now, in order to accomplish the good design of this conference, the parties have agreed on the following articles; which, when ratified by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, shall be binding on them and the Six Nations :

ARTICLE I. Peace and friendship are hereby firmly established, and shall be perpetual, between the United States and the Six Nations.

ARTICLE II. The United States acknowledge the lands reserved to the Oneida, Onondaga, and Cayuga Nations, in their respective treaties with the state of New York, and called their reservations, to be their property; and the United States will never claim the same, nor disturb them, or either of the Six Nations, nor their Indian friends residing thereon and united with them, in the free use and enjoyment thereof: but the said reservations shall remain theirs, until they choose to sell the same to the people of the United States who have the right to purchase. ,

ARTICLE III. The land of the Seneca Nation is bounded as follows: Beginning on Lake Ontario, at the north-west corner of the land they sold to Oliver Phelps, the line runs westerly along the lake, as far as 0-yong-wong-yeh Creek, at Johnson's Landing place, about four miles eastward from the Fort of Niagara; then southerly up that Creek to its main

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fork; then straight to the main fork of Stedman's Creek, which empties into the river Niagara above Fort Schlosser; and then onward, from that fork, continuing the same straight course, to that river; (This line, from the mouth of 0-yong-wong-yeh Creek to the river Niagara above Fort Schlosser, being the eastern boundary of a strip of land, extending from the same line to Niagara river, which the Seneca Nation ceded to the King of Great Britain, at a treaty held about thirty years ago, with Sir William Johnson ;) then the line runs along the river Niagara to Lake Erie; then along Lake Erie to the north-east corner of a triangular piece of land which the United States conveyed to the state of Pennsylvania, as by the President's patent, dated the third day of March, 1792; then due south to the northern boundary of that state ; then due east to the south-west corner of the land sold by the Seneca Nation to Oliver Phelps; and then north and northerly, along Phelphs' line to the place of beginning on Lake Ontario. Now, the United States acknowledge all the land within the afore-mentioned boundaries to be the property of the Seneca Nation, and the United States will never clain the same, nor disturb the Seneca Nation, nor any of the Six Nations, or of their Indian friends residing thereon and united with them, in the free use and enjoyment thereof; but it shall remain theirs until they choose to sell the same to the people of the United States, who have the right to purchase.

ARTICLE IV. The United States having thus described and acknowledged what lands belong to the Oneidas, 'Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, and engaged never to claim the same, nor to disturb them, or any of the Six Nations, or their Indian friends residing thereon and united with them, in the free use and enjoyment thereof: Now, the Six Nations and each of them hereby engage that they will never claim any other lands within the bounda

132

TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES,

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ries of the United States; nor ever disturb the people of the United States in the free use and enjoyment thereof.

ARTICLE V. The Seneca Nation, all others of the Six Nations concurring, cede to the United States the right of making a wagon road from Fort Schlosser to Lake Erie, as far south as Buffalo Creek; and the people of the United States shall have the free and undisturbed use of this road for the purposes of travelling and transportation. And the Six Nations and each of them will forever allow to the people of the United States a free passage through their lands, and the free use of the harbours and rivers adjoining and within their respective tracts of land, for the passing and securing of vessels and boats, and literty to land their cargoes where necessary for their safety.

ARTICLE VI. In consideration of the peace and friendsdip hereby established, and of the engagements entered into by the Six Nations; and because the United States desire, with humanity and kindness, to contribute to their comfortable support; and to render the peace and friendship hereby established strong and perpetual; the United States now deliver to the Six Nations and the Indians of the other nations residing among, and united with them, a quantity of goods of the value of ten thousand dollars.

And for the same considerations, and with a view to promote the future welfare of the Six Nations and of their Indian friends aforesaid, the United States will add the sum of three thousand dollars to the one thousand five hundred dollars heretofore allowed them by an article ratified by the President on the twenty-third day of April, 1792 ; making in the whole four thousand five hundred dollars; which shall be expended yearly for ever, in purchasing clothing, domestic animals, implements of husbandry, and other utensils suited to their circumstances, and in compensating useful artificers who shall reside

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