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greater respiratory chest-effort. In general, emphaticwords are distinguished by an increased degree of accent: thus, the words, ignoble, angel, temperance, have a syllabic accent, which coincides with the emphatic accent heard in the following lines :

Rising to the IGNOBLE call.

As if an ANGEL spoke.
Health consists with TEMPERANCE alone.

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129. It is impossible to assign invariably the position of the sentential accents, for it constantly changes with the sense; so that the proper application of these accents, being left wholly to the speaker, becomes, in some manner, the best test of the accuracy or comprehensiveness of his judgment. The general principle of sentential accents is, that qualifying words require a stronger accent than the words wbich they qualify. The grouping of the several oratorical words is denoted by hyphens.

He-reads-correctly. She-sings-sweetly. The-Christian'shope. The-poor-man's-pray'er. The-rights--of-the people. Religion without-bigotry. The-fear-of-God is-the-begin'ning of-wis• dom. Aviarice cov.ets-wealth“. To-pracostise-vir-tue is-the-sure-way to-love---it. A-true-friend: unboʻsoms-free-ly, advi'ses-just-ly, assists:-readily, adven:tures-boldly. His-en-ergies as-a-man“, his-affection as-afather, his-solic-itude as-a-king", his-zeal as-a-Christian, were-nev'er-e«qualled.

The-shud“dering-ten'ant of-the-frig id-zone
Bold-ly-proclaims-that-happy-spot his-own",
Extols--the-treasures of-his-stor-my-seas',

And-his-long---nights of-revelry and-ease". 130. Frequently, adjectives, adverbs, and other words which usually qualify, are merely expletive or additive, and then require only the secondary accent.

The-spa.cious-firmament on-high,
With-all-the-blue ethe-real-sky",
And-spang-led-heav«ens-a-shin ring-frame-

Their-great-Original proclaim".
131. The simile, or illustrative phrase takes the primary accent.
Be-thou' as-a-light to-direct-my-steps.

" ' Hope', the balm---of-life', soothes-misfo‘rtune. The-earth', like-a-ten'der-mother, nourishes-her-children.

132. Sameness of expression requires to be concealed and relieved by variety of accent. “Come-back• ! comec-back.!” he-cried-in-grief.

None: but-the-brave.•

None but-the-brave:
None but-the-brave", deserves-the-fair.

It is past

133. Words, which in ordinary use are unaccented, may be made suggestive of antithesis, or emphatic, * by being accented.

My": book is torn. Did you" not speak to it? six o'clock. I• will not say so. It is not your" business.

134. Syllabic stress (i. e., verbal accent) is sufficient to denote antithesis, when the word is, in its natural expression, unaccented; as on the table (not under it).

135. All emphatic* words are best expressed by the primary accent. All-partial-e"vil's universal-good. They-that-sow

'" ' in-tears", shall-reap" in-joy“. Rend'-your-heart", and-notyour-garments. If-to-do". as-to-know whatwere-good--to-do, chap'els had-been-churches, and-poor':men's-coto-tages prin ces'-palaces. Who'steals--my-purse", steals--trash.

Unblemished, leto-me-live"; or-die“,-unknown !

Oh, granto-me hon“est-fame', or grant-me none“. 136. Antithesis may be suggested by the primary accent.

I fight not for: Cæsar. We can do nothing against the truth. No man can form a just estimate of his own“ powers Strength and majesty belong to man". He is

He is one of Na·ture's noblemen. The awful now.. asks us but once to embrace it.

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137. In a very important clause, the primary accent may be laid on each of the principal words (staccato).

Heaven' and earth.. will.· wit eness,

If.. Romemust. fall.., that we are in'no'cent'. 138. Words that are absolute in their signification should be distinguished by the primary accent and a long pause.

Guilt.. is the source of sorrow. He who has not vir 'tue is not truly wise. New•ton was a Christian. Good-name", in man or woman, is the immediate jewel of our souls. Necessity is a principal virtue. Oh, be joyful in the Lord, all ye

lands. Let us beseech Him to grant us“ true repent


139. The higher the pitch of accented words, the greater is the degrec of earnestness expressed.

• To make an accented syllable emphatic, a greater degree of respiratory effort from the chest should be given on its utterance. The syllabic accent has, for its principal machine, the pharynx. But emphatic syllables may be distinguished by many other modes.--Vide EMPHASIS,


INFLEXION. 140. Inflexions are tones of speech proceeding by slides from one note to another: they are distinguished from tones of song, which leap from note to note, and dwell on each for some perceptible time. Melody in song arises from sound, and is regulated by it; in speech, it should be regulated principally by sense.

141. All notes of speech are either Continuative (Monotone), Acute, or Grave, or a combination of these qualities. When the tone is unvaried, it is called Continuative, or Monotone

-); when it slides upward, it is called a Rising Inflexion ('); when downward, a Falling Inflexion (").

142. The Rising Inflexion denotes, primarily, suspension, doubt, uncertainty, or incompletion of sense; the Falling Inflexion, conviction, or completion of sense.

143. In the intelligible expression of words, it is found that certain degrees of sense are best expressed by proportionate degrees of inflexion. To attain variety in practice, each class may be considered to consist of two degrees; but many more are observable in a well-disciplined voice.

