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SECTION IV. 1. Find the interest on £895 at 27 per cent. for 7 years 2 months. How long will it be before £374, put out at interest at 4 per cent., will realize a profit of £100 ? • 2. There are 2 schools, one containing 650 children, and the other 340 children : 5 per cent. of the former are generally absent, 7.5 of the latter : what is the average attendance in each ?
The present worth of a debt, due 6 months hence, is £25. 10s., and the rate of discount is 6 per cent. per annum, what is the amount of the debt?
3. Sold 16 cwt. 2 qrs. of soap, which cost £2. 6s. 8d. per cwt., at 61d. per lb., what was the gain upon the whole, and also per cwt.
SECTION V. 1. Compare the advantages of a decimal system having £1 for the unit, with those of one which has a farthing for the unit.
2. What is the readiest way of converting our present money into decimals of £1 ? Give examples.
3. Add together the 18th part of £45, the 19th part of £23, and the 20th of £86; 7 flo. 5 cents. 7 mils.
SECTION VI. 1. What books are required in book-keeping by single entry, and what is the use of each?
2. What are the respective advantages of single and double entry?
SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. 1. From the subjoined extract from a class register calculate the average age of the children, the average attendance for the week, the number present at all, and the average number of days attended by each child present at all.
2. Prepare the heads for a series of six lessons on physical geography for your first class; and state clearly what illustrations you propose to use for each lesson.
3. Describe fully the apparatus and illustrations you intend to use for collective lessons in natural history. To what extent do you propose to teach natural history? Give your reasons for this.
4. What faculties of children are called in active exercise by a good lesson on each of the following subjects : Colour, the Structure of an Insect, Climate, the Character of Jacob? Give clear reasons for your statement.
5. Upon what principles does the cultivation of memory depend ? By what exercises is it best prepared to acquire, retain, and reproduce useful information ?
6. What do you mean by method ? Explain the relation between principles and methods; and illustrate this by examples.
7. What exercises are best calculated to train children to acquire knowledge for themselves?
8. What are the chief practical objections to the elliptic and simultaneous methods ? How can these objections be obviated ?
9. What do you mean by the organization of schools ? Upon what principles does its efficiency and success chiefly depend?
10. To what extent, in what subjects, and under what circumstances do you consider the assistance of ladies as visitors desirable ?
We will insert a few more next month.—ED. E. J. E.]
FACTS V. FICTIONS. Précis of correspondence between an Experimentalist and a Theorist; relative to the movements attributed to the Moon, to account for the fact that she presents always the same hemisphere towards the Earth, so that one-half of her surface has never been visible from our planet.
EXPERIMENTALIST TO THEORIST.
(WITH A PAMPHLET.)
I earnestly invite, and claim,
THEORIST TO EXPERIMENTALIST.
Whereby it's evident, you see,
Notes of New Books.
The Office and Work of Universities. By the Very Reverend John H.
Newman, D.D., of the Oratory. Pp. 384. London: Longmans. THESE Essays, for such they are, written by Dr. Newman, set forth
1 the scope and legitimate objects of the new Irish Catholic University, of which the writer is the Rector. Let no Protestant lay this book down as a missile of Papacy unfit for his contemplation. If he do so, he will unworthily and groundlessly deprive himself of much profitable and remarkably eloquent wisdom on the general topic of education, in its high and comprehensive spheres ; and especially of much experience and fruitful suggestions therefrom drawn out and well set forth, on the management and due moulding of Universities. We approve of much, very much, of the aims of this book, as they stand forth in its plainly written pages. We adopt in some measure its lucid description of what a University ought to be, together with its work character and methods. We admire still more highly the bold and earnest spirit of the writer, affording a wholesome contrast to the narrow self-seeking motives and furtive caution of the great bulk of the thinkers and actors in these morbid times. Right well and fearlessly says Dr. Newman :
“If I am charged with being shallow on the one part, or off-hand on the other ; if I myself feel that fastidiousness at my own attempts that grows upon an author as he multiplies his compositions, I shall console myself with the reflection that life is not long enough to do more than our best, whatever that may be ; and they who are ever taking airn make no hits; that they who never venture never gain ; that to be ever safe is to be ever feeble ; and that to do some substantial good is the compensation for much incidental imperfection."
We believe that this is the true path to all human usefulness. It is just the one main distinction between the useless conformist to whatever reigns, and the useful adventurer into the realms of new truth : whence the progress of civilization derives its strength and sustenance, and where earnest endeavours grapple with the barriers and barnacles by which prejudice and error fortify their strongholds and hoodwink mankind.
Dr. Newman's ideal of a University seems to be summed up in these words, though he expatiates on it through many pages, and presents it in various aspects, we regret to say, of unattainable excellence :
“It is a place of concourse whither students come from every quarter for every kind of knowledge. You cannot have the best of every kind everywhere ; you must go to some great city or emporium for it. There you have all the choicest productions of nature and art all together, which you find each in its own separate place elsewhere. All the riches of the land, and of the world are carried up thither; there are the best markets, and there the best workmen. It is the centre of trade, the supreme court of fashion, the umpire of rival skill, and the standard of things rare and precious. It is the place for seeing galleries of first-rate pictures, and for hearing wonderful voices and miraculous [sic] performers. It is the place for great preachers, great orators, great nobles, great statesmen. In the nature of things, greatness and unity go together; excellence implies a centre. Such then, for the third or fourth time, is a University."
