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all connection with the author; and publicly disclaimed. the idea of affording him either patronage or protection in future.

As the former work, to which we again recur, is not only connected with the history of his native country, but constitutes a leading feature in the biography of our author, an analysis may not, perhaps, be here improperly annexed.

“ Memoirs of the different rebellions in Ireland, from the arrival of the English: also a particular detail of that which broke out the 23d of May, 1798; with the history of the conspiracy that preceded it, and the characters of the principal actors in it. To this edition is added a concise history of the Reformation in Ireland; and considerations on the means of extending its advantages therein. Second Edition, Dublin, 1801. pp. 636. with Appendixes.”

We are told in a prefatory discourse, that instead of the Christian religion being introduced into Ireland by Roman missionaries in the beginning of the fifth century, it was established there by certain disciples of the Greek church. The Irish clergy, indeed, had no connection with, and did not submit to the jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff until the year 1152, when Pope Eugenius sent, by Cardinal Paparon, four palls to the archbishops of Armagh, Dublin, Cashel, and Tuam : when the Romish ritual was substituted in the place of the Greek, which had been previously used in the Irish church; an undoubted proof that it was independent of the Pope until that memorable epoch.

“ Our excellent primate Usher,” adds lie, “proves this in a most unquestionable manner, in a learned treatise on the religion of the ancient Irish, well worth the perusal of the natives of Ireland. As to celibacy, we know from Ware, that the four archbishops of Armagh, who preceded Celsus, and Celsus himself, who died 1129, were inarried; and not until popery was established at Cashel in 1172, was marriage interdicted.

6 In the end of the twelfth, and the beginning of the thirteenth century, a season of midnight ignorance in Europe, the

Roman pontiff, who was regarded with superstitious reverence, claimed, and gradually acquired, a superiority, not only of spiritual, but of temporal power, over all the potentates of Europe, who considered his sanction as necessary to expiate the guilt of any crime, how heinous soever, or to promote the success of any adventure. For this reason, Henry II. solicited Pope Adrian for a bull to give him the investiture of Ireland, and in consideration of it, agreed to grant him a tax of one penny on each house in it, called Peter Pence. Adrian, in his bull, empowered Henry II. “ to propagate in Ireland the righteous plantation of faith, and the branch most acceptable to God;" which meant no more, than that he should subject this kingdom to the dominion of the Pope, which, it is remarkable, was the last country in Europe that submitted to the ambitious and rapacious designs of his Holiness.

At this day, the Roman Catholics deprecate the grant of Ireland to a foreign, and not a native prince. M‘Geoghegan, although a Roman Catholic, in his history exclaims against the transaction as a violation of the rights of nations, and the most sacred laws, under the specious pretexts of religion and the reformation of manners; and he boldly adds, “could one suspect the Vicar of Christ of such gross injustice? Could one

? believe him capable of issuing a bull, by which an entire nation was overturned ?"

On this occasion, Sir Richard Musgrave observes, “ if the aboriginal Irish lament the settlement of the English in Ireland, all its loyal inhabitants have to deplore that they introduced popery into it, as it has been a constant source of disaffection, and has produced insuperable calamities in it. It is not the object nor the wish of the writer of the following pages,” adds he, “to disparage Ireland, or its inhabitants, the former in point of soil and climate, the latter, in their intellectual and corporeal powers, being deservedly esteemed among the

finest works of the creation; but to evince the truth of that maxim, that an imperium in imperio, or two separate sovereign powers, civil and ecclesiastical, cannot coexist in the same state without perpetual collision, producing discord and rebellion; and that

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the only remedy for the calamities attendant on such a state is either the extinction of one power, or the milder procedure of incorporating with the other. The latter mode has been adopted in Ireland: abstract reason must approve, and experience will demonstrate the measure to be founded in the truest wisdom."

Sir Richard describes the people of Ireland as in a most deplorable state on the arrival of the English. Their num- : bers, indeed, according to Sir William Petty, did not exceed 300,000 souls, dispersed over more than twelve millions of acres. The country was overrun with forests, or infested with bogs; while in all the arts of civilised life, the natives were but little superior to the Indians of North America. Their Brehon laws were calculated to make them savage, and to keep them so, as they rendered the enjoyment of life and property insecure. Their kings, or princes, too, did not succeed each other by hereditary descent, or any fixed principles, but by force of arms.

