A New Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations
Vintage Books, 2007 - 452 páginas
Like Jared Diamond's COLLAPSE, Clive Ponting's book studies the relationship between the environment and human history. It examines world civilizations from Sumeria to ancient Egypt, from Easter Island to the Roman Empire and it argues that human beings have repeatedly built societies that have grown and prospered by exploiting the Earth's resources, only to expand to the point where those resources could no longer sustain the societies' populations and subsequently collapsed. He shows, for example, how the fall of Rome has particular and vital importance for our modern global civilization. Destructive environmental behaviour today takes place on a much larger scale than ever before and the consequences will be correspondingly greater. Ponting argues for a higher sensitivity to the finite nature of our resources and the catastrophic impact on our modern world, should we continue to squander those resources. This new edition of Clive Ponting's international bestseller has been revised, expanded and updated. It provides not only a compelling story of how we have damaged the environment for thousands of years but also an up-to-the-minute assessment of the crisis facing the world today - and the problems that have to be faced in the search for solutions.
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The Lessons of Easter Island
The Foundations of History
Ninetynine per cent of Human History
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40 per cent acid rain Africa agriculture amount animals Asia became Britain British carbon dioxide centimetres centre changes China cities climate coal colonies consumption countries crops cultivated death decades decline disease domesticated Easter Island economic ecosystems effects eighteenth century emissions energy environment environmental Eurasia European export extinction famine farming fell fertilisers forests fossil fuels gathering and hunting global warming growth half hectares huge human history impact important increase India industrialised world industry irrigation islands killed kilometres labour land large number late levels lived London maize major Mesoamerica Mesopotamia metres million tonnes natural nineteenth century North America nuclear outbreak output Overall period plants pollution problems production reduced rise river rose salinisation scale settlement societies South south-east Asia Soviet Union spread square kilometres Sumer supply tonnes trade twentieth century twenty-first century United waste western Europe whaling world's population