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42. u as in just, must, trust, brother, dumb, among, dove, dost, does, sermon, acre, theatre, precious, chough, fulsome, combat, cover, hover, colour, journey.
43. © as in home, dome, glory, vocal, more, gore, only, both, loaf, explode, historian, poet, folk, foe, dough, glow, soldier, yeoman,
bureau. 44. oo as in prove, lose, druid, ruin, brew, true, canoe, group, through, route, rue, bruise, tomb, ooze, behove, gamboge, půll, búll, would, could, půlpit, bůtcher, củshion, woman.
EXERCISES ON DIPHTHONGS. 45. a-e as in sail, bail, gain, hail, pain, rail, wait, waive, campaign, obey, survey, vein, veil, deign, stray.
46. u-e approaching to a-e, as in smile, mild, child, fly, height, climb, pint, signify, eye, Bible, time, type, isle, viscount, defy, crier, die, buy, oblige, satiety. 47. 6-00 =
yoo as in tube, tune, duty, curate, cubic, confusion, dupe, duke, lure, education, music, feud, Tuesday, pursuit, lute, lucid.
48. a-00 as in pound, loud, proud, brown, vou, endow, down, noun, town, doubt, devout, plough, slough, trout, ground, shout, vowel, dowry, astound, renown.
49. o-e as in boil, toil, joy, toy, spoil, voice, ointment, decoy, destroy, noise, poise, broil, appoint, avoid, alloy, aroynt.
50. In the following words a slight diphthongal sound, approaching to y, is introduced :
Card, regard, sky, garden, guardian, kind, guile, guide, beguile, guise, guest.
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EXERCISES ON TRIPHTHONGS. 51. a-00–u as in our, power, flower, shower, giaour, devour, hour, scour.
52. 00-0-e as in buoy, buoyance, &c.
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ARTICULATION. 53. Articulation is the correct formation, by the organs of speech, of certain approaches or contacts which add to vocality literal and verbal vtterance. Distinct articulation depends on the clear enunciation of certain
elements called, usually, consonants, which may be generally described as certain modes of beginning, ending, or interrupting vowel sounds. In the English language there are four modes of organic contact or approach. In the following exercises these articulations are divided into two classes : first, those which are produced with breath alone (without voice), named BREATHCONSONANTS ; and secondly, those in which voice is superadded, named
54. In practising these it must be remembered that many consonants have no sound of themselves, but depend for audibility on the cessation of contact leaving the passage free for the emission of a vowel or of the breath. Distinctness and sharpness of utterance, with lightness and rapidity of action, are requisite for their easy and effective pronunciation,
55. It will be observed that many of the breath and voice-consonants correspond in formation, and that several of the voice-articulations may be either oral or nasal.
56. Distinct and graceful utterance requires that the various groups of words should be preceded by a FREE, DOWNWARD ACTION OF THE LOWER JAW. The organic approach or contact necessary for articulation must be made as rapidly and lightly as possible, and, after any utterance, the parts in approach or contact should be quickly, yet easily, separated, to allow the free repetition of the same or of a different action.
57. The Voice-consonants must be audibly distinguished from the Breathconsonants. The breath, in articulations, must be forcibly ejected, -but only from the pharynx and mouth (the closure of the glottal valve preventing any undue loss of breath) on those articulations which depend for audibility on the termination of organic contact. The terminating sounds of words should be distinctly separated from the initial formations of following words.
The corresponding formations of all the breath, voice, and nasal consonants should be practised as initial and final elements of words, thus:pa-ba-ma; po-be-me; pi-bi-mi; ap-ab-am; ep-eb-em; and so with all the vowels and consonants.
TABLE OF ARTICULATE FORMATIONS,* WITH EXERCISES.
LABIALS AND DENTO-LABIALS. 58. P is a breath-consonant, formed by the meeting of the lips and STOPPAGE of the current of air. This formation depends for audibility on abrupt separation of the lips and explosion of the breath.
Peer, pin, pool, pound, nip, happy,t rapid, tropic, pope, monophthong, diphthong, triphthong, naphtha, shepherd, ophthalmic, span, spoil, scalp, help, carp, damp, pipe, populous.
59. B is the voice-consonant of the previous formation. It adds the initial part of a vocal sound, I directed into the pharynx, which, after being distended, contracts by its own elasticity, and at the same time the lips abruptly separate.
Bought, inhabit, bound, stab, ebb, subtile, babbler, glebe, cupboard, bulb, superb, verb, proverb, tube, barb, barbarous, barbican.
60. M is a voice-consonant, formed by the meeting of the lips closing the passage of the mouth : the incipient vowel soundt is directed, with a head-murmur,into the pharynx, and, the velum opening the nasal passages, the sound is then directed through the nostrils.
May, man, morn, move, mound, charm, mammon, moment, blame, hymn, solemn, phlegm, drachm, chasm, realm, film, farm, worm, term, warm, harm, firm, affirm, confirm.
61. F is a breath-consonant, formed by slightly pressing the lower lip on the upper teeth, and directing the breath through the interstices.
Fame, feud, fanciful, proffer, crafty, chafe, life, enough, chough, rough, cough, trough, laughter, draught, phial, phlegm, phrase, seraph, nymph, shelf, wolf, turf, dwarf, sphinx,
62. V is the voice-consonant of the previous formation. The initial part of a vowel sound is prefixed, and the vocalized air directed, with a gutturalş murmur, into the pharynx, whence it flows into the mouth.
Vane, veer, vine, vivid, vote, pave, weave, halve, livid, sever, votive, move, prove, nephew, lieutenant, twelve, revolve, nerve, serve, Stephen, of (but in the compounds, whereof, &c., the f is not changed inte v).
* The actual sounds of the consonants are here meant, not the alphabetic names.
