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sent to fairs, and sold to the credulous multitude, previously to the 22d of August, 1798, when three French frigates appeared in the bay. of Killala, from which a body of troops was immediately disembarked, and took possession of that place. Soon after this, they marched under General Humbert, accompanied by a rabble, some of whom were dressed in foreign uniforms, and advanced to Castlebar. Having taken possession of that town after a skirmish, in which they proved victorious, their cause appeared to be triumphant.

The invaders are greatly praised for the moderation displayed by them, as well as for the manner in which they restrained their allies.

“ The French eat the best of meat and bread, drank wine, beer, and coffee, and slept on good beds. They compelled the rebels to eat potatoes, drink whiskey, and sleep on straw. They beat and abused them like dogs, in the name of liberty, equality, fraternity, and unity. A volume would not contain an account of the brutal actions of the rebels; and the women who were worse than the men, carried off hides, tallow, beef, cloth, and various other articles.”

At length a considerable army having been collected, Lord Cornwallis and General Lake advanced in two distinct columns against the enemy. On this a retreat took place, which produced a close pursuit, and the French having been overtaken, were finally forced to surrender.

Many of the insurgents were seized and executed on this occasion; but in the beginning of September, 1798, a general pardon, with very few exceptions, was published, an act of policy and of clemency, which does not appear to have entirely satisfied our author.

66 It is to be lamented,” observes he, at the conclusion, " that at this time the Popish multitude are as much fraught with disaffection as ever, though they are still smarting from the former rebellion, and though the royal mercy has been extended to them in a very extraordinary degree. It might be said, that I have gone far in exposing the errors of Popery, and have been severe upon them, but it should be

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recollected that the Popish clergy never cease to represent the Protestant religion as a pestilent heresy, which brings the frowns of the Almighty on its votaries in this life, and dooms them to eternal damnation hereafter, and this not only orally, but by various publications, some of which I shall mention ; one of them, entitled “ Fifty reasons why the holy Roman Catholic religion ought to be preferred to all the sects in Christendom,” contains the following extracts: “ They (the Protestant ministers) are not priests, since they have not power to consecrate in the Eucharist, nor to forgive sins, which is yet the main office of priestly dignity,” p. 80.

66 Heretics - themselves confess that the Roman Catholics may be saved, whereas these maintain there is no salvation for such as are out of the Roman Catholic church. What madness then were it, for any man not to go over to the Roman Catholics, who may be saved in the judgment of their adversaries, &c. &c.

“ What can be expected from a rabble," exclaims Sir Richard, “ drenched with the inebriating poison of such productions, but treason, robbery, and assassination !"

It has been already stated, that the present publication was not at all pleasing to government. The truth is, that it proved both unsuitable and unseasonable. Mr. Pitt and the English cabinet, a considerable time before this, had conceived the idea of a union with Ireland, and all their measures were very properly directed towards this most important point. It was with this view, that a speedy end had been put to the violent operations of martial law and free quarters; and the Marquis Cornwallis having been sent over with the olive branch, the benevolent and paternal viceroyship of that amiable nobleman, tended not a little to conciliate the nation.

Sir Richard Musgrave and his doctrines being now exceedingly unpopular, he was attacked in his turn by writers of all parties. Protestants and Catholics, both in England and Ireland, wished to render him odious; and the latter part of his life was doubtless tormented with these hostile attacks. Indeed, it would have occupied a large portion of the remainder of his existence to have read and to have answered the numerous books, pamphlets, and periodical essays in which he was daily and sometimes grossly assailed. To two of his adversaries, and two only, did he think fit to reply; they were both men of some rank and estimation in Ireland. *

In private life, Sir Richard Musgrave was greatly esteemed and respected. Indeed, he was capable both of friendship and kindness; he loved and he practised hospitality; his tongue was sometimes eloquent at the festive board, in praise of good men of all denominations; and it was only while the pen was in his hand, and his mind agitated with the occurrences of the day, that he displayed a spirit of bitterness, seldom to be equalled, and scarcely ever surpassed in modern times.

This baronet died at his house in Holles-street, Dublin, on April 7th, 1818, and having no male issue by his lady, the title, according to the provisions of the patent, has descended to his brother, now Şir Christopher Musgrave.

List of the Works Of the late Sir Richard Musgrave, Bart. 1. A Letter on the present situation of public affairs, 8vo. 1794.

2. Considerations on the present state of England and France, 8vo. 1796.

3. Short view of the political situation of the Northern Powers, 8vo. 1801.

4. Memoirs of the different rebellions in Ireland, from the arrival of the English, with a particular detail of that which broke out in 1798, 4to. 1801. 2d ed. with appendix, 4to. 1801. 3d ed. 2 vols. 8vo. 1802.

5. Observations on the reply of Dr. Caulfield, 8vo. 1802.

6. Observations on Dr. Drumgoole's speech, at the Catholic Board, December 8, 1813. 8vo. 1814.

* The Doctors Drumgoole and Caulfield,

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The name of this gentleman has been long before the publie,

HE and during a period of more than half a century was constantly advancing into repute and respectability. With a versatility of character, joined to a degree of ability that falls to the lot of but few, we behold him, now governing a theatre, - now giving laws to the General Post-Office. Thus, the same man who at one period of his life superintended the dramatic amusements of the gayest city in the empire, at another was busied in projecting a new system of mails, aiding commerce by the accelerated rapidity of his contrivances, and at length accomplishing and perfecting his grand original plan to facilitate the intercourse, not only between different parts of the kingdom, but with all the nations of the universe,

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John Palmer was born at Bath, in the year 1742. His father was a respectable brewer in that city; and the maiden name of his mother, Miss Long, descended from an old and respectable family, which had been settled there for more than a century. The boy was sent at a very early age to Coleme, a village at some little distance from the place of his birth, for the express purpose of being educated under the Rev. Mr. Needham. While there, he not only displayed an uncommon degree of sprightliness, but an extraordinary aptitude for learning; which was not always accompanied, however, with the inclination to excel, although he fully possessed the ability.

When young Palmer had acquired some knowledge of the classics, he was removed to the public school at Marlborough, annexed to which there are certain valuable scholarships and exhibitions, which enable the higher class of pupils, when duly qualified, to repair on very easy terms either to Oxford or Cambridge. These advantages were carefully pointed out by a relation, the Rev. Mr. Palmer, who recommended the church as a profession, and in both of these plans the father most readily joined; he wished his offspring to be freed from the embarrassments and difficulties attendant upon trade, and longed above all things to behold his son John in holy orders.

His son John, however, longed to be an officer ; and it is not a little remarkable, that this same propensity, as if hereditary, devolved on his two grandsons, one of whom has risen to an honourable station as a field-officer in the army, and another to the rank of a post-captain in the navy. But the old gentleman proved inexorable; and, as the subject of this memoir was accustomed to observe, « after a stout contention between the sword and the surplice, it proved a drawn battle.”

As it was necessary, however, that he should be something, and as he would not consent to become a clergyman, he was destined to be a brewer. With this view, his father removed him, when scarcely fourteen years of age, to his own countinghouse, which proved a fresh subject of complaint; for by this

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