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A System of Physical Geography. By D. M. Warren. Pp. 91. London.
Sampson Low. Philadelphia: Cowperthwait. 1857.
author has spared himself no pains in the preparation of the work, Ho and has obtained aid from the investigations of Lieut. Manry” for
V his article on the Ocean. To Professor Coffin he is indebted for great part of his information on the Winds of the Northern Hemisphere. “Dr. Kane has furnished the information by which he has been enabled to designate on the map the location of his winter quarters, and the nearest point to the North Pole, attained by his recent expedition."--Mr. Warren has been aided also by Mr. Arthur Sumner and Mr. Bartlett.
The maps, which are well executed, were drawn by Mr. James Young; and the engravings, which are carefully and well done, are from original designs by Mr. George White.
The work is divided into five parts—Geology, Hydrography, Meteorology, Organic Life, and Physical Geography of the United States. We think it will prove a very useful book for teachers : it contains a variety of questions at the foot of each page, on the information to be derived from each lesson or chapter. We cannot conclude our notice of this work without expressing some degree of pleasure at the feelings and expressions used at the close of the preface :-"Much care has been taken to test the accuracy of every statement; but should any errors be discovered, the author will gratefully acknowledge the kindness of his friends who may furnish him with the information by which they may be corrected.”
The Annals of England. Vol. III. Pp. 428. London and Oxford :
Parker. 1857. THIS is the third and the concluding volume of this useful epitome of English History. We regret much that it is not extended beyond the reign of Queen Anne, and we cannot agree with the author in deeming it "advisable to close this work with the accession of the House of Brunswick, which was the practical assertion of principles recognised as constitutional, though long neglected at the Revolution of 1688.”
Many of the notes and illustrations are both valuable and interesting, and we should be truly glad to see the book carried up to the present period of English History.
Natural Philosophy, for Schools. By Dionysius Lardner, D.C.L. Pp. 241.
London: Walton and Maberly. 1857. THIS book is intended to “supply the want felt by a large number of teachers in public and private schools, of a class book for junior students.”
The subjects are briefly touched on; but those who take interest in them, can gratify their tastes by a perusal of the “Handbook of Natural Philosophy," which takes a wider branch of the same studies.
The subjects here discussed are---General properties of bodies-Special properties of bodies--Force and motion-Gravity-Centrifugal force Molecular force-Elements of Machinery-Moving powersXydrostatics - Pneumatics-Sound-Optics-Heat-Magnetism - Electricity--Voltaic Electricity—Electro Magnetism-Thermo Electricity--Electro Chemistry -Electro Metallurgy-Electro Telegraphy-Electro Illumination Medical Electricity.
This small and simpler edition of the Handbook of Natural Philosophy will be very useful, and we quite agree with the author in hoping “it may be the means of extending instruction in the first notion of Physics into ladies' schools.”
Human Physiology, Statical and Dynamical, &c. By John William
Draper, M.D., L.L.D. Professor of Chemistry and Physiology in the University of New York. Pp. 649. London: Sampson, Low and Co. New York: Harper and Brothers. 1856.
THE more Education turns into channels which touch on the practical things of life the more important become works such as this before us. There are few subjects which fall more essentially or usefully into this category than Physiology and Anatomy, We are delighted with this able and lucid work. It is both scientific and educational. Professor Draper is as distinguished in America as a lecturer as he is eminent in his profession: and his work, through by no means merely a collection or compilation of lectures, is the combined result of his experiences as a teacher and his researches as a physiologist. He has treated his vast and most interesting subject in a manner perfectly philosophical, and he justly remarks that of all others it requires to be exorcised from that mysticism which has enveloped it for ages. He has divided the whole subject into two great branches, statical and dynamical physiology. Every step is assimilated to the conditions of life: and all his illustrations and descriptions tend to reduce the study of the organs of life to the canons of an exact science. He popularises and unfolds the arcana of anatomy and the laws of physiology with remarkable success, and with no unworthy concessions of what science demands in its teachers. Great, moreover, will be the benefit not only to general education but to the medical profession and through it to mankind if the structure and functions of the body alone were thus generally understood. The reform so much needed in the medical profession would be thereby greatly furthered, and a clear and general knowledge of the unerring operation of physical laws over organisation ride triumphant over imposture and empirical experimentalism.