+ When, in syllabic combinations, consonants are doubled, one of the constituents (usually the first in whisper, and the second in voice) is omitted, as in happy, manner, otter, adding, sluggard, &c.
# The vowel-sound heard before any articulation, has no place in our alphabet. The author considers this natural vowel to be a sound of u, between that in the French word feu and the English word fur.
& There are two kinds of murmur observable in the voice-consonants: the one is called guttural, being confined to the throat; the other head, because, by the opening of the nasal passages, it ascends into the cavities of the skull,
LINGUALS AND LINGUA-PALATALS.
63. Th (as in think) is a breath-consonant, formed by placing the tip of the tongue on and behind the upper incisor teeth.* The breath is then directed through the lateral openings.
Thank, thaw, theatre, thought, bath, path, lath, oath, mouth, faith, breath, panther, orthoepy, apathy, ether, rhythm, ethics, atheist, length, strength, width, twelfth, stealth, warmth, breath.
64. Th=dh (as in that) is the voice-consonant of the previous formation: it superadds the initial part of a vowel sound, directed, with a guttural murmur, into the pharynx.
This, thee, there, thine, thither, beneath, booth, tithe, with, wreathe, brethren, farthing, heathen, weather, breathe, sheathe, blithe, clothe: also in these plurals—baths, paths, laths, oaths, mouths, (all other terminations in ths have the breath sound).
65. T is a breath-consonant formed by the tip of the tongue pressing on the palate above the gum of the upper teeth, and stopping the breath. It depends for audibility on the explosive cessation of contact.
Tell, tune, toil, met, butt, matter, critic, satiety, debt, tempt, Thames, Thomas, asthma, Ptolemy, receipt, yacht, debt, subtle, indict, stuffed, faced, rushed, laced, danced, laughed, phthisic.
66. D is the voice-consonant of the above formation. It is preceded by the initial part of a vowel sound, which is directed into the pharynx. After distension the pharynx is suddenly collapsed, and the articulation exploded by the tongue.
Date, debt, mad, modest, body, rode, bade, would, should, twanged, wronged, harangued, buzzed, caged, lodged, avenged, heaved, bathed, wreathed, beheld, suggest, exaggerate.
67. Many readers sound the terminational ed in the language of prayer, and in the Scriptures; but it may be doubted whether either euphony, dignity, or devotion is attained by the irregularity. The PRINCIPLE is, that ed may be sounded as a separate syllable when immediately preceded by a consonant; but, after a vowel, the sound of e should be suppressed, thus :err-ed and stray'd, &c. The measure of poetry frequently requires the syllabic distinction of ed.
68. N is a voice-consonant, formed by pressing the tip of the tongue on the palate. The vocalised sound, thus interrupted, is directed into the pharynx, when, by the opening of the nasal passages, it passes with a head-murmur through the nostrils.
Noon, nine, linen, penance, nonentity, gnomon, condign, knack, iron, apron, nail, gnaw, knock, kneel, banner. In the terminational En, the sound of E is generally suppressed, as in
• Th may be improperly formed by putting the tip of the tongue between the teeth.
deaden, leaden, bidden, redden, hasten, chasten, given, even, heather, heaven, broken, garden, seven, frozen, chosen, &c.; but in the following words the full sound of the EN is retained aspen, sudden, kitchen, chicken, hyphen, sloven, pattens, mittens.
69. S is a breath-consonant, formed by bringing the tip of the tongue so close to the upper gum as merely to let the breath hiss. The breath passes through the central opening with a sibilant noise.
Sin, sign, design, suit, soot, gas, mass, sceptre, transgress, transcend, conclusive, delusive, preside, desist, psalm, schism, exile, exit, Styx, mists, posts, flaccid, Chersonese, scintillate, exist'st, striv'st.
70. Z is the voice-consonant of the above formation. It is preceded by the initial part of a vowel sound, which is continued into the pharynx, and then allowed to pass between the tongue and palate.
As, has, is, was, seas, songs, seal, sephyr, dissolve, possess, scissors, hussars, discern, present, damson, residue, crimsor, resignation, observe, paloy, flimsy, result, clumsy, president, dismay.
71. L is a voice-consonant formed by the initial part of a vowel sound being resounded in the pharynx, then interrupted by bringing the tip of the tongue in contact with the upper gum, and then allowed to pass through the lateral openings betwist the tongue and teeth.
Lull, bell, lark, isle, pale, oil, bale, lively, lovely, melon, needle, model, chapel, plant, blame, castle, nestle, epistle, thistle, jostle, rustle, victual. In the following words the vowel before L is suppressed : -Devil, drivel, grovel, hazel, housel, ousel, ravel, shovel, shrivel, swivel, weasel.
72. R (trilled) is either a voice or breath-consonant. It is pronounced by depressing the root of the tongue and elevating its tip, which must be held, motionless, at a very slight distance from the upper part of the upper gum. The breath is then directed with such force against the tip of the tongue as to cause it to vibrate. R (smooth) is formed in the same manner as the above, but the trill is either omitted or feebly uttered. The un. trilled r is heard at the end of a word. (Trilled), Rough, whirring, spring, wrangle, raw, wrap, bray, ray, wrack, wreck, shrill, wretch, wring, shriek, wrestle, rend, tremendous, trumpet, drum, shroud. (Smooth.) Power, ,
) gore, mayor, sir, fir, fur, pure, lure, quarter, bar, core, carp, bark, bear, here, our, pearl, arm, dark, garb, pardon, affair, expire, virtue, order, commerce, colonel, adore.
73. Sh is a breath-consonant, formed by raising the tip of the tongue to the palate farther inward than in pronouncing s. Thus a considerable space is left for the breath, which, in its passage, produces the sound noted by the digraph sh.