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those very men who had availed them- | ground upon which he rested his opposelves of that lenity, which the government sition. had extended to them? In such a con- Colonel Wood believed the measure to juncture there could be little doubt but be the only one which, under all circumtheir inveterate hatred to the English stances, could save Ireland. He was would show itself afresh. For their however against permitting wool to be hostility to this union, he had the au- exported to Ireland till such time as we thority of their own detestable organ, had a greater quantity than we could mathe committee sitting in Dublin, who had nufacture. He was also hostile to that declared, that they would be contented article which gave an unlimited right of with no terms that could be held out to admission to seats in the House of Comthem by a union, and that they would mons to peers of Ireland, as being one of oppose it at the expense of that very the most dangerous innovations upon the emancipation which they so violently constitution that could have been devised; contended for. The professed object of it would add more to corruption and inthe measure was, to oppose this mas- Auence than any one of those measures of sy buckler of union to any attempt which honourable members had been so at invasion during the present war; jealous. By the union he expected that but he did not see how we could effect not only the strength of the two countries that object, when it was found incapable would be concentrated, but religious feuds of tranquillizing the Protestants. So far and distinctions done away, and that in from concentrating the property of Ire- the course of a few years, Ireland would land, it served only to divide the good attain that degree of prosperity which friends of the constitution; it rendered otherwise ages would not have been able the lower classes of the Catholics more to effect. disaffected, if possible, than they were Sir R. C. Glynn congratulated the before, and relaxed the zeal which the House that the time was arrived when we Protestants felt for the existing govern- might entertain the hope that the British ment. From all these considerations islands would be united into one kingdom. it was evident, that we could not bring The terms of the union appeared to him into this union the physical force of Ire to be founded on the broad basis of mutual land; on the contrary, that force would ability. become more dangerous after the local Mr. Nicholls said, that the discontents parliament should be transferred. In of Ireland did not arise from religious distheir own parliament, the Roman Catho- putes, but from rights refused, and from lics always had partizans who were ready oppression continued. These it was that to bring forward measures in their favour, made the Catholics to be considered as and they might have rested content with dangerous subjects. When they became the expectation of the result to be pro- a minority of the whole empire, it would duced. In this country, they knew there be safe to grant them every possible in. were persons of great political eminence who dulgence. He trusted, that the united did not think it right that Ireland should parliament would see the necessity of be governed by the Protestant ascendancy, putting an end to all religious distinctions. which was so inferior in point of popula. He saw but little danger in the measure, tion, and should any change bring those and nothing but what was greatly overmen into power, it was not impossible that weighed by she probable good. Ireland might yet be governed by a Ro- The question being put, that the said man Catholic parliament, Under the pre- Resolutions be now read a second time, the sent arrangement, the mass of the Roman House divided : Catholics had nothing to expect, though

Tellers. every exclusion should be removed by the united parliament. A few Roman Ca

: }208 tholic gentlemen sitting in that House, or even the whole 100 Irish representatives,

Mr. Bankes

:} 26 would make no change in the regular establishment; and therefore the Roman The three first resolutions of the ComCatholics, constituting the physical force mittee being accordingly read a second of Ireland could have no chance in time, were agreed to. future of accomplishing their views but by a total separation. This was the strong May 5. The House proceeded to take

Yeas {The Lord Hawkesbury
Nous {Sir W. M. Milner -

the report into further consideration. Se-, agreeable to the people of Ireland to acveral amendments to the 4th Resolution cept of a union. Some parts, however, were proposed by Dr. Laurence, Mr. gave him peculiar satisfaction. The imGrey, and sir W. Dolben, and negatived,' pediments to a parliamentary reform were the Resolution was agreed to. The re- removed, on the principle of its being an maining Resolutions, after several verbal innovation : innovation was now admitted, Amendments, were put and agreed to. by the change which the introduction of a

Mr. Pitt said, that having proceeded certain number of members produced, and thus far in the business of the union be- by the getting rid of the rotten boroughs. tween the two countries, it next became Whenever this subject came under conbis duty to move, “ That an Address be sideration, it would be so strong as to presented to his majesty, humbly begging carry conviction, and in an imperial parleave to aequaint his majesty, that, in liament, could not surely be objected to. conformity to his majesty's gracious mes- Mr. Pitt said, that whenever that quessage, laying before us the resolutions of tion came under discussion, he should the Lords and Commons of Ireland, we feel himself under no necessity of admithave proceeded to resume the considera- ting such a principle, from his approving tion of the great and important subject of of the union; because he approved of it a legislative union between Great Britain from the necessity of such a measure. and Ireland: that it is with unspeakable Though the bon. gentleman might persist satisfaction we have observed the con- in reform; yet it did not follow that he formity of the said resolutions to those (Mr. Pitt) should have shut his eyes, for principles which we humbly submitted to the last ten years, to some of the most his majesty in the last session of parlia- memorable events that had ever happened ment, as calculated to form the basis of in the world. He had learned to correct such a settlement: that, with the few al- his former conjectural opinions by the terations and additions which we have events that had arisen; and no obloquy found it necessary to suggest, we consi- should hinder him from openly and mander these resolutions as fit to form articles fully disavowing such opinions. of union between Great Britain and Ire- Mr. Hobhouse coincided in opinion with land, and if those alterations and additions Mr. Tierney, who, he was sure, had alshall be approved by the two Houses of ways endeavoured to purify the reprethe parliament of Ireland, we are ready sentation of the people, from genuine to confirm and ratify these articles, in patriotism. The cause of parliamentary order that the same may be established reform would be greatly advanced by the for ever by the mutual consent of both union. The hackneyed topic of innovaparliaments. That we offer to his majesty tion could no longer be urged; for could our humble congratulations upon the

