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Shade, shall, shine, shawl, gash, rash, censure, sash, Asia, Persia, mansion, pension, accession, nation, anxious, obnocious, crucifi.cion, ocean, Decii, chaise, chagrin, luxury, chivalry, association, pronunciation (but by modern speakers as if a880-8e-ation and pronun-se-ation). Tsh. March, inch, French, chair, each, vouch, match, wretch, truncheon, chamber, charity.
74. Zh is the voice-consonant of the above formation. It is commenced by the initial part of a vowel sound, continued into the pharynx, before it finds egress through the mouth.
Pleasure, leisure, occasion, persuasion, vision, confusion, razure, fusion, explosion. Dzħ. Judge, jury, joy, perjure, giant, gibe, oblige, pledge, gelid, age, doge.
75. W is a rapid and forcible lip formation of the vowel-sound oo, as in 00-ine, oo-ater, for wine, water.
War, waft, wall, wonder, one, once, swan, swagger, sweet, twig, twine, dwarf, dwell, buoy, buoyance, quotation, quality, choir, thwart, wormwood, suite, weather, cuirass, cuirassier.
76. Y is a rapid and forcible tongue formation of the vowel-sound ee, 28 el-es (yes), ee-onder (yonder).
Year, young, yawn, yield, you, use, huge, utility, bugle, beauty, human, duty, constitution, duke, tune, yield, humour, Tuesday, feodal, youth, spaniel, million, studious.
GUTTURALS. 77. K is a breath-consonant, formed by pressing the back part of the tongne on the soft palate.
The breath is afterwards abruptly propelled into the mouth by the sudden cessation of contact.
Car, coil, seek, ache, vaccine, flaccid, vaccinate, chameleon, chasm, echo, choler, choir, chord, chorus, anarchy, distich, hemistich, Pentateuch, archives, coquette, etiquette, masquerade.
78. G (hard) is the voice-consonant, of the preceding formation. It superadds a vowel-sound, directed into the pharynx; whence the breath is exploded through the mouth.
Gate, game, bag, gag, bigot, plague, vague, ghost, guerdon, guinea, guarantee, guilt, prologue, epilogue, gew-gaw.
79. Ng is a voice-consonant, formed by a vowel-sound directed through the pharynx into the nasal passages ; while the velum and tongue gently come in contact, to prevent the passage through the mouth.
King, fang, ring, flinging, ringiny, singing, singer, hanger, length, strength, sting. Ng-g. Anger, anguish, strangle, finger, distinguish, extinguish, congregate, congress, England. Ng-k. Banquet, bank, blank, thank, shrunk, wink.
80. H is not a sound, but merely a propulsion of the breath, before any vowel. The formation of this letter may be easily attained by desiring the pupil to cough out gently either of the vowel-sounds.
Hate, haunt, hall, high, whole, hair, huge, cohort, hot-house, hartshorn, harmony, vehement, human, behemoth. WH=H00. Whale, where, when, what, why, whether, whither, whig, whirlwind. The followiny words, exclusive of derivations from them, are the only words in which initial h is silent :-Heir, honest, honour, hostler, hour, humour, and, by many speakers, humble.
DOUBLE ARTICULATIONS. 81. In producing double consonant articulations, the most rapid exercise of the organs should be employed; the breath-consonants should be audibly distinguished from the voice-consonants. Care should be taken to prevent any vowel-sound being introduced, as tur-ue for true, sul-ight for slight, far-um for farm, &c.
82. W. Wh, whale, what, when, while, where, whirl, whist, which, whether, whirlwind. Sw, swan, sweet, swagger, swell, swoon. Thw, thwack, thwart. Tw, twin, twig, twain, twelve, twine, twist. Du, dwell, dwarf, dwindle. Sw, sway, swell, sweet, persuade, assuage, dissuade. Bu, buoy, buoyance. Kw, quill, queer, quantity, quality, question, quote, quotation, choir, querulous. Gw, language, languid, languish.
83. Ng. Ngg, anger, angler, anguish, finger, banquet, linger, distinguish. Ngk, bank, blank, sank, thank, ink, drink, shrunk, thankful, anxious. Ngks, banks, blanks, thanks, minx.
84. P. Sp, span, spear, speech, asp, grasp, lisp, spine. LP, help, scalp, gulp. Mp, lamp, stamp, damp, limp. Rp. harp, sharp, chirp, carp. 85. B. Lb, alb, bulb. Rb, verb, herb, superb, disturb.
. 86. F. If, shelf, delf, gulf, wolf. Rf, scarf, wharf, turf, dwarf.