Our Irish baronet, from these considerations, seems to think that " it was a peculiar favour from Heaven to send a civilised people among them, nor did the wiser part,” adds he, “ seem insensible to it; for Matth. Paris tells us that, at a council at Lismore, they gratefully received the laws of England, and swore to obey them, which included their allegiance to the Crown of England.” But he himself is obliged to add, that

as soon as Henry II. returned, they rejected the laws, violated their allegiance, and ran into rebellion : which excluded them from the benefit of them."

By way of impressing a horror of the Church of Rome on his countrymen, the author now enters into an historical detail of its abuses. As the popes found themselves unable to maintain their immense power, great wealth, and extensive territories; the moment that reason had reassumed her empire they resolved, we are told, to erect a system of terror in the bosom of every state, by a device, the ingenuity of which could be equalled by nothing but its monstrous iniquity. Accordingly, Pope Innocent III., in 1215, procured certain ordi


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nances, to be agreed to by the fourth council of Lateran, purporting:

1. That heretics of every kind, against the true orthodox faith shall be condemned, and on not proving their innocence, shall be excommunicated, and their effects confiscated. • 2. All secular powers shall be compelled by ecclesiastical censures, to take an oath to extirpate, within their respective territories, such of their subjects as shall be condemned as heretics by the Church; but if any prince shall refuse, let him be excommunicated, and on omitting to make satisfaction in one year, let it be notified to the sovereign pontiff, that he may absolve his subjects from their oaths of allegiance, and transfer his territories to any other catholic prince.

3. All catholics, who shall take up arms for the purpose of extirpating such heretics, shall enjoy the same indulgence, and the like holy privileges, with those who visited the Holy Land.

After a suitable comment on other doctrines, Sir Richard proceeds to exhibit the origin of the papal usurpation. For a long time, the “ Bishops of Rome," continued to be elected by the people and the clergy; and when so chosen, were consecrated by some other prelates, but not until they had first obtained the express confirmation of the Emperor. But at length, on the extinction of the race of Charlemagne, Adrian III. made a decree, declaring this to be unnecessary. In the fifth century, equal honours were decreed to the Bishops of Rome and Constantinople. The seat of the Western empire having been transferred to Ravenna about the year 390, this capital disputed the primacy of Italy, with Rome.

At length, that arrogant pontiff Gregory VII., raised to the popedom in the year 1073, not only claimed, but exercised the right of excommunicating and deposing sovereigns, by invoking their subjects to take arms against them. His ambitious efforts occasioned the factions of the Guelphs and Gibbelines, in Germany and Italy, which produced numberless assassinations, tumults, and convulsions, and no less than sixty pitched battles in the reign of Henry IV., and eighteen in that of his successor Henry V., when the claims of the Roman pontiff finally prevailed.

It is to the extended power, and fatal influence of popery, that the baronet mainly attributes all the wars, feuds, and revolutions in Ireland. “ Speaking a different language, and obedient to different laws, it is not to be wondered at, that the English and Irish did not cordially unite and coalesce into one people. Nothing was attempted that could materially conduce to effect this: for the operations of government were confined to pitiful experiments. The introduction of the reformed religion, by increasing the antipathy of the native Irish to the English, was a new source of calamities; for, as the Irish ecclesiastics, to whom the ignorant and bigoted people were blindly devoted, received their education in foreign seminaries, particularly in those of France and Spain, they returned to their native country solemnly bound to the Pope, in unlimited submission, without any bond of allegiance to the king, and full fraught with those absurd and pestilent doctrines which the moderate of their own communion, at least, professed to abominate: of the universal dominion of the Pope, as well spiritual as temporal, of his authority to excommunicate and depose princes, to absolve subjects from their oaths of allegiance, and to dispense with every law of God and man, to sanctify rebellion and murder, and even to change the very nature and essential difference of vice and virtue. With such impious tenets, fabricated by their schools and councils, they filled their superstitious votaries, contrary to the letter, the sense, and design of the Gospel, the writings of the apostles, and the commentaries of their successors, to the belief of the Christian Church for ten ages, and to the clearest dictates of nature.”

« In that savage scene of butchery, the massacre of St. Bartholomew, planned with all the coolness of deliberation, five hundred gentlemen, and ten thousand persons of inferior rank were massacred in one night, at Paris alone, and great numbers in the provinces, because they were * protestante,

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* Thuanus, lib. 63. sect. 14.

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