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CHURCH SCHOOLMASTERS' BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE ENGLISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATION. SIR,

I beg the favour of the insertion in your valuable paper of the inclosed “Rules, Address of Committee,” &c. of the Church Schoolmasters' and Schoolmistresses' Benevolent Institution; or if that would be too much space to ask for, perhaps you may be able to insert the following synopsis of them and thus kindly assist the Committee in their benevolent labours.

The first fixes the name and locale of the Institution.
The second its object.

The third provides for its government by a Committee of twenty Schoolmasters, a President, a Vice President, a Treasurer and Secretary, elected by the Subscribers, and the Secretaries of local Church Schoolmasters' Associations; the latter having the power of voting by letter.

The fourth fixes the power of the Committee and the rules for their meetings.

The fifth provides for a general meeting of the Subscribers once a year. in the Christmas holidays, and the sixth for special meetings when necessary.

The seventh appoints the NATIONAL SOCIETY, TRUSTEE of the Institution ; which office the Committee of that Society have most kindly accepted.

The eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh declare how, and to whom, the funds raised shall be distributed; viz.-Firstly in yearly pensions to Teachers, Widows of Teachers, and Orphans of Teachers : Secondly, in raising a fund for an Asylum for Teachers' Orphans, and in the meanwhile subscribing to the existing orphan asylums; all persons receiving these benefits to be elected by the votes of the subscribers, one vote being allowed for every annual subscription of 5s., and donations of £5 being reckoned as Life Subscriptions: and Thirdly, in granting gratuities or weekly allowances for short periods, at the discretion of the Committee, in cases of serious illness or other unforeseen calamity.

The twelfth simply provides for alteration of rules.

These rules having been thoroughly discussed and agreed upon by a large meeting of teachers, on the 2nd of January, above 150 teachers being present, from all parts of England, and the necessity for the institution being universally acknowledged, the committee hope that they may appeal, with perfect confidence of support, to all their fellow teachers as well as to other friends of Church Education, for help in attempting to provide an efficient means of meeting such heart-rending appeals as have lately harrowed the feelings of all readers of educational periodicals.

I should add that the Rev. J. G. Lonsdale, Canon of Lichfield, and Secretary to the National Society, has accepted the office of Treasurer; and that Mr. McLeod, of Chelsea, and myself, have been appointed Secretaries, by either of whom contributions in aid of the Institution will be thankfully received and acknowledged. A list of subscribers will be published shortly.

I am, Sir, yours obediently, National Schools, Stokwell,

J. STUDDLE. Feb. 18, 1856.

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Rise and Progress of Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. By an

Englishman. Pp. 496. London: Saunders and Otley. 1857. C H E author's account of Australia is certainly anything but inviting, So for he depicts the manners of the people and their habits as the very

he reverse of what any educated person would wish to find anywhere, especially on arriving in a foreign country. Take for instance the following sketch of Melbourne :“ Melbourne, we said, as it appears to us is a kind of modern Babel—a little hell upon earth—a city of rioters, gamblers, and drunkards—a crowded den of human iniquitywhere, from the highest merchant downward, there appears to be but one object in view -where the very faculties of mind, body, and soul, are employed and directed to one worldly end—where thousands are anxiously and almost exclusively bent towards the consummation of their own selfish and ambitious desires--where delusive schemes are the pickpockets of honesty, and where the abuse of useful invention is too often the bane of its own utility-where calm reflection and all the higher attributes of the mind lose proper influence in artificial excitement—where the ties of friendship, domestic duties, kindred obligations, intellectual study, and the immortal spirit of true religion are often neglected, if not entirely forgotten in the busy work of self-aggrandizement-where, in fine, the priceless possessions of health, together with all those sweet enjoyments which constitute the real happiness of life, fall a sacrifice to an insatiable thirst for gain."

Can one conceive a more immoral state of things ? To what purpose are fine buildings and glut of gold when we find men, who in their lowly or middle stations of life in England, have been regarded as kind husbands, affectionate brothers, or faithful friendsunder a colonial atmosphere, forfeiting, in the space of a few months, their claim to the character of either ?

Can we wonder at the author saying“We would fain hope, however, that in no country but Australia, where no inconsiderable portion of the population are convicted felons, could there be found specimens of humanity prone to, or guilty of, the innumerable and diversified forms of trickery, dishonesty, and villainy that, in the space of a few months appeared under our immediate notice--but with more than an allusion to which we will not shock our readers.

Of the climate he speaks rather unfavourably owing to the long droughts.

As regards intellect, the author says “The inhabitants of New South Wales are greatly in advance of those of Victoria.''

But, he adds in another place 66 We have often heard that talent of the first order when allied to modesty will prove of little service to its possessor in the Australian colonies, while the owner of a little ability and a great deal of bombast or impudent assurance, would leave his less pretending but more deserving kinsman considerably in the rear." Considered collectively, the inhabitants of New South Wales are much more respectable than those of Victoria—evidence of which is furnished by the superior tastes, habits and manners of the population of the former colony as compared with that of the latter." * A proof of the low taste of the people of Melbourne is that a clown from Astley's may make £75 per week there, at a low mountebank establishment nightly crowded with the elite of the capital, while a professor of the fine arts has been delivering a talented and intellectual discourse in another part of the city to empty benches.”

