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fis cate, con sistory, consum mate, con trary, contrite', contem-plate, corollary, courrier, deco-tous, dep"reca-tory, decre-tal, derivative, des-ultory, desuetude, diabetes, diachylon, diær esis, dim issory, dis putable, indisputable, dyn'asty, dys.entery, eg otism, elegi-ac, enervate, eq'uable, ep'icurean, erra-tum, evanes--cent, extirpate, fa.bric, fanatic, fari'na, finance', fune real, fusil-, glacier (glas), gondola, guarvo (ga), heg ira (ge), hereditary, heterogeneous, hori zon, hyʻmene al, im becile“ (seel.), im-pious, indeco rous, impreca-tory, indisputable, indis-soluble, in imi cal, inter calar, in terference, interstice, intricate, in valid(leed, s.), invalid (adj.), ir reme-diable, Lascar, laboratory, lam entable, legu'men, machinist (chi = shee), Mahom et, martinet", medicament, medicinal, mes'entery, metonym'y, mis cellany, misschievous, mountainous, national (nash), no'menela-ture, o asis, ob-durate, omega, orchestra, omnipotent, om•nipresence, oppo-nent, orison, pasha (sharo), pan-acea, panegyric, pan-egyritze, paro quet", per emptory, phrenetic, phreni-tis, pleth-ora, plethoric, prolix, quanda-ry, ratan, receptacle, recitative", (teer), receptory, recondite, repertory, refragable, revenue, saliva, sati'ety, seques ter, sequestrate, sono'rous, stalactite, stalagmite, subaltern, subjected successor, synecdoche, the atre, trou:badour", utensil, vertigo (tee).
TRANSPOSITION OF AOCENT. 109. When words that have a partial sameness of formation occur antithetically in a sentence, the aceent is removed from its customary seat, and placed on that syllable in which the words differ, as in the sentence,
Their thoughts ac cusing or else er cusing one another.” A similar change takes place in such words as the following, when in opposition (the second being always more heavily accented than the first): –
EXERCISES. Giving-forgiving ; plausibility--probability; confuserefuse done undone ; justice-injustice ; mortal—immortal ; simulation dissimulation; visible-invisible; increase -decrease; proportion–disproportion; religion-irreligion; untaught-ill-taught.
FALSE ACCENTS IN POETRY. 110. Poetry very frequently allows a transposition of accent: the change is generally made from the first to the second syllable, and is then considered aliowable ; but no change is permitted from the second to the first. The metrical accent should never supersede the ordinary accent which custom assigns to the word in prose, as in the following lines :
“False eloqu'ence like the prisma.tic glass,
And tri'umphs i'n her liberty."
PRONUNCIATION. 112. Pronunciation is the correct appropriation of the particular sounds, articulations, and accents, which polite usage and analogy have assigned to words.
The exercises under the various Vowels and Articulations contain many words liable to be mispronounced; but, in a department so extensive, it is impossible to give any general summary. The mode of utterance so varies in particular localities and in different ranks, that custom or fashion can be rarely depended on. The study of the subject under a competent instructor, aided by reference to the standard orthoepical dictionaries of the language and the practice of the best speakers, can alone supply the deficiency.
REPETITION OF SOUNDS AND JUNCTION OF WORDS.
113. Sounds and articulations of a similar formation should not be allowed to coalesce. Distinctness requires that each sound shall be completed before another is begun; and, at the same time, that the end of the one and the commencement of the other shall be made so quickly, that, while their separation is distinctly effected, continuity may not be broken by any pause. How is a pause to be avoided ? Simply by a very slight downward action of the lower jaw, which, separating the parts that produced the articulation, will leave them at perfect liberty for the utterance of the same or a similar sound.
Wild delight-call lustily—and drink cream-this summer -his shout-begin nobly-less seal-weep bitterly-speedy yachts-mercy's sake—The Ethiopian changing his (kin) and the leopard his (ports) —zealous citizens searching. All night an ice drop) there.
The torments of (a'never) meddling memory. I intend to (shoot) myself soon.
fall every night. Whose (beard) descending. Sad (angler:
His (crime) moved me. He will (praxe) to anybody. He could (pain) nobody. Look on this boot.:) The dispute was about a certez.) Art thou afeard to be the same in Thingnown) act and valour?
RHETORICAL PUNCTUATION-ORATORIOAL WORDS. 114. Punctuation is the art of dividing a written composition into sentences or parts of sentences, by points or stops, for the purpose of marking, to the eye, the different pauses which sense and grammatical construction require.* RHETORICAL PUNCTUATION subdivides for the judgment and for the ear; considering pauses only as adjuncts to distinct and expressive delivery, and as means by which an auditor may understand without confusion and without fatigue.
115. This system lays down a series of rules which do not affect the duration of pauses, but which point out those places in a composition where audibility and intelligence require them. The duration of pauses cannot be fixed by any rule; because the style of an author, his subject, and the particular expression which it requires ; as well as the purport of the speaker, his acquired habits of utterance, the varying shades of passion or of emotion that he would portray-all materially contribute to vary the frequency and time of rhetorical punctuation.