87. V. Lv, twelve, delve, solve, revolve. Rv, nerve, de
88. M. Lm, elm, realm, whelm, film. Rm, arm, farm, harm, storm, form, term. Thm, rhythm, logarithm, algorithm. Zm, spasm, chasm, cataplasm, mechanism, paroxysm, Anglicism. Gallicism.
89. T. Kt, racked, blocked, hacked, knocked. Pt, stopped, slept, wept, heaped. St, stay, steer, store, must, rust, unjust. Sht, lashed, washed, hushed. Ft, tuft, laughed, waft. Lt, felt, melt, dealt. Mt, tempt, exempt. Nt, sent, went, meant, wout, hunt. Rn, hurt, start, depart. Rst, burst, first, reversed. Låt, call'st, fill'st, roll'st. Mst, arm'st, charm'st, form’st. Nst, canst, runn'st, against. Dst, midst, call’dst, roll'dst. Rdst, heard'st, guard'st, reward'st. Mast, arm’dst, form’dst, charm’dst. Ndst, learn'dst, scorn’dst, burn'dst. Ngst, hang’st, sing’st, wrong'st. Ngdst, wrong’dst, throng'dst.
90. D. Ngd, twanged, harangued, wronged. Zd, buzzed, whizzed, pleased, praised, exercised. Dzhd, raged, obliged, edged, lodged, divulged. Vd, halved, calved, delved. Tud, bathed, clothed, smoothed. Ld, bald, beheld, appealed, schooled. Bld, troubled, disabled, enabled, fabled. Kld, wrinkled, chronicled, sparkled. sid, muscled, tussled, jostled. Did, handled, fondled, dwindled. Fid, baffled, trifled, ruffled. Gid, juggled, struggled, waggled. Pld, grappled, peopled, tripled. Tld, titled, nettled, bottled. zid, dazzled, drizzled, muzzled. Md, condemned, esteemed, formed, calmed. Nd, command, planned, impugned. Fnd, roughened, toughened. Pnd, happened, deepened, shapened. Dnd, saddened, maddened, burdened. Knd, likened, quickened, blackened. Snd, hastened, fastened, christened. Ind. heightened, brightened, fattened. Znd, cozened, bedizened. Rd, board, reward, guard, bewildered, heard. Bd, stabbed, curbed, daubed. Gd, bagged, twigged, plagued.
91. S. Fs, strifes, staffs, coughs. Ths, laths, deaths, months. Ps, dupes, stupes, tops. K8, quakes, shakes, flakes, exile, dexterous. Ts, lutes, brutes, imputes, suits, refutes. Sts, posts, mists, lists, divests, persists. Ls, false, else, pulse. Ne, once, trance, chance, sense. Rs, hearse coarse, verse, worse, force, scarce, tierce.
92. Z. Bx, webs, ribs, babes, glebes. Dą, beds, toads, fades, strides. Gs, whigs, rogues, dialogues, exist, exert, exhibit, exulting. Lx, swells, vessels, dwells.
Mz, seems, hymns, limbs, drachms. Nx, dens, means, fens, impugns. Rz, roars, boars, peers, shares. Ng%, rings, wings, fangs, anxiety. The, baths, paths, oaths, mouths.
93. Th. Ngth, length, strength, lengthen, strengthen. Sth, sixth. Fth, fifth, twelfth. Lth, stealth, wealth, filth. Mth, warmth. Nth, month. Rth, birth, mirth, north, earth. Dth, width, breadth, hundredth.
94. Sh. Nsh, branch, wrench, pinch, haunch. Tsh, beech, vouch, church, porch, attach, witch, filch, belch, milch, inch, French.
95. Zh. Dzh, gesture, jailor, soldier.
21, muzzle, drizzle, weasel. FI, flight, flow, baffle, muffle. PL, please, pleasure, apple, grapple. BI, blame, blight, agreeable, bubble. Ki, claim, clear, oracle, treacle. Gl, glade, glove, gloze, eagle, juggle. Di, saddle, middle, twaddle. VI, devil. Ti, victual. Ri, marl, hurl, whirl, world.
97. N. Sn, snatch, sneer, mason, vixen, hasten, fasten. Zn, dozen, cousin, reason, season, poison, crimson. Rn, barn, fern, born, turn, iron, apron. In, brighten, tighten, whiten. . Dn, deaden, leaden, madden, golden, garden. Fn, roughen, toughen. Kn, blacken, vaken, sicken, broken, bacon. In,
Ln fallen, swollen, stolen. Pn, shapen, ripen, cheapen, weapon. Vn, heaven, seven. Tun, heathen. Thn, lengthen, strengthen.
