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“Mr. Baines tells us that Education is advancing very, very rapidly. But, who is the best judge of the state of education in the county of Somerset-Mr. Vaughan, who lives there, and visits the schools, or Mr. Baines, who lives at Leeds, and writes "irresistible’ pamphlets ?
" Again, who is the best judge of the state of education in the county of Hereford-the Dean of Hereford, who resides there, and examines the state of things with his own eyes, or Mr. Unwin, whose time is occupied with his college duties, and who thinks he can settle this question by telling us that it is the duty of parents to educate their children? I tell you again that I feel no disrespect towards Mr. Unwin; but as regards the settlement of this question, he might just as well have told us that it is the duty of mothers to suckle their babes."
There is no doubt of the truth of all this. The ignorance and growing vice of the people is frightfully great. The very fact that there is more of the superficial beginning of light, is the reason why it is doubly essential to perfect it. The transition state is always one of peril, in which halting is fatal. We have just gone the length of empowering bad passions, sharpening the intellect, giving mental strength to moral evil and educating vice. It may be, and it has been, that we have trained some aright; and infused the power of knowledge for good as well as for evil. But this is not, and cannot be the general effect of imperfect education on human nature. We must go on; and make instruction education. To go back is impossible: to stand still, in addition to being impossible, is to aggravate the mischief: our only course is to go forward with speed, vigour and effect.
Now as to the means. Sir John Pakington says that we want more money. We do. He well censures a foolish regard to economy in education thus :
" And what is the state of public affairs while this argument is raised ? Not to weary you with statistics, I will in a few words place before you pregnant facts, which will at once dispose of this part of the subject. We are now paying an income tax of 6 per cent. ; in 1815 we paid ten per cent. ; but it is a fact of which perhaps you may not be aware, that the income tax in 1855 produced more money than in 1815, by about £100,000; the ten per cent. yielding £13,614,000 in 1815, and the 6 per cent. £13,718,000 last year. I turn to another criterion to that element of national wealth which is derived from trade and manufacture; and what do I find here? Why, that the declared value of our exports in 1815 was £51,898,000, while in 1855 it was £95,669,000, or very nearly double. Then how stand our rates in the two periods? The money raised for the relief of the poor in 1855, after all this vast increase of wealth and every element of national prosperity, was £200,000 less than it was in 1815. Well then, are we to be told that, when the temporal and eternal welfare of our fellowcountrymen is at stake, it is too expensive and costly to have national education ?
There is also great wisdom in this remark :“I believe that whatever we now do, we cannot, as wise men, lose sight of the existing state of things, nor of the efforts which have been made : and I believe that the wisest and most prudent plan in any changes we may now make, would be, not to supersede, but to assist, to complete, to supplement' the existing state of things; and further, that that ought to be done with the utmost possible regard to existing feelings and existing facts.”
But this does not lead us to a local rate. England does not like local rates. Education by means thereof is not “the existing state of things." The existing state of things is that of grants in aid of voluntary effort. Now voluntary effort is no wise remiss to the work: all that Sir John shews, is that it is in need of strength : that needed strength is money: and until it has this supplement to its will, it is premature to dethrone it, and raise another system on its ruins. Rates we repeat it, fall on a mere fraction of the property and people of this country, and therefore we prefer the plan
set forth in Mr. Symons' letter to Lord John Russell, of largely increasing the present grants which are paid by the body of tax-payers, who are the whole people : with this important adjustment of the principle of distribution, namely to parishes according to their poverty. It will not do to leave this to the Central Board as a matter of discretion. Grants must not be apportioned to necessities measured by guess, or ceded to strength of importunity. There must be a fixed and tangible public and patent standard, such as the three facts, viz., populousness, poor rates, and rateable property afford. The plan is well spoken of by many educational authorities, and will obviate, if adopted, many insuperable difficulties, impediments, and prejudices. Anyhow, the Government should be prepared with some course, they will be besieged by the advocates of each great party, and will be sorely puzzled to hold their own, at best.
Should a good Vice-President be appointed, and a bold stand taken in any definite plan for enlarging grants from the Consolidated Fund, we feel confident that the great bulk of the intelligent opinion of the country will back the Government. But if they once embark on any plan for empowering local Boards, who must have sectarian tendencies, to deal with the money of local payers, and tax fragmentary portions of property, they will assuredly fail, and not improbably shipwreck their Ministry!