In Sydney the very reverse has been the case :"Up to October, 1855, Victoria with a population of 300,000 contributed to the Patriotic Fund, only £7000, while the colony of New South Wales, with a smaller population, did not deem £60,000 too much for their suffering fellow creatures. Since that period, the former, feeling ashamed of their parsimony, have made an addition to their former bounty.”

Of the climate and scenery of Tasmania, the author speaks in the highest terms indeed. “The latter,” he says, " is so grand as almost to baffle an attempt at description, and the climate is no less beautiful than the country.”

He regrets that such a beautiful spot should ever have been chosen for a penal settlement. He speaks much of the difficulty and opposition that the Governor, who is a man of high principle and moral courage, was likely to encounter, and adds that, “ Should he, without much opposition, succeed in his desire to administer the government of Tasmania in a manner the most conducive to the welfare of the colony and its inhabitants, he will surprise many able and intelligent men.”

There is a short account of the towns and parishes, and some valuable statistical tables of the population exports, imports, constabulary, revenue, and expenditure of the colonies.

We turn now to another and pleasanter side of the picture. Our author believes the prophecy that “New Zealand will at no very remote period become the Great Britain of the southern hemisphere.” He says “She possesses all the elements to warrant such an opinion, and to justify such a belief." * * * “New Zealand is,” he goes on - essentially a poor man's country, although there are but few poor in it. It is a country to which those of the working classes in England who have the means or intend to emigrate should direct their steps; for it is a colony in which nine out of every ten who land therein rise in the course of a few years from poverty to affluence; or from a poor to a good position. * * * A good mechanic can earn £1. 4s. per diem.”

He advises those who are “ accustomed to good society and the independence arising from an experienced and attentive suite of servants" to remain in England, and he gives the same advice to those “who prefer the fascinations of polite society to the more substantial rewards of industry and social retirement," and to “ families, the male branches of which regard the interior of a billiard room or a casino as indispensable margins on the page of life," he earnestly advises them to remain where they are.

Respectable, but not what is called in England good society, is to be found in New Zealand. We have heard this opinion disputed.

Nelson seems from our author's description to be the paradise of New Zealand, not only in point of weather but also as regards scenery and vegetation. There are but two seasons, summer and winter, and during the latter months even “Geraniums, fuschias, picotees, anotheras and other summer flowers of England, continue to bloom in Nelson.”

The principal residents are very kind hearted, and hospitable, “And each one appears anxious to excel the other in a desire not only by personal sacrifice to render any and every assistance which might tend to benefit the province and its inhabitants, but in the still more disinterested wish to lend a helping hand, or to volunteer any aid that might be useful to the position, or grateful to the mind of a stranger.”

Next to Nelson stands the province of Canterbury in the author's good opinion, and the inhabitants he says “In point of education and intelligence are superior to those in every part of New Zealand, the province of Nelson not excepted.”

He quotes Chambers' well known “ Papers for the People,” as he was not able to obtain from the authorities such information as he desired. He speaks in the highest terms of the scenery about Akaroa, and says,

“Were it possible to make a road hence to Christchurch, Akaroa would be to Canterbury what Brighton is to London, a delightful watering place.”

The book concludes with a dissertation on “ships and ship owners," “English insurance companies," and a colonial directory, including Geelong, Melbourne in Victoria, Sydney in New South Wales, Auckland, Nelson, Wellington and Canterbury in New Zealand; and last an English directory with the names of some of the leading English merchants, manufacturers, warehousemen, and exporters, &c. connected with, or whose goods are suited to the colonial markets."

The Church Education Directory. Pp. 129. London National Society's

Depository, Westminster, 1857. THIS is a capital book, and full of useful and valuable information.

T There is a list of the diocesan societies and boards of education of the training colleges, teachers of the schoolmasters' associations, &c., &c. There are also valuable appendices containing various minutes of council as to building grants, allowances to pupil teachers and Queen's scholars, grants of books, maps and diagrams, evening or night schools, grants in aid of day schools of industry, reformatory and ragged schools; letters and regulations of Committee of Council on drawing, scholars certificates and examination papers of the Committee of Council.

We should recommend all people interested in education to purchase this book at once, for it is a useful adjunct to a school library, furnishing in a small space much accurate and valuable information.

The English of Shakespeare, illustrated in a philological commentary on

his Julius Cæsar. By George L. Craik, Esq. Pp. 351. Chapman and

Hall, London. LERE is a very carefully written dissection of Shakespeare's style, the II peculiarities of his language, the history of his plays and their texts. Voluminous notes follow on every part of the play of Julius Cæsar. It is cleverly written, and contains a vast deal of information; throwing light on the characteristics of Shakespeare and the meaning of many ambiguous passages. Occasionally, too, it shows the changes which have occurred in the meaning of common words now used in a different sense. The admirers of Shakespeare are greatly indebted to Mr. Craik.

