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the calm and cheerful evening of life that he had been permitted to enjoy, after the honourable labours of the day had been concluded. And thus, full of years and honours, in all calmness and tranquillity, he yielded up his soul, without pang or struggle, and passed from the bosom of his family to that of his God!

He was twice married, but has left no issue but one son, long associated with him in his business and studies, and two grand-children by a daughter who predeceased him. He was a Fellow of the Royal Societies, both of London and Edinburgh, and one of the few Englishmen who were elected Members of the National Institute of France. All men of learning and science were his cordial friends; and such was the influence of his mild character and perfect fairness and liberality, even upon the pretenders to these accomplishments, that he lived to disarm even envy itself, and died, we verily believe, without a single enemy.

No. XV.

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Sir HENRY TEMPEST, BARONET.

OF TONGE, IN THE COUNTY OF YORK. The Tempests, like most of the ancient families in the king

HE dom, are of Norman origin. Their ancestor came over with William the Conqueror, and was rewarded with many manors in the north of England, for his services. The branch settled at Tonge, in the county of York, has always claimed precedence, on account of seniority; and it was not until after a law

' suit, followed by a compromise, that the great Tempest estates were declared to belong to that portion of the family, seated in the county Palatine of Durham, the heads of which have frequently sat in Parliament, as knights of the shire.

Sir Henry Tempest, of whom we now treat, was born in 1752. His father died at an early age, in consequence of which the care of his education devolved on his mother, a very sensible and amiable woman, who brought him up

with great care and attention. He was at first intended for the bar, and his name was accordingly entered on the records of the society of Gray's Inn. To this profession, he was probably excited by the brilliant career of Sir Fletcher Norton. From him, he received great attention and encouragement; and at this period, he imbibed certain rules and principles of law, which formed a prominent feature in his conversation, and acquired for him a great superiority in business during the remainder of his life.

After travelling over Europe, Sir Henry returned to his native country, and resided for some years in the neighbourhood of London. His predominant passion at this period of his life, was shooting: and so eager was he, in pursuit of partridges and pheasants, that accompanied with a friend, a servant, and a couple of pointers, he was accustomed to make game excursions all the way from his house in Essex, called the Bee Hive, to the remotest parts of Dorsetshire, and Devonshire.

In consequence of his marriage with Miss Lambert, a rich Herefordshire heiress, he settled at Hope-end park, in that county. Here he spent a large portion of his life, acting with great zeal and conscientiousness, in the discharge of his duty, as a magistrate. He next purchased an estate at Thorpe, in the vicinity of Egham, and, after being blessed for many. years with most excellent health, was subsequently subjected to a variety of maladies, chiefly of a nervous kind... Both he and his friends hoped, at length, that he had perfectly recovered, and was like to attain a good old age; but he died suddenly. in bed, on the morning of the 20th of January, 1819, in his

67th year.

In

person, Sir Henry Tempest was tall and portly; and with a commanding aspect he united gentle and engaging manners. In his youth, he had been uncommonly handsome. He was replete with practical information, and his conversation exhibited not only good sense, but superior abilities. As he died without issue, he bequeathed his fortune to a family, related to him, whom he had cherished and respected during his life and benefited and enriched at his decease.

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No. XVI.

AARON GRAHAM, Esg.

FORMERLY CHIEF MAGISTRATE AT NEWFOUNDLAND, AND LATE

INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF CONVÍCTS.

The life of this gentleman is well calculated to demonstrate what may be achieved in a free country like this, by talents, character, and assiduity. The subject of this memoir was born at Gosport, in Hampshire, in the year 1753. By constantly beholding one of the noblest dock-yards in the kingdom, and contemplating the fleets of a great maritime power, which

, then, as now, swayed the sceptre of the ocean, young Graham was early impressed with a strong and predominant passion for the naval service of his country. Accordingly, after receiving the rudiments of a good education, at a neighbouring school, he was enabled to gratify his wishes; having, at the early age of fourteen, been sent on board the Sea-Horse, commanded by Sir Thomas Paisley. In this vessel, where, we believe, he was first rated as a midshipman: our young adventurer was stationed for a considerable time on the coast of Africa; and, notwithstanding this species of service was not deemed either then, or now, of the most pleasant kind, he yet took such an insuperable attachment to the navy that he never abandoned it, until a late period of his existence, and even then, reluctantly, and not without a great struggle.