GooD MANNERS IN SCHOOL Boys. There are many faults and vices which have been but too prevalent among school-boys, which a proper gentlemanly feeling (even as this world considers a gentlemanly feeling) will tend to correct. For instance, to speak the truth uniformly and without any regard to the personal consequences to ourselves, is a thing absolutely necessary to any one who would be considered a gentleman. Such a one would scorn a lie as being not only a sin in the sight of God, but also a thing mean and dishonourable in the sight of man, and tending plainly to the injury and disorganization of society. A lie is a thing unworthy not only of a christian, but even of a gentleman; and hence we see that the philosophy of the heathen blames it as much as the laws of Christ.- Canadian Journal of Education.
KINDNESS versus SEVERITY.-Severity either begets defiance, or it begets terror. If defiance, the whole discipline fails, unless you can pass from ropes to scorpions and from scorpions to thumb-screws. If it begets terror, terror will take its coward refuge in cunning or falsehood; and as all the blossoms of nobility of character drop off one by one, instead of a man, you have made a very slave of a boy. We have tried the rod long enough and if a voice from our prisons—if a voice from our reformatories—tell us that the words of human kindness alone can touch a string, the only string left that will vibrate within the broken instrument of an outcast's heart, surely we are doing a crying injustice to our comparatively innocent children whose natures are not utterly unstrung.-Canadian Journal of Education.
LIEUT. HOPKINS’S, R.N. NEW THEORY OF TIDES.
ACCR. Hopkins has removed some of the difficulties under which philo
V sophers have long laboured to account for anomalies which have
95 baffled their ingenuity; and he has received the usual reward of the cold shoulder. His view is a simple and very ingenious one, viz—that the Tides are the result of two forces—the attraction of the sun and moon which draws the waters out of equilibrium, and the centrifugal force produced by the rotary motion of the earth which is constantly operating to counteract the disturbance and restore equilibrium.
Our philosophers, instead of attempting to prove his theory wrong, have simply picked at some of his details; and evidently misunderstanding some passages which, perhaps, might be rather obscure to them by being stated in popular, instead of technical, terms, have attempted to turn it into ridicule. But we will let the gallant gentleman speak for himself in an appendix which he has lately added to his work : strongly recommending his views to the serious attention of those who, dissatisfied with the obviously absurd mode of accounting for tides, which sufficed for less inquiring ages, are seeking for sounder reasons for this great fact of nature.
“Objections having (through an evident misunderstanding) been made to the assertion that the protuberance travels, or is thrown eastward by the earth's rotations, (p. 24,) and the question put, “How in the world is the rotary motion of the earth, which is uniform for every meridian alike, to cause a change of form to pass backward at the same rate : ” [700 miles per hour,] I will endeavour to state my views more briefly and explicitly.
"1. Rotary motion is progressive motion. a It is matter advancing through space. The tire of a rotating wheel moves through space, and its effects are projectile (vide illustration, p. 23.)
“2. All projected or advancing masses necessarily move in direct lines, unless diverted into the curve by the presence of other matter, or some restraining or confining force.
"3. The equatorial circle of fluid, or homogeneous masses, in consequence of the above law, enlarges or contracts according to the velocity of rotation, making the body more or less spheroidal. These phenomena are owing to the drops, or particles, of which the mass is composed being either drawn or projected, from A. to a
“The earth for the most part is surrounded by water, and having rotary motion, the equatorial circle would expand or contract, in a greater or less degree, (according to the above law,) in proportion to the velocity of rotation-flattening at the poles, but preserving a perfect equilibrium.
“Now apply this dogma. Truly the velocity of rotation is invariable, but the aqueous circle is subject to perpetual disturbance, since the necessary effect of the sun's or moon's gravity upon a body of water (fluid matter) is to raise a protuberance, and thus continually to disturbe the equilibrium of the aqueous circle, while orbital centrifugal force raises a similar protuberance on the opposite side.
“ The effect of rotary motion upon fluid matter is, to restore equilibrium when disturbed, and so to counteract disturbance.
“ The process of restoration, however, is not to throw the form of the protuberance eastward, (or “backward,') but to lengthen out the profile of its features, by an equatorial expansion of that portion of the ocean circle not already raised by gravity, and by a process similar to that already noticed, when there is an increase of rotary velocity : and so the wave advances in every respect according to the laws which govern other common waves. Hence the forces are antagonistic. Rotary force is the ruling force which determines the amount of expansion of the equatorial circle, and keeps it in perfect equilibrium, whilst the sun's and moon's gravity are perpetually disturbing its sphericity.
“ If the aqueous circle were not broken by lands, it is possible that the two forces would so far counteract each other as to keep the surface near to equilibrium, the continual disturbances caused by the attracting bodies being counteracted by the constantly exerted rotatory force. In the present condition of the surface of the earth—the aqueous circle being broken by continents—the case is different. The attractive force is constantly acting, but has not, when the land surface is presented, any thing which it can affect. Therefore, the protuberance only reaches its maximum at or near the centres of the two oceans.