near there be a greater innovation than the deprospect of the accomplishment of a struction of the close boroughs, and a work, which his majesty, as the common compensation allowed to the proprietors! father of his people, has justly declared Such a precedent was a 'main point to be so near his heart, concurring with gained by the friends to parliamentary his Houses of parliament in Ireland, on reform. the full conviction that, by incorporating Mr. Jones said, that this business was a the legislatures, and consolidating the death-warrant to the constitution-Dothing resources of the two kingdoms, we shall more or less than the extinction of freeincrease the power and stability of the dom-a negotiated sale of our liberties. British empire, and, at the same time, If a minister could pass income bills now, contribute in the most effectual manner what could he not do when 100 members to the improvement of the commerce, the were added to the patronage of the security of the religion, and the preserva- crown? tion of the liberties, of his majesty's sub- The motion was agreed to. A comjects in Ireland.”

mittee was appointed to draw up an adMr. Tierney objected to voting this dress. It was afterwards reported, and address on the same night on which the agreed to ; and the Address and Resoluresolutions were passed.

There were

tions were, on the following day, commugentlemen who would wish to be present nicated to the Lords at a conference. whom he did not now see in their

places. His own mind was made up o give it a Debate in the Lords on the King's negative, because lie knew that it was not Message respecting a Union with Ireland.] April 21. Lord Grenville moved, that let all these persons have that which, by the House do now resolve itself into a consenting to the union, they were to pay committee of the whole House upon tha so great a price for. The great ground King's Message, and upon the Address of complaint was, that English influence and Resolutions respecting a Union with preponderated on every occasion to the Ireland (see p. 26).