LITTLE BOOKS. Effective Primary Instruction, by Richard Dawes, Dean of Hereford. We are truly glad to see the Dean of Hereford's address to the Gloucestershire Schoolmasters' Åssociation in print. It is full of good sound sense and practical suggestions; we say practical advisedly, for the Dean of Hereford never lays these suggestions before the public till he has tried and proved them thoroughly in his own schools, his experience thereby rendering his suggestions doubly valuable. Take for instance the following

example, unpalatable though it may be to many, and we feel convinced that by those
who are really interested in education, the system will be at once adopted :-“Show up
the weak side of your schools, and do not always be putting forward a few boys and
girls who, perhaps, read well, or do arithmetic well, or can answer well a few routine
questions on things they have heard before. You will find this is the way to improve
your schools, and the road to success. *
I have carried out this mode of examination in schools in which I am personally
interested, and have often found the proportion of those who bear this test lower than
it ought to be--much lower than I expected. Such examinations are useful, and show
the weak points of a school. They are of great service, both to teachers and managers,
in pointing out how the defects arise." The Dean readily admits that in the schools he
visits the proportion who bear this test is often lower than it should be. He has a
strong feeling that religious and secular teaching should be combined, and gives the
following reasons for so thinking :-“Now, I cannot see how religion can be well taught
without the secular element being mixed with it. For instance, take a Christian
working man. If he be enlightened as a Christian, he must feel that he has a duty to
perform to his employer. He has made an engagement; he ought to fulfil that engage-
ment in the best possible manner--that is, to the utmost of his ability; and how can he
do so, unless he apply himself to understand the nature of the work he has in hand.
This can only be gained by secular instruction; whether he be an agricultural labourer,
a mechanic, or tradesman in any of the arts of life. If he be a Christian, he must be
unselfish. This will lead him to study his duty to others, the comfort of his family;
to study neatness and economy in his clothes, in his household; moderation in eating
and drinking. Secular teaching of many kinds, a large subject. --If a Christian, he will
be kind to the sick. “I was sick," says our gracious Lord, and ye visited me.” This
will show the necessity of some knowledge of the laws of health, of the sanitary con-
dition of dwellings, and of saving something, however small, for time of sickness and
old age-secular teaching again.” We will ask any one of common sense whether this
combination of religious with secular knowledge is not more likely to make the future
generations “wise unto salvation," than by teaching religion as it is frequently taught,
with a set of doctrines and dogmas totally dissevered from every day life, and utterly
unintelligible to the minds of those to whom such instruction is addressed. The
following passage is redolent of good and sympathising feelings towards his fellow
creatures : -“Surely no Christian is justified in withholding a knowledge, however
slight, of such things from his fellow-man, endowed with the same capacity that he
himself has-nay, is he not rather bound by the holiest ties of brotherhood to encourage
its acquisition ? And is not this a vast field of secular instruction?” In speaking of
the advantages which would accrue in the adoption of the decimal coinage, the Dean
quotes Mr. Hankey, of the Bank of England, who says, “The mere substitution of
100 lbs. for the cwt., and the decimal scale of weights, would save the labour of 200
clerks in the Customs alone, and salaries to the amount of at least £10,000 a-year."
The Dean of Hereford attaches great importance to savings' banks, life insurances,
reading libraries, and prize schemes, as being conducive to the amelioration of the
labouring classes, and he furnishes much valuable information on each of these means of
improvement. He concludes his address with a painful description of the state of morals
and education in his own county. “Herefordshire,” he says, “is among the six
counties in England having fewest scholars at the day-school in proportion to population.”
In the census tables of 1851 Herefordshire ranks among the six counties in England
having the greatest amount of crime in proportion to population; and its pauperism is
considerably above the average for England, there being 100 paupers to 1436; the
average is 100 to 2027 of population. We also find Herefordshire is among the six
counties in England having the greatest number of places of worship in proportion to
its population, having one to every 271 inhabitants; and of these six counties, the
proportion of crime to population is much higher in Herefordshire than in any of the
others, being one criminal in 471, and in the others varying from one in 633 to one in
1533 in Cornwall. Of the system of giving cider as part wages, which is greatly the
custom in Herefordshire, the Dean says, "We send missions abroad for religious
purposes. I am not objecting to this in what I now say; but, I fear, we sometimes
neglect useful missions at home, and I can think of none more important, or likely to
be attended with better results, than one which has for its object the enlightening the
farmers and labourers in the cider counties on this pernicious system, and the eyil
effects which arise from it.” If we had a few more practical men such as the Dean of
Hereford, we should not have to complain of the neglect of “useful missions at home,”
nor should we have occasion to deplore, to so great an extent as at present, the
demoralization of our fellow creatures.

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