“Hence the rotatory motion of the earth can only partially restore the equilibrium of the aqueous circle, which is being continually disturbed, by acting in the direction of its own line of force, i. e. in the direction of its own rotations. And thus the form, or profile of the protuberance is thrown up, thrust, carried, or driven eastward (backward,' if you please, from meridian to meridian,) by the earth's eastward motion, in the conservative effort (if I may use such a figure) to restore the equilibrium so disturbed.*
“Were it not for the intervention of the land, that protuberance, or the remains of it, would probably, but for fresh disturbances, be carried round the whole circle of the earth, until it reached equilibrium at or near the point of disturbance. That intervention forming an obstruction, it rolls upon the shores as a tidal wave, runs up coasts and rivers, fills the channels, and breaks into currents where fresh obstructions interfere ; and only obtains an approximation to equilibrium as thc form, or profile of the superabundant waters, or the remains thereof, roll back upon the eastern shores of the opposite continent forming the tide, or high water, there.
REMOVAL OF DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING.-A good teacher will constantly endeavour to lead his pupils on, and remove all unnecessary obstacles ;-he will not create difficulties for the mere sake of trying the strength of his pupils, nor task their endurance for the purpose of inculcating patience and humility. The little, pedantic mind, delights itself in making difficulties of trifles. The superior mind invests every subject with its own comprehensiveness and logical simplicity.-Miss Crampton's Practical Notes.
SELF-INSTRUCTION.—The grand principle of education is, making a child its own instructor. The most common mistake, I think, is, to suppose that it is an object to store the minds of children with a great number of facts, whereas it is far more important to inure them to application, which from the force of habit, will become easy and even agreeable, and which always brings with it its own reward. Writing, orthography, grammar, and composition may all be learned at the same time; and I believe that by such lessons the mind gains arrangement of ideas, as well as words.- Education for the People, by Mrs. Hippersley Tuckfield.
* The protuberance has really a velocity even greater than 700 miles per hour, not in form or motion differing from other waves, but only in velocity. Since the phenomena now under review is sustained by a central-internal force, which affects simultaneously the whole equatorial circle, the disturbance being local, the undulating result must be progressive-unlike the dogma of wave-motion advanced by Dr. Whewell, (p. 19,) where the wave has not only to travel 700, but literally 5000 miles per hour, without any continuous force whatever.
TABLE OF QUARTER SQUARES. en USEFUL set of tables, containing quarter squares of integer numbers SA . to 100,000, has been published by Messrs. Layton, 150, Fleet SAS Street, compiled by Mr. S. L. Laundy. These tables, as is observed in the preface, will be extremely useful to the banker in computing interest, to the architect and civil engineer in estimating superficial and cubical quantities, to surveyors in the admeasurement of land, to the merchant and tradesman in carrying out quantities and prices in invoices, to the astronomer in his scientific researches, to the actuary in his investigations, and we may add, this being our special reason for commending the work to the schoolmaster in setting questions to his pupils. Every one engaged in any of the above occupations will be able to abridge materially the labour incident to his calculations, and to check computations made by the ordinary process. Indeed for most purposes we think it will be found far easier to work with than a table of logarithms.
The principle of these tables is contained in the following formula, which any one having the slightest knowledge of algebra will comprehend without difficulty:
ab = (a X b) 2 - (ab) 2
4 In other words, if we want to multiply any two numbers together, subtract a quarter of the square of their difference from a quarter of the square of their sum, and you have the answer. These tables, by furnishing the quarter squares, enable us to perform the operation readily, and thus the labour of multiplying is reduced to a simple addition and subtraction sum. The work is very properly printed in the old form of numeral, at the price of £1. 1s. This price is, we fear, too high for the pockets of most people, but the expense of the printing must have been enormous, and fully justifies the cost.
While on this subject, as cognate to it, we should like to ask what has become of Babbage's Calculating Machine? Here is a business for which it is exactly fitted, and in which its assistance would have been invaluable. The value of such tables of course depends upon their accuracy, and Babbage's machine would have made the requisite calculations with unerring truth, and also have stamped the plates for printing from. In fact the machine alone, far transcending all direct efforts of the human mind, would have produced such tables as Mr. Laundy's literally immaculate : and at a price too that would have removed the only impediment to their universal use. Surely the quarrel between Mr. Babbage and the Government, after a lapse of twenty years, might now be settled. Is there no peacemaking friend of science in this scientific age, who will step forward to rescue this magnificent invention from the dust and neglect of King's College, where in some dark vault we believe the half-finished machine lies unnoticed and almost forgotten? Let us hope that some man of science may be induced to devote himself to this good work, the neglect of which for so long a period is, in our opinion, a disgrace to the nation.