The following arrangement of subjects will give some but an imperfect notion of the book :-Under the general head of statical physiology the professor treats of "conditions of lifefood-digestion-intestinal digestion absorption-absorption by the blood vessels—the blood—the circulation of the blood—respiration-animal heat-secretions, serous, mucous, and hepatic -excretion-decay and nutrition—the nervous system—spinal axis-the brain-cranial nerves and the great sympathetic the voice-hearingvision-cerebral sight or inverse vision—the touch and determination of
pressures and temperatures-smelling and the means of distinguishing gaseous and vaporous substances--the taste—and animal motion.
The second book treats of dynamical physiology and the course of lifeof the principle of organization or plastic power—the influence of physical agents on the organic series-the organic cell, its development, reproduction, and difference of structure and function—reproduction and development—the growth of man-sleep and death—the influence of physical agents on the aspect and form of man and his intellectual qualities—social mechanics.
Every portion of the subject is made as plain and simple as is possible, and adapted to the intelligence of the general as well as to the judgment of the scientific reader, and every portion of the subject is also illustrated by admirable engravings.
At the end of the book the author diverges into some very interesting disquisitions on the progress of civilization, and the mental qualities and types of different races. It is altogether the best book on the subject we have ever read, and although it cannot be properly called or used as a school book, they who think it necessary to inform themselves thoroughly, not superficially, on the functions and anatomy of the human body, ought to buy this book.
LITTLE BOOKS. Publius Virgilius Maro. London: Ward and Lock, 1857.-The publishers affirm in the preface that this is the Aldine Edition of Virgil, and that they have reprinted it at half its former price and with the exact types used by the late William Pickering, “ thereby insuring the accuracy of the text and the beautiful typography” of the former editions. The types are on the contrary nearly worn out, and the impression, though legible enough, is very unsightly. So far as we have examined it the copy is accurate. There are no notes.
Training School Singing Method from the German of T. Rudolf Weber. Edited by W. J. Unwin, M.A., Principal of Homerton College. This book is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. It is necessary to be acquainted with the first in order to master the second part. The treatise on dynamics, union of words with music, exercises on vowels, syllables, and words of songs, are excellent, for we all know how much more pleasure is derived from songs in which the words are distinctly articulated. Very important also is the regulation of the breath. We are glad to see so much attention bestowed on these different points, and we think it a very useful and practical work.
Elementary English Grammar. By the Viscount Downe. 1857. Great pains have evidently been taken with this book, which may very possibly be easily understood by Viscount Downe's own children, but we must say we very much doubt whether it is so easy of comprehension to the children in village schools. The quotations from the Bible, from Shakespeare, Milton, Dr. Arnold and others are well and carefully selected, but we do not think they by any means tend to render the study of grammar so simple as the author intended, though it is an able work.
The Epistles, Analysed by John Thurlow. This book will be useful to teachers and pupil teachers; but it is, we think, too dry for children. Mr. Thurlow has consulted and availed himself of the writings of some good authors, whereby to make his book more complete.
Our Blessed Saviour in his childhood and Youth. This is a good and short epitome of the childhood and youth of Jesus Christ. It is illustrated, and we think will be both pleasing and instructive to children. It is published by the Christian Knowledge Society.
Historiæ Sententia, or the Contemporary Sovereigns of Europe, arranged in Chronological Review, from the Subversion of the Empire of Rome to the Reformation. London: Judd and Glass. Little dry facts of synchronous events, useful enough as bits of chronology relating to the marked events in the great kingdoms of the world, but having about as much pretension to be called history as a walking stick has to be called a tree.
