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sentence; in pronouncing those passages that are of little importance to the meaning, or those with which the auditor may be supposed to be preacquainted. As we perceive the shadow to have"
moved along the di"al, but did not perceive" it mo ving; and it appears that the grass has grown' though nobody ever saw” it grow': so the advances we make in knowl"edge, as they consist of such minute" steps', are on'ly perceiv"able by the dis'tance gone oliver.
TABLES OF INFLEXIONS. The acute accents (") denote the rising inflexion ; the grave accents ( ') the falling inflexion. (The accented words ir. these tables require a marked and distinctive pronunciation.)
169. The rising followed by the falling. The falling followed by the rising. Did he say ho'ly, or whol"ly? He said ho"ly, not wholly. Did he say i’dle, or i'dol ? He said i'dle, not idol. Did he say jes'ter, or ges"ture? He said jes'ter, not ges"ture. Did he say axe", or acts"? He said axe", not acts”. Did he say rel"ic, or rel"ict ? He said rel"ic, not rel'ict. Did he say fa"ther, or far ther? He said fa“ther, not far”ther. Did he say pull”, or pool" ? He said pull", not pool". 170. The inflexions followed by unaccented syllables, continuative of the
preceding inflexion. Did he say pres" 'ence of his friends, or pres"ents of his friends ? He said pres'en
'ence of his friends, not pres"ents of his friends. Did he say the flour" was destroyed, or the flow"
er was destroyed ? He said the flour" was destroyed, not the flow" er was destroyed.
Was he rat'ional, or ir“rational in his speech? He was rat'ional, not ir"rational in his speech.
Did he say the prin"ciple had no existence, or the prin“cipal had no existence ?
He said the prin“ciple had no existence, not the prin"cipal had no existence. Did he
the mare” was bought, or the may or was bought ? He said the mare" was bought, not the may”or was bought.
171. I.—The inflexion is marked on the accented syllable, and continued in any
that may follow, in a feebler tone. Continuative tone may therefore be considered as possessed of inflexion, but subdued and dependent on accentuation : and determinate inflexions may be left for the illustration of sense in its various proportions.-See Monotone for the difference between it and Continuative Tone.
II.- Unimportant words preceding the inflexion are read in the Continuative tone.
III. - The principal word before the rising inflexion may have a modulative fall; before the falling inflexion, a modulative rise.
IV.—The inflexions should be practised on all the musical intervals. Those most frequently employed are, the second, in ordinary discourse; the third, in animated speech; the fifth, in emphatic delivery; and (sometimes) the octave, in passion. The minor third in either rise or fall is peculiarly expressive of melancholy.
EXERCISES ON DETERMINATE INFLEXIONS. 172. RULE I.-Whenever the sense of a sentence, or clause of a sentence, is incomplete, dependent or suspended, a rising inflexion must be used.
As no man is alike unfit for ev"ery employment, so, there is not any man unfit for all.
Not an eminent orator has lived",t who is not an example of the power of industry.
Nothing will ever be attemp"ted, if all possible objections must first be overcome.
The Lord reign"eth, let the earth rejoice.
173. A series of members forming imperfect sense should be read with a progressively increasing rising inflexion. The determinate inflexion of the penultimate member may be superseded by a modulative falling inflexion, to prepare for the agreeable termination of the series.
To advise the ig'norant, relieve the needy, and comfort the afflic"ted, are duties that fall in our way every day of our lives.
The verdant lawn”, the shady grove", the variegated land"scape, the boundless o'cean, and the starry fir"mament, are contemplated with pleasure by every beholder.
174. In sentences composed of several clauses conveying imperfect sense, and independent of each other's meaning, although dependent in construction, the distinctness of each portion is frequently best preserved by a falling inflexion; provided that there is no climax, or regular rhetorical gradation, either in the thought or the expression.
It was before De"ity, embodied in a hu'man form,-walking among men", partaking of their infir"mities, leaning on their bo"soms, weeping over their graves", slumbering in the
• Any sentence may be made appellative by a predominant rising inflexion. All sentences, therefore, which convey appeal, should be read with the suspended inflexion.
+ The grammatical sense of the first part is modified by the second, and therefore requires the rising inflexion.
man"ger, bleeding on the cross",—that the prejudices of the syn"agogue, and the doubts of the acad"emy, and the pride of the por“tico, and the fasces of the lic"tor, and the swords of thirty le’gions, were humbled in the dust.