Now really it is not a University at all, but rather the Metropolis of an Utopia. But the picture is not yet complete, and the Reverend writer invests his idol with other perfections. It is also to be
“A place to which a thousand schools make contributions ; in which the intellect may safely range and speculate, sure to find its equal in some antagonist activity, and its judge in the tribunal of truth. It is also to be) a place where inquiry is pushed forward, and discoveries verified and perfected, and rashness rendered innocuous, and error exposed, by the collision of mind and mind, and knowledge with knowledge. It is a place where the professor becomes eloquent, and a missionary and preacher of science, displaying in its most complete and most winning form, pouring it forth with the zeal of enthusiasm, and lighting up his own love of it in the breasts of his bearers. It is the place where the catechist makes good his ground as he goes, treading in the truth day by day into the ready memory, and wedging and tightening it into the expanding reason. It is a place which attracts the affections of the young by its fame, wins the judgment of the middle-aged by its beauty, and rivets the memory of the old by its associations. It is a seat of wisdom, a light of the world, a minister of the faith, an Alma Mater of the rising generation. It is this and a great deal more[!]. Such is it in its idea and in its purpose ; such in good measure has it before now been in fact."
Now this with great respect to Dr. Newman-it never has been ; nor has anything one tithe as perfect ever existed on earth, nor in all human likelihood ever will; and of this prophecy he seems himself to entertain the possible truth, for he concludes his glowing rhapsody with this extraordinary climax : “Shall it ever be again? We are going forward in the strength of the Cross, under the patronage of Mary, in the name of Patrick, to attempt it.”
The office of the Cross is to redeem the sinner, and not to forestall a millennium, and institute a state of corporate perfection, which our holy religion teaches us to be incompatible with human imperfectibility. And if the Cross itself affords no earnest of such success on earth, we fear that neither Mary or Patrick will supplement its power, or greatly help the “ Very Reverend the Rector” to establish an academic heaven in Ireland. Nothing can exceed the utterly visionary beauty of the aspirations (for he cannot possibly suppose them to be practicabilities) of the idea of a model University, which the benevolent writer paints with a spirit of enthusiastic optimism especially refreshing to read in this day of neological dogmas and materialistic objects, so rife in carnalities and so intent on self-interests.
The wisdom of the highly-gifted writer shines forth more fully in his negative than in his positive portrait of University attributes :
“With influence there is life, without it there is none ; if influence is deprived of its due position, it will not by those means be got rid of, it will only break out irregularly, dangerously. An academical system without the personal influence of teachers upon pupils, is an arctic winter; it will create an ice-bound, petrified, cast-iron university, and nothing else. You will not call this any new notion of mine; and you will not suspect, after what happened to me a long twenty-five years ago, that I can ever be induced to think otherwise. No! I have known a time in a great school of letters when things went on for the most part by mere routine, and form took the place of earnestness. I have experienced a state of things in which teachers were cut off from the taught as by an insurmountable barrier ; when neither party entered into the thoughts of the other ; when each lived by and in itself; when the tutor was supposed to fulfil his duty, if he trotted on like a squirrel in his cage-if at a certain hour he was in a certain room, or in hall, or in chapel, as it might be ; and the pupil
did his duty too, if he was careful to meet his tutor in that same room, or hall, or chapel, at the same certain hour; and when neither the one nor the other dreamed of seeing each other out of lecture, out of chapel, out of academical gown. I have known places where a stiff manner, a pompous voice, coldness, and condescension, were the teacher's attributes, and where he neither knew, nor wished to know, and avowed he did not wish to know, the private irregularities of the youths committed to his charge. “ This was the reign of Law without Influence, System without Personality.”
There is no doubt of the truth of this : Rem acu tetigisti. But where- oh where, Dr. Newman, are your tutors and professors to be found ? Where is the arrow that will hit the goal ? New brooms sweep clean. Should even the long list of professors, examiners, chaplains, preachers, and tutors (with very Hibernian patronymics), which form the present official staff of the new University, and shine forth in the Appendix of your book,—should they, peradventure, realize your benevolent behests, and begin their labours, fraught, as you would wish them, with angelic attributes and the choicest gifts of intellect,-by what hitherto undiscovered talisman will you perpetuate this labour of love, light, and learning, and keep alive this superhuman tuition : so that it may go on with never-flagging energy, subduing every difficulty and discouragement, which waywardness ignorance and vice must of necessity present; unless, indeed, you have discovered another spell for securing pattern pupils for perfect tutors ?
The book is replete with fine feeling, and a high-flown philosophic but often impracticable optimism, which bespeak the intellect and philanthropy of the writer, accompanied by no ordinary amount of intellectual gifts.
The School and Family History of England, from the Earliest Period to
the Nineteenth Year of the Reign of Queen Victoria. By Edward Farr, F.S.A. New Edition. Pp. 491. London : Longmans.
DUITE in accordance with our view of the proper mode of writing V history, Mr. Farr says, in his preface :
“History embraces a far wider range of events [than victories). Besides narrating a nation's wars, both foreign and civil, and exhibiting the rise, fall, and decline of dynasties, it must present a view of the people at large, in their social condition at various epochs ; of their religion, government, laws, literature, arts, science, commerce, manners and customs, &c. : in a word, of their gradual progress from barbarism to civilization. History has also to delineate character: whoever has made himself a name for talents, knowledge, patriotism, valour, or great virtues, should obtain a prominent place in its pages.
“It is on such principles as these that the Collegiate, School, and Family History of England has been written.”
The author has done this. There is great fulness of detail, and yet the details are not dry, like the little chopped bits and chips which constitute the abstract histories,—those disgusters of children. We like, too, the fairness and candour of the views taken. Charles's despotism, rapacity, and deceit, are not veiled ; whilst indignation is well expressed at the manner of judgment and fierce persecuting spirit which procured and characterized his execution. The natural malignity of Puritanism is well set forth by Mr. Farr; and the child will, in this epoch, learn