Prussian Primary Education ; its Organization and results. Edited by Wm. J. UNWIN, M.A. &c. This pamphlet seems intended to set people against Sir J. Pakington's Bill, by disgusting them with the German system. "If so, it will not have that effect. Very many of the facts and regulations tell greatly in its favour, and the defects are not greater or graver than must attach to any human system. If the tendency of the German system is to deaden political energy, it is an evil there can be no doubt; but as to its sectarian teaching that is an evil just as prevalent in British Schools, where the great stimulus applied to secular learning has a natural tendency to make religious teaching secondary. As to the general effect of greater education, more sound and more extensive in Protestant Germany than it is here, no question can exist in the mind of any human being who has had any means of mixing with the people of this and those countries, and of comparing the two. At the same time we are opposed to both Sir. J. Pakington's bill and to the Prussian system for England, with its very different state of sects and multiplicity of distinctive denominations, which is the true reason why we must not adopt Prussian models.
Edwin Adams' Notes on the Geology, Mineralogy, and Springs of England and Wales.This is only intended as “an initiatory step to a knowledge of the geology of England and Wales," and bears out the author's intention in that respect. The chapter on springs is very interesting, and the glossary at the end most useful.
Farnham's Elementary School History of England.--This is, as the title implies, merely a short fragmentary account of the leading events in history, but we cannot think that all of these events are related in such a manner as will please children, e. g. the death of Arthur, which is so well calculated to interest every one : how tamely are related and how little said of the sufferings of the poor. Again, how much more interesting might he have made the fate of Becket; and how much more might have been made of the virtues of the Black Prince. The ancient manners and customs are well depicted.
LIST OF NEW BOOKS.
EDUCATIONAL MUSEUM AT SOUTH KENSINGTON.—The following regulations for the guidance of contributors to the educational museum have just been issued by the department of science and art.-1. The museum will be open free to the public, on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Saturdays; and on Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, to Students and the public generally, on payment of 6d. each, or a subscription of ten shillings a year, or five shillings a quarter, payable in advance. 2. Contributions forwarded for exhibition will be classified and arranged by the Officers of the Museum. 3. Exhibitors will be requested to attach to their contributions, descriptive labels giving their names, uses, &c.; the form and size of such label to be hereafter determined. 4. It is desirable that the usual retail price should be distinctly marked on all articles sent for Exhibition. 5. As it is the wish of the Committee on Education, and the evident interest of Exhibitors, that the Museum should at all times represent the then existing state of Educational appliances, every facility will be given for the introduction of new Inventions, Books, Diagrams, &c., relative to Education. 6. Books, and other Educational appliances out of date, or the utility of which may have been superseded, or Articles that may have become injured, may be removed or replaced at the option of the Exhibitor. 7. To prevent confusion, and the possibility of Articles being removed by persons not properly authorized by the Exhibitor, due notice in writing of the intention to remove articles must be given, and no book or object is to be removed until it has been exhibited at least twelve months. 8. In order to protect the property of Exhibitors, no Article will be allowed to be removed from the Museum without a written authority from the Superintendent. 9. On Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, the Books and other objects in the Museum, will be open to Students and to the Public for inspection and study, under such regulations as are usually found convenient in a Public Library. 10. A catalogue will from time to time be published, so as to keep pace as much as possible with the additions to the Museum, and the withdrawals from it." 11. Exhibitors desirous of advertising in the Catalogue, may send their Prospectuses, Illustrations, Price Lists, &c. 1000 copies at a time, and printed in demy 8vo., so that they may be bound up in the Catalogue. The binding will be free of cost to the Exhibitor; but Exhibitors will bear any depreciation in the value of the objects from their use by visitors. 12. All contributions forwarded to the Museum, to be addressed to the Secretary of the Department of Science and Art, Cromwell Gardens, South Kensington, care of Richard A. Thompson, Esq., Superintendent of the Museum.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. OPENING OF CHARTER HOUSE SCHOOLS.—We prefer inserting the addresses in full, next month, to an abridgment now.
W. E.-We are much obliged by your diagrams and letter.
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