I conjure you,
To what I ask you. 175. When any word is introduced that causes an oblique or a referential meaning to be conveyed, such word must be pronounced with emphatic force, and with a circumflexed inflexion.-Sec. 167. If the oblique word is absolute in its signification, the falling circumflex should be employed ; if negative or relative, the rising.
When people are determined to quarrel, a straw will furnish the occasion.
The labour of years is often insufficient for a complete reformation.
A man of a polite imagination can converse with a picture, and find an agreeable companion in a statue.
And who but wishes to invert the laws
Of order, sins against the Eternal Cause. 176. RULE II. Whenever the sense of a sentence, or clause of a sentence, is complete or independent, a Falling Inflexion should be used.
The gradations of art are always labo'rious : no man can attain excellence at once.
Behold the emblem of thy state,
In flow''ers—which bloom and die'. It is of the utmost importance to season the passions of a child with devo'tion,* which seldom dies in a mind that has received an ear'ly tincture of it.
* When the relative pronoun limits its antecedent, a Rising Inflexion is required to note the incompletion of the rhetorical sentence; but, in all sentences where it merely echoes it (as in the above), it leaves the sense unchanged, and conforms to the rule.
If we hope for what we are not likely to possess, we act and thinkin vain"; and make life a greater dream and shadow than it really is'.
177. A series of members forming perfect sense should be read with a Falling Inflexion, progressively increasing in height and loudness of tone. A modulative Rising Inflexion may be introduced on the penultimate member.
Charity suffereth long, and is kind"; charity en"vieth not; charity vaunteth not itself", is not puffed up", doth not behave itself unseem'ly, seeketh not her own“, is not easily provoked“, think“eth no evil; rejoiceth not in iniq"uity, but rejoiceth in the truth"; bear'eth all things, believeth all things, hoʻpeth all things, endur“eth all things:
Virtue, the strength and beauty of the soul,
Man justly boasts' of, or can call his own'. 178. Frequently the members of a series admit of classification ; and then the idea of the separate distinctness of the parts may be best preserved by a Falling Inflexion at the termination of each group, except the last, which, in imperfect sense, requires a Rising Inflexion.
For I am persuaded that neither death’, nor life", an'gels, nor principal'ities, nor pow"ers,-nor things pres'ent, nor things to come",—nor height, nor depth'
, nor any other crea"ture,—shall be able to separate us from the love of God.
179. In Climax there is a regular rhetorical gradation of meaning, which must be pronounced with a correspondent increase or swell of the voice. The Inflexions are the same as in sentences of a similar grammatical construction. Consult
your whole nature: consider yourselves not only as sen" sitive, but as ra"tional beings; not only as ra'tional, but so' cial; not only as so" cial, but immortal.
He causes the ban"ner to be erec'ted, the charge" to be soun'ded, the soldiers at a distance recalled". He runs from place to place", his whole frame is in ac'tion; his words', his looks', his mo'tion, his ges"tures, exhort his men to remember their for''mer val'our. He draws them up, and causes the sig''nal to be given. Two of his legions are entirely surroun"ded: he seizes a buckler from one of his private men"; puts himself at the head of his broken troops"; darts into the thick of the bat'tle; rescues his lo'gions, and overthrows" the en'emy!
180. In Anti-Climax there is a gradual decrease of importance, which should be signified by a progressive and expressive decrease of voice.
What must the king do now? Must he submit?
A little, little grave-an obscure grave! 181. Sometimes a sentence that makes perfect sense is followed by another which has no direct dependence on it; yet, it may be desirable to form a connexion to the mind, which has no existence in grammatical structure. This conjunctive effect is best expressed by a Rising Inflexion.
No object is more pleasing to the eye, than the sight of a man whom you have obli" ged; nor any music so agreeable to the ear, as the voice of one that owns you for his benefactor.
To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
The way to dusky death! 182. RULE III.-Words in apposition take the same inflexions; but These may be disturbed either by a Modulative Inflexion on the penultimate member, or by emphasis.
Sol'omon—the son of Da"vid, and the builder of the temple at Jeru'salem-was the wisest man that the world ever saw.
Na"ture, the great precep"tress, has annexed to the passion of grief a more forcible character than that of any oʻther, that of tears'.
183. RULE IV.-Clauses or sentences that are negative, appealing, doubtful, or contingent, require a Rising Inflexion.
You are not left alone to climb the arduous ascent to heav"en: God is with you.