116. The following musical pauses may be introduced as guides to the student during his initiatory exercises :
The Semibreve, or longest pause, marked thus :
The Quaver, or shortest pause, A semibreve pause is in time equal to two minims, four crotchets, or eight quavers. "A minim pause is in time equal to half a semibreve, or to two crotchets, or four quavers. A crotchet pause is in time equal to the fourth of a semibreve, to the half of a minim, or to two quavers. Å quaver pause is in time equal to the eighth of a semibreve, the fourth of a minim, or the half of a crotchet.t
117. The shortest pause (7) is necessarily introduced at the end of every oratorical word; the middle pause () at the end of any distinct part of a proposition; the long pause (-) at the termination of a proposition; and the longest pause (1) at the termination of an important division of a dis
The rhetorical sense, not the grammatical expression, determines the relative situation and length of each pause.
RULES FOR RHETORICAL PAUSES.
118. Pause and replenish the lungs with breathAfter the nominative, when it is new or when it consists of several words.
or of one important word. A pause after a pronoun in the nomi
native case is only admissible when it is emphatic. Before and after all parenthetic, explanatory, and intermediate
* The necessity of sensible punctuation may be illustrated by the following lines :I saw a peacock with a fiery tail
I saw a phial-glass sixteen yards deep I saw a blazing star that dropp'd down hail I saw a well full of men's tears to weep I saw a cloud begirt with ivy round
I saw men's eyes all on a flame of fire I saw a sturdy oak creep on the ground I saw a house high as the moon or higher I saw a daisy swallow up a whale
I saw the radiant sun at deep midnight I saw the brackish sea brimful of ale I saw the man who saw this dreadful sight.
+ In verse or in rhythmical prose all pauses are as significant as sound in formning harmony. (See Time of Poetry.)
After words in apposition or in opposition.
important words, clauses, or sentences.
that are governed by a verb; between all adjectives (except the last) which qualify a noun; and all adverbs (except the last) which
qualify either verbs, adjectives, or adverbs.
EXAMPLES OF RHETORICAL PAUSES.
119. SHORT PAUSE, QUAVER REST, 9
Riches, pleasure, and health, are evils to those who know not how to use them.
Let but one brave great active disinterested many arises and he will be received followed, and venerated.
A people, once enslaved r may groanyagesa in bondage.
Add to your faithy virtue and to virtue, knowledge r and to knowledge temperance and to temperance, patience.
120. MIDDLE PAUSE, CROTCHET REST,
This pause is chiefly employed
To divide the principal parts of a sentence:My heart, was wounded, with the arrow of affliction and my eyes,
became dimy with sorrow. Many that is born of a woman, hath but a short time to live and is full of misery.
Before and after all parenthetic clauses :Beauty like a flower soon fades away.
Genius r the pride of many as man is of the creation - has been possessed but by few.
In connecting sentences closely allied in sense:Logicians, may reason about abstractions but the great mass of mankindy cannot feel an interest in them 2 They must have images.
In his own view Napoleon, stood apart from other men He was not to be measured by the standard of humanity He was not to be subjected to laws or obligations, which all others were expected to obey Nature and the human willg were to bend to his
121. LONG PAUSE, MINIM REST, This
pause is used at the close of every proposition that conveys complete sense.
122. LONGEST PAUSE, SEMIBREVE REST, This pause should be employed at the close of every division of a discourse ; before a new train of ideas, or a course of argument; at a return from a digression, or from excited declamation to calm statement and logical discussion.
123. Perhaps the readiest mode of acquiring a correct idea of rhetorical punctuation is, to consider every cluster of words so connected as to admit of no separation, and containing a distinct primary or modifying idea, only as one Oratorical Word. These Oratorical Words must be separated from each other by pauses of greater or less duration.
124. The following may serve as a specimen : analogous groupings may be formed on every page :
Reason guides-a-man to-an-entire-conviction of-the-historical-proofs of-the-Christian-religion ; after-which it delivers and-abandons-him to-another-light which though-not-contrary-to-it is-entirely different and infinitely-superior.
EMPHATICAL PAUSE. 125. A sudden pause, introduced where the grammatical sense does not require it, is frequently a very effective mode of giving expression to emotion :
Oh, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth,
ACCENTUATION OF ORATORICAL WORDS. 126. As an oratorical word may consist of a far greater number of syllables than a grammatical word, it becomes necessary to introduce new degrees of stress, that the relative value of the various groups may be effectively presented to the ear and to the mind. The principal part of the oratorical word must be distinguished in the same manner as the accented syllable of the grammatical word, but with greater organic force.
127. Stress, applied to the accent of grammatical words, is called Syllabic; applied to oratorical words, being determined by meaning, it may be called Sentential.
128. The sentential accent of oratorical words always coincides (unless in certain cases of emphasis) with the syllabic accent, but it is uttered with