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8. What is meant by a corporation ? Trace the origin and growth of municipal corporations during the feudal period.
SECT. 2.-Mention instances in which a teacher will be able to apply his own knowledge of the character of our constitution to the instruction of children in an elementary school, and write full notes of a lesson on one of these instances.
History.—Macaulay and Mahon. SECT. I.-1. Give an account of the growth, character, and fall of the Star-Chamber and High-Commission Courts.
2. What were the circumstances that led to the Triple Alliance? What was the nature and effect of that alliance?
3. Give an account of Monmouth's rebellion against James II., and the circumstances which attended its suppression,
4. Describe the abdication of James II.
5. Describe the origin of the National Debt and the establishment of the Bank of England.
6. Describe the reformation of the currency in the reign of William III., and the difficulties attending it.
7. Give an account of the rebellions of 1715 and 1745. Compare the chances of success in each case.
8. Give an account of the South Sea Scheme, and its failure. 9. Describe the rise of the Methodists.
10. At what period in our history did government by a Cabinet begin? Mention the most important Prime Ministers that have since held office.
SECT. II.- What do you consider to be the chief purposes of teaching history to children?
Higher Mathematics.- Problems in Applied Mathematics. Logarithmic tables may be used with this paper.
SECT. 1.-1. Find the centre of gravity of a solid cone and a solid cylinder on opposite sides of the same circular base, the height of the cone being half that of the cylinder.
2. A sphere weighing 20 pounds rests upon two inclined planes whose inclinations to the horizon are 60° and 30° respectively. Find the pressure on each plane.
3. A weight of 15 tons is supported by a power acting on a system of 6 pulleys, every string being attached to the weight, and the friction of every pulley being one-seventh of the pressure on that pulley. Find the power.
4. With what velocity must a ball strike another equal ball that is moving 5 feet in a second, so that the impinging ball may be reduced to rest, the common elasticity of the balls being one-third ?
5. A body is projected at an angle of 45° with a velocity of 805 feet per second. Find the range.
6. If the length of a pendulum beating seconds, be 39 inches, what will be the length of a pendulum beating minutes ?
7. The specific gravity of two substances being 9 and 12, find the specific gravity of a substance compounded in equal proportions of both, and find the greatest thickness that may be given the sides of a cubical box, made of the compound, so that it may be just able to float in water, the outside of the box being a cube foot.
8. An arrow two feet long is placed vertically, at a distance of 6 feet before a spherical mirror, also placed vertically, whose radius is 3 feet. Where will the image be, and will it be magnified or diminished, erect or inverted ?
9. An object is seen through two lenses, one convex and the other concave, placed at a distance equal to the difference of their focal lengths. In what cases will it be erect, in what inverted, in what magnified, and in what diminished ?
10. In latitude 52° 5' N., the true meridian altitudes of three fixed stars were 58° 6' 12" N., 31° 50' 12" N., and 64° 7' N.; find their declinations.
11. Given the ratio of the earth's equatorial and polar diameters = 3963. Find approximately the latitude taken from the centre of the earth of a place whose observed latitude is 45°
12. Required the course and distance from lat. 10° 15' N., long. 15° 6' W. to lat. 8° 15' S., long. 36° 5' W.,
SECT. II.—Sketch out a syllabus, and give a list of the illustrations for a course of lessons on Mechanics, in which no apparatus is to be used but such as could be made by yourself, or found in any ordinary household.
School Management. In illustration as an element in teaching :
Show its necessity, and point out what kinds of illustration are best suited to each of the usual subjects of elementary instruction.
MORAL COURAGE.—Sidney Smith, in his work on Moral Philosophy, speaks in this wise, of whal men lose for want of a little moral courage, or independence of mind:“A great deal of talent is lost in the world for the want of a little courage. Every day sends to the grave a number of obscure men, who have only remained in obscurity because their timidity has prevented them from making the first effort; and who, if they could be induced to begin, would in all probability, have gone great lengths in the career of fame. The fact is, that to do anything in this world worth doing, we must not stand back shivering, and thinking of the cold and the danger, but jump in and scramble through as well as we can. It will not do to be perpetually calculating tasks and adjusting nice chances; it did very well before the flood, where a man could consult his friends upon an intended publication for a hundred and fifty years, and then live to see its success afterwards; but at present, a man waits and doubts and hesitates and consults his brother and his uncle, and his particular friends, till one fine day he finds that he is sixty years of age; that he has lost so much time in consulting his first cousin and particular friends, that he has no more time to follow their advice.”-R. I. Schoolmaster.