98. R.* Shr, shrine, shrift, shred. Fr, fright, frail, fry, free, France. Thr, throne, throw, threw. Pr, pride, prance, prawn, prayer. Br, bride, brown, brace, brave. Kr, cry, create, crave, crest, crawl.
Gr, grow, grave, grass, green, grew. Tr, try, tray, trance. Dr, dram, dress, drink, droll. Spr, spray, spring, sprightly. Str, stray, strife, stream, strength.
99. K. Ngk, bank, thank, slink, wink, drink, link. scare, scan, school, scale, scope, scutcheon, sceptic. Lk, elk, silk, wilk, milk, bulk. Rk, dark, park, mark, clerk.
100. G. Rg, burgh (often pronounced burrow).
UNACCENTED SYLLABLES. 101. The unaccented syllables of words are very liable to be either omitted, slurred, or corrupted. The pages of a dictionary present the best practice. The following words may point out error; each syllable should be distinctly pronounced.
Particular, eminence, fatal, violet, diamond, singular, regular, oratory, opinion, terrible, honourable, rebel, prudent, prudence, sobriety, mischievous, horrible, elegant, perpendicular, jocular, conspiracy, remarkable, piety, satiety, angular, history, geography, advocate, absolute, obsolete, domestic, tremendous, &c.
ACCENT. 102. Accent is that impulse of voice, or of articulation, which gives phonic prominence to certain syllables or words. Accent is of two kinds, SYLLABIC and SENTENTIAL. Syllabic accents belong only to single words ; sentential accents are employed in oratorical words, and are considered under that division.
The r should, in these exercises, be pronounced distinctly, but free from any syllabic prominence; not shur-ine, fur-ight, thur-one, pur-ide, &c.
103. Accent and emphasis are frequently considered synonymous, but their organic action is different. Emphasis depends on forcible expiration from the chest; accent is regulated by the sonorous and explosive power of the pharynx.
104. Without accent, speech would be merely a succession of syllables delivered in equal time. Every word of more than one syllable is distinguished by the forcible (heavy) utterance of one, and the light utterance of the other; thus: fa••ther, de-mand”. In some words of three syllables, and in most words of four or more, especially when the accent is taken from its usual seat, or when the word is too long to be easily or agreeably uttered with a single accent, a secondary accent is introduced, thus: compre-hend“, acó-ci-den"-tal, deco-la-rau-tion. As a general rule, liable to a few exceptions, every THIRD syllable requires an accent, and every fifth at least a primary accent.
105. All words of four syllables, accented on the first, are duplicates of dissyllabic words, and require a secondary accent on the third, thus : har. moni zing, necessarily, &c. Words of five or more syllables require the introduction of two or more secondary accents, thus : tran'substan-tia.ition, in divi-sibil·ity, incom.prehen•sibility.
106. Both the primary and secondary accents are fixed by custom ; but in many trisyllabic and polysyllabic words the secondary accent may be either omitted or retained at pleasure.
107. The general rules (liable to numerous exceptions) with regard to the position of the accent are :-Dissyllabic nouns and adjectives are accented on the first syllable ; verbs, adverbs, and prepositions on the latter: the accented syllable generally precedes all common terminations, such as ness, less, ly, ful, tion, ing, sion, &c.; and all trisyllabic and polysyllabic words have the accent removed as far back as possible--that is, on the antepenultimate.
108. The following words are inserted as exercises in accentuation; they in general consist of such as are either difficult or indeterminate. In a matter of taste and agreement, influenced by fashion, it is not pretended that the accents can be always logically or analogically placed. In all difficult or doubtful words, the opinion of the best orthoepists, and the practice of the best speakers, have been followed.
WORDS LIABLE TO MAL-ACCENTUATION. When there are two accented syllables in a word, the primary is marked by a double dot.
Abdica tive, abdomen, accep'table, accli vous, acu'men, ad amante-an, ad•mirable, adju-tor, co-adju·tor, adó-vertise, ad verti'ser, advertisement, anchoʻvy, antipodes, adula:tory, aeromancy, aer'onaut, a-lienable, ap'othe·osis, aro'ma, aspi'rant, asy·lum, asyn deton, balcony, bandan'a, battalion, blas'phemous, bow.line, brevet (s. and v.) brev'et (adj.), brevier', cesu'ra, cali'bre (lee), camelopard, caloric, capuchin“ (sheen), carbine', celibacy, centrif-ugal, centripetal, commendable, committee, comparable, incomparable, condo·lence, chas'tisement, chlo‘rine, clandes tine, cochineal', com-plaisant", com plaisance", compen'sate, con fessor, con