But it was to the civil service that he now dedicated his time and attention: he possessed great adroitness at business, was eminently skilled in figures, and soon acquired, by dint of study, a surprising facility in the higher branches of mathematics. It is but little wonder, therefore, that one so gifted should have obtained the rank of a purser while yet a very young man. At length, in consequence of lus abilities, and

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conciliating manners, he was appointed secretary to a Flag Ship, and, in this capacity, attained the friendship and confidence of all the Admirals with whom he sailed, no less by the amiableness of his disposition, than by a strict and scrupulous integrity, that invited investigation, and set suspicion at defiance.

In Newfoundland, at a period when that colony seemed to be entirely left to its own resources, Mr. Graham displayed a variety of talents, and occupied a number of offices, with no small degree of benefit to the settlers. As secretary to Admiral Edwards he superintended, in a certain degree, every thing afloat ; while, as agent for prizes, he obtained a share in all the captures on this station during a large portion of the American war. When the island was threatened with invasion, he mustered the forces on shore, regimented the fishermen and inhabitants, and acted in the capacity of their commander ! At the same time, all legal matters were cheerfully submitted to his consideration and judgment; for he presided during several consecutive seasons as Chief Justice, and displayed a skill and knowledge of the law that seldom falls to the lot of any but a professional man.

Having acquired the good opinion of those in power, on his return home he was employed in a variety of confidential situations by government. But he chiefly distinguished himself, by effecting a complete reform in respect to the convict system, and on that occasion uniting humanity with a knowledge of the world, formed a code for the regulation of this class of delinquents, that subsists, and, it is to be hoped, is acted upon until this day.

It is not to be denied, that the original plan for the government of these unhappy outcasts of society, and objects of its just punishment, was founded on the worst possible principles. Those to whom the management of that department had been entrusted, confiding in the honour of men, whose own immediate interests were at variance with their duties, appear to have placed the hulks under the immediate superintendance of the contractors. Over these, there seems to have been little or no check, or control whatsoever. Accordingly, those who

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provided the provisions, were entrusted with the weighing, measuring, and distribution of the beef, cheese, bread, oatmeal, &c. It has been even asserted, that the managing and punishing of the convicts was also confided to their care, so that all complaint was stifled, and remonstrance became impracticable. The

consequence was such as might have been easily foreseen. The sick list encreased daily, and deaths became frequent. At length, the mortality was so great, at Portsmouth, as to alarm the inhabitants of that town, and the neighbouring country. Mr. Wilberforce and several members of parliament, impressed solely by humanity, repaired thither for the express purpose of examining into the facts; and complaints of the most serious and alarming nature were made in the House of Commons.

A nobleman, who had been nominated to the Home Department, was at length induced to pay attention to the hulk system; and, luckily for the sake of humanity, Mr. Graham was pointed out as a proper person to make the necessary enquiries, and grant the requisite redress. He accordingly visited all the ports where convicts were employed; and after investigating the nature and extent of the complaints on the spot, delivered in a long and able report to the Secretary of State. Soon after this, he was appointed superintendant of this department, the whole of which was for many years submitted to his entire management, inspection, and control. The consequences were such as might have been expected from his talents and integrity.

Provisions and clothes, of a proper quality, were supplied in abundance; the government of the prison ships was put under the management of persons totally unconnected with the contractors, whose conduct was besides checked by a variety of wholesome rules and restrictions. The numbers on the sick list immediately diminished; the deaths ceased to be alarming; discontent and despair no longer reigned on board the hulks; and, instead of avoiding investigation as before, every stranger of decent appearance, was at liberty to make his enquiries on the spot.

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