FORMATION OF CHARACTER.-Man's workshop is the world. His school-days are his apprenticeship. Only train the mind, form the character; and you supply the tools, you give skill to the hand of a workman at whose cunning workmanship you shall never blush, and whose handywork shall be a boon to his race. How is it that so many school prodigies become in after life weak and useless, idle vagabonds, heavy nightmares on the bosom of society? Because the head was crammed, while the heart was neglected, and sound habits of mind unformed. How is it that so many men of undoubted genius and extensive learning have shone amid surrounding darkness with a fitful and meteoric glare, instead of a bright and abiding light? How is it that they have so often been mere comets-objects of wonder or portents of dread-instead of life and light giving suns ? Is it not in many cases attributable to a defective Education-an Education that mistook the means for the end-an Education whose great design was not the formation of character? What might not these men have been if in early life they had been under the influence of a prudent, and prayerful persevering Education :- Dr. Cornish on Education.
CHOOL discipline includes so many things, that the attempt to bring them all under notice in the short space of one paper must fail. I therefore shall content myself with mentioning a few points,
which appear to me the most important. 3 I. I assume school discipline to mean the whole routine of school
business, excepting, probably, the actual giving of lessons; though o discipline would, to some extent, influence that portion of school work. For it would lead the teacher to give his lessons always in a quiet, occasionally in a gentle, or in an animated, in a grave, or in a lively tone and manner, as the subject might require; and in every case in such a manner as to fully indicate the teacher's interest in the subject. Let the children see that the teacher is interested in the lesson, and interest will be awakened in them. We have all had the opportunity of noticing that when we have flagged our class has also flagged.
II. This leads me to suggest, secondly, that it is well not to enter on a lesson when, from some cause, we feel incompetent to summon up and command the attention and interest which the subject requires. And herein I refer especially to religious teaching. It would seem unwise to enter on a Scripture lesson with thoughts distracted and mind wearied.
But here let me be clearly understood. A depression of spirit, or a distraction of mind, which would impair ability to execute duty, is of course to be determinedly combated. Duty clearly demands that this effort should be made-honestly and strenuously made—and if so made, it will generally be followed by success.
But if the ability be obviously and absolutely unequal to the task; if the mental grief be, for the moment, irrepressible, and the consequent physical debility irremediable, it would seem better to defer the task to some other period. I am aware that this would dislocate, and to some extent impair the symmetry of the “ Time Table.” But this would seem a less evil than the engaging in a task demanding energy and attention, when energy could not be commanded, or attention given.
In this suggestion I have respect rather to the children's interest than to the teacher's convenience. And the point which I chiefly seek to establish in the above suggestion is, that the teacher should be in a state of mind and body to secure the attention of the taught.
Manifest listlessness in the teacher must, I fear, produce listlessness and inattention in the scholars.
I do not dwell on justice and impartiality as ingredients in school discipline. Absolutely and immutably right in themselves, no teacher could reject them from his system, without great self-reproach, and most deserved reproach from others. But I would venture to urge that pains should be taken to make it manifest to the children that partiality and favouritism are unpractised and unknown within the walls of the school.
Children are quick in discovering and in resenting injustice, in a degree scarcely credible by those who are not intimately acquainted with the workings of their minds, and the impulses of their hearts. By us present the fact is well known; as is also the fact, that if children are permitted to
believe themselves the victims of injustice, discipline, however perfect in other respects, must be altogether powerless for good. Unwilling to occupy time in insisting on a point on which I am persuaded there is perfect unanimity of opinion, I pass on to a subject which, if it do not command the same immediate concurrence, is yet, in my humble judgment, second only to it in importance in school discipline- I mean
III. Sympathy. This, in my opinion, is an important means of discipline, for as the child sees that the teacher does or does not, sympathise with him in his griefs and joys, so that child will either love and respect the teacher as a friend, or will look upon him merely as a master.