144. The First Degree of the Rising Inflexion (') is a slight upward turn given to the voice on the accented syllable of the oratorical word. It does not exceed a third of the musical scale; but most frequently is confined to one, seldom extending to two notes. It begins on the middle of the voice, and thence slides upwards as with a curve, thus :

145. The Second Degree of the Rising Inflexion (") is a still higher note, varying from a third to a fifth of the musical scale. It is heard in emphatic speech, and in all cases where the first degree must be followed by an increase of the same inflexion. It naturally denotes the tone peculiar to surprise, love, admiration, &c. When raised only to the musical degree of a minor tbird, it is expressive of pain, grief, melancholy, &c. It begins below tbe middle of the voice.

146. The First Degree of the Falling Inflexion (') is a very slight downward turn given to the voice, denoting conclusion or completion in unenphatic speech. It begins on the middle of the voice, and thence slides downwards with a curve thus :

147. The Second Degree of the Falling Inflexion (") has a greater effect than the first degree in emphatic speech. When used on a sentence which grammatically conveys imperfect sense, it avoids the suspensive meaning by noting conviction. In incomplete sense, it is used to mark emphasis, &c. It begins above the middle of the voice.

148. It must be observed that Falling Inflexions do not sink below the level of the voice, but are always struck on it or above it.

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149. When the Rising and Falling Inflexions are united, a Circumflex is formed. There are primarily two Circumflexes—the Rising and the Falling.

150. The Rising Circumflex (v) begins with the Falling and ends with the Rising Inflexion; it seems to slur these notes, and to turn the voice upwards. On the low tones of the voice, it gives peculiar expression to words, and, when slightly prolonged, is suggestive of irony; on the higher notes it marks extreme surprise, admiration, &c. Sometimes, in intense irony, the Rising Circumflex combines three distinct notes, thus ("').

151. The Falling Circumflex (“) begins with the Rising, and ends with the Falling Inflexion, and turns the voice downwards. It gives peculiar emphasis to words; and, when prolonged, is expressive of contemptuous irony, derision, or reproach.

152. The Circumflexes increase the pitch and power of ordinary Inflexions, and may be considered as their emphatic forms. Their employment, dependent wholly on energy and expression, must be left to the taste of the reader.

153. Greater degrees of Inflexions and Circumflexes may be marked by one or two dots below the word; as Indeed". Indeed”.. Indeed". Indeed"..

154. Falling Inflexions give power and emphasis to words ; Rising Inflexions give beauty and variety. Rising Inflexions may also be emphatic, but their effect is not so great as that of Falling Inflexions.

155. Emphasis and Emotion overbear all minor inflexions; so that an earnest and impassioned speaker will not give the same accentuation to a passage as one who is correct but lifeless.

156. The popular direction, to “drop the voice at the end of a sentence," is not only contrary to sense, but destructive of effect. The last words are always as important as the first, and they should be, at least, as audible. The injudicious reader makes his falling inflexion consist of a sudden dropping of the voice below its general level; but propriety and audibility require that the downward slide should be made from a higher and louder key to the level of the general key.

157. The unskilful reader allows the voice to fall, not on the key, but below it; as in the following sentence :

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blame in his business?

But the reader who aims at audibility, slightly raises his tone above the key, and then slides downward on it: thus


BLAME in his business?

Middle) Does hc deserve

PRAISE in his business,

158. The primarily accented syllable should commence the inflexion, which should be continued on all the syllables that compose the oratorical word; for, words or syllables belonging to the same group and following the primary accent, are enclitic in their nature, and should be continued on the same inflexion, but in a feebler degree.

159. All accented syllables are slightly raised above the level of unaccented syllables :

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160. Emphasis, in general, requires a bigber key, e.g.:


world, I tell

you though you, though all the though an angel from should declare the truth of it, I would not believe it. -See also 148.

161. A great degree of earnestness may be given to accented and emphatic words by heightening their pitch; such elevation may be marked by dots, in addition to the notes of inflexion.

162. There should be a marked distinction between the Falling Inflexion in the middle and at the close of a sentence. The former is made on a higher note (commencing above the general level), with increased force and intensity.

163. Although, in animated speech, every oratorical word has its distinctive inflexion, only that one which is principal will be marked: and then only if it is required to illustrate the particular rule. As a general principle, it may be stated, that words not inflected are to be read in the Continuative Tone.

164. Inflexions are of two kinds, DETERMINATE and MODULATIVE. The Determinate Inflexions are those which, depending on the construction of the sentence, are regulated by the sense to be conveyed. The Modulative Inflexions are not determined by sense so much as by taste; they are used to prepare for those which are Determinate, and to introduce melody and variety.

165. All sentences may convey meaning in two ways—either in a Direct, or in an Oblique form.

166. In the DIRECT form, the words have no further signification than what they grammatically express.

This form occurs in every sentence which conveys a simple statement without reference to any other statement, either expressed or understood. In this form the ordinary determinate inflexions are sufficent.

167. In the OBLIQUE form, the words have a further signification than the mere grammatical meaning conveys; a signification which may relate either to an opposite meaning, or to a greater degree of the same meaning. All oblique sentences are most effectively read with an emphatic circumflexed inflexion.

CONTINUATIVE TONE. 168. The Continuative Tone is formed by avoiding any marked inflexion. It is used in the unemphatic pronunciation of the minor words in a

• Although it is impossible to utter any series of words without inflexion, yet it is thought best to mark the groups of Continuative Tone with no inflexion; because the natural variety of accent, and its necessary inflexion, will generally be sufficient.

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