In this respect, I mean the exercise of sympathy, I feel inclined to consider that the female teachers have rather more power than the masters. It cannot be questioned, that, in our own childhood, the one who was most readily chosen our confidante, to whom we most readily confided our griefs and trials, was our mother, or in some cases an elder sister. And is it not so with children in school ? Kind and gentle as the master may be, vet I think children will be less free to tell their mind and thoughts to him, than to the mistress. If this be so, then we must feel that it is doubly binding upon us the female teachers to be the unobserved observers of the cloud or shadow which may show itself upon the countenances of our children. The griefs of children are real and intense. Happily, they are not lasting; and a gentle word or a kind act, will frequently prove sufficient to turn the current of their thoughts, and thus make them forget their griefs. Should this plan fail, then it would seem well to take the child aside, and say you had noticed there was something wrong; and by encouraging words and manner, lead it to tell the facts. If the case can be met by soothing or encouraging words, you would soon see the face brighten and the shadow pass away. If advice were needed, you could give it, and perhaps, in after years the child would remember how you had comforted him by kindness, how you had advised him for his good, and he would bless you for so doing. I cannot but think that we should sometimes get on better if we encouraged the children to think of us more as friends to whom they might confide their trials, griefs, and thoughts. This would not only lead to the good which I have mentioned, but by giving us a deeper insight into the hearts and characters of children, it would help us very much in the management of them, and thus prove an important feature of discipline.
IV. Rewards and Punishments. I am almost afraid to say anything on a subject about which opinions so widely differ. Yet, in reference to rewards, I must venture to say that those who would withhold all reward from children, seem to forget how much they themselves are influenced by the hope of reward. Could, or would men and women go on toiling, struggling, and fighting with the evil within and without, if they were not stimulated and supported by the promised reward to those who “endure to the end ?” Is it not, then, too much to expect that children should persevere in good without reward as a stimulant to exertion? As to punishments, I know by experience, that some children can be best managed by words, and by gentleness; but I am compelled to say that I consider those children rather the exception than the rule. I have tried the plan in several cases, and occasionally with some success. In other cases talking and gentleness have seemed, for a while, to produce the desired effect. The child has appeared convinced of its fault; and has manifested signs of shame and sorrow, but the effect has worn away, and the offence has been repeated. In those cases I have found that corporal punishment has done more lasting good than all my talking and reasoning. Indeed I feel convinced that a child will hold a teacher in contempt whose only discipline is talking, and, on the other hand will feel respect for the teacher who, when need arises, will not hesitate to substitute corporal punishment. I need not, I am sure, suggest that such punishment, to be really beneficial to the character of the child, must be administered without any appearance of anger or passion. Children are greatly inclined to misconstrue the teacher's motive in punishing them. If they are permitted to regard the punishment as a vent to the teacher's temper, they will look upon it as a mere act of tyranny. But if they have reason to believe that the infliction of punishment on them causes pain and sorrow to the teacher, that it is administered as an act of necessity and duty, they will of themselves arrive at the conclusion that the punishment must have been merited, and will learn to respect the hand which dealt it.
V. Silence. I regard this as a very important item of discipline. In visiting schools one's ear is sometimes offended by constant talking, both by teachers and children, and by ceaseless efforts in the former to check it in the latter. This is quite inconsistent with efficient management. It seems to me that the only way by which we can obtain silence in the scholars, is by maintaining silence ourselves. If the teacher is loud and constantly talking, the effect is to encourage loud and constant talking in the children. On the contrary, if the teacher himself would maintain silence, giving both lessons and orders in a quiet, subdued tone, the children would necessarily be quiet, in order to hear what the teacher said. In proportion as he elevates his voice, they will take license to elevate theirs ; because in the din they will hope to escape detection; and, for converse reasons, in proportion as he subdues his voice they must and will subdue theirs. I feel persuaded that, in time, a quiet teacher will make a quiet school.
VI. Punctual attendance, by which I mean attendance at the hour prescribed. On this point I have little information to offer_rather do I seek assistance from the more experienced teachers present.
It is certain that, without punctuality, nothing goes right; and if we would establish good discipline, we must enforce punctuality. How this is to be effected, I have, as yet failed to discover. I have tried kind words, suspension, gentle punishments, and even severe punishments, without success. The punishment I find most effectual is making the late comer stand idle with his arms folded for a certain time, varying according to the case. Children will be doing something-work, play, or mischief, and I have found that the above plan acts as a more severe punishment than I had anticipated. The child is not only quite idle but quite still and motionless; and he has the opportunity of seeing others at work and happy and of contrasting his own idle and unhappy condition with theirs. This discipline also operates incidentally upon the parents. They do not like their children to come to school for nothing. When I first employed this punishment the parents were full of complaints, thinking their children harshly and unjustly dealt with. Their complaints were met and removed by a clear explanation of the principle on which that system of punishment was based.
My hopes were raised when I found the parents coming to me with an interest in their children's doings at school. It gave me the opportunity