prejudice of the interests of Ireland. Was Lord Holland said, that painful as it the measure in question likely to increase was to him to detain their lordships, by or to remove that cause of complaint ? inducing a debate where it was evident There would be little difficulty in answerno debate would have taken place unlessing the question. Much reliance had he had risen to provoke one, still he could been placed on the salutary effects that not avoid taking upon himself the unwel had resulted to Scotland from her union come office of addressing their lordships with Great Britain ; but, without ateven against their inclination. He assured tempting to discuss whether the bethem, however, he would not have put neficial advantages of an increased comhimself in so unpleasant a situation, if it merce, an extended system of agriwere not that he rose to speak to the culture, and an enlarged scale of manuprinciple of the union. He did not mean facture, had been derived by Scotland as to deny that the sister kingdom had long an immediate consequence of her union, stood in a situation which required some or had arisen gradually from other causes, means to be adopted to put it on a more it was sufficient to remark, that forty eligible footing. He took the liberty, years had elapsed before the Scotch reaped nevertheless, to contend, that the union any of the essential benefits which she was not the remedy adequate to the occa- now enjoyed. He must therefore mainsion, and that the good effects that would tain, that speculative ideas of distant adprobably result from it forty or fifty years vantages were but visionary and delusive hence, as the parliament of Ireland were prospects at best, and by no means to be taught to expect, was not a proportionate set against the possession of invaluable price to satisfy that country for the im- rights, splendid honours, and the glory menseadvantages she was called upon tosur- of independence. Besides, there was one render at the present moment. To render prominent feature in favour of the Scotch theremedy applicable as a compensation for union, which did not exist in the present the purchase of so vast a bargain, present instance. By an act of Parliament of that benefits equal in value ought to be imme- kingdom, a different prince might sit on diately made over to Ireland. He was its throne from him who filled the throne aware that the original pretext for the of England; or, to come nearer to the measure was the attempt made to separate point, a king might reign in England who both kingdoms. In that point of view it might not be the legal king of Scotland. was a most serious consideration, whether | That undoubtedly was a strong argument the union would give a real increase of in favour of the supporters of the Scotch strength in that kingdom to government, union; but such a pretext existed not in or whether it would or would not conci- the present instance. With respect to liate the affections of the people of Ire Ireland, therefore, no such hypothetical land. They should consider what was case could be put; no such danger could most likely to give real strength to the be dreaded. However, in the subsequent empire in the present perilous moment, or attempts which were made through the what might endanger it; and in that view side of Scotland at the throne of England, of the question he was decidedly of opi- and to destroy its constitution, the parnion that the union offered no remedy at all, tisans of the house of Stuart made the whether he regarded it as operating on union an engine, and gave repeated prothe great body of the disaffected in that mises, in the event of success, to abrogate country, on a majority of those who still the union, in order to conciliate the wished well to the British constitution, or people of Scotland. It was said with on the contending factions of Protestant truth, that one effect of the union would and Catholic. The complaints of these be to remove the legislature of Ireland different descriptions of persons were well from local prejudices; but what was the known. Would the union secure the re- real English of such a position? It was dress of them? For redress they were no less than saying to the people of Ireall promised ; and it ought to be the prin- land, “ It is convenient for us to govern ciple, as well as the policy of ministers, to you, instead of permitting you to govern yourselves." His lordship next adverted with what decency could persons of that to the solemn assurance which bis ma- description refuse a parliamentary reform jesty's ministers bad given in both houses, to the people of England any longer? It' that although in their judgments a union had been argued that the members of the of both countries was most desirable, as Irish parliament were not capable of conthe best means of consolidating the strength ducting the affairs of that kingdom; that of the whole empire, yet that it should they were so open to corruption, that they not be accepted unless it were the pure were not fit to be trusted with the maand spontaneous offer of the parliament nagement of the rights and properties of of Ireland, uninfluenced by corruption or their fellow countrymen. Far was it from menace. He would however appeal to him, to hold up either description as the the feelings of individual lords as men, true description of the members of the whether it was doubted by any, that cor- Irish parliament. But looking at the desruption and intimidation had not been cription he had heard given of them as a practised to obtain a majority in support matter of argument, in either light, what of the measure in both Houses of the Irish advantage could the British parliament deparliament? Were ever such changes of rive from the infusion of a number of memmembers in the gross seen but on a disso- bers of such a sort? If they were incapable lution of a parliament, as in the course of of conducting the affairs of a kingdom; if the last eight months? Had not magis. they were open to corruption, would they trates, juries, and all congregate bodies not strengthen the hands of the crown in Ireland been tampered with? And, against the interests of the people, and after all, what was the vast majority by become the ready tools of ministers, to which the measure of union was carried assist them in any designs they might on the other side of the water? Forty! hereafter wish to practise against the After all the arts of corruption, and all the constitution ?--All these evils which the menaces of power that had been resorted union would necessarily bring upon Ireto, the minority had only lost two or three land, would, it was said, be more than of its numbers. Would any man deny, compensated by the influx of commerce that the minority of the House of Com- into the country, and the tranquillization mons in Dublin spoke the sense of the of the long opposed factions of Protestant people of Ireland, and that the sense of and Catholic, the latter of whose grievThe great majority of the people of Ireland ances it seemed were to be redressed. was decidedly against the measure? It He had his doubts whetber such commermight be called Jacobinical in him to talk cial benefits would ever arise ; but he was of appealing to the people against the sense certain that a long interval must elapse of parliament. He would not then argue before Ireland could reap any benefit; that point, but content himself with ob- whereas the evils she must experience serving, that such a charge would come were immediate and pressing. On the with an ill grace from the supporters of a whole, he viewed the measure of union minister, who owed his accession to power as one replete with dangers. to an appeal to the people against the Lord Grenville expressed his surprise decided sense of the House of Commons. at being called on that day to supThe prejudices of the Irish Protestants port the general principle of a quesand Catholics had been played upon, and tion which had been repeatedly recog. both had been taught to expect a full nised by both Houses of Parliament. gratification of all their wishes, provided with regard to corruption and menace a union took place. But why was a having been practised, the fair way would union necessary for that purpose? Might have been to have brought proof of either, not the Irish parliament administer all that if such could have been obtained. With was desired, without merging into the respect to the sense of the people of IreBritish senate? That the sending 100 land, he knew not how that sense was to members from Ireland into the House of be constitutionally obtained but through Commons, and 32 Irish peers into that the medium of the parliament of Ireland : House, was a direct infringement of the through that medium it had been conveyed British constitution, and would add con- to this country; and he solemnly declared siderably to the influence of the Crown, he believed the people of Ireland had spoken could any man who had resisted all at their real sentiments respecting the protempts at parliamentary reform from the posed union, through their constitudread of innovation, pretend to deny; and tional organ. With regard to the danger that was held out by the noble lord as | guarded by their being members from likely to result to the British constitution, Ireland. With respect to a reform in the he saw no such danger, nor did he be- representation of the people, he had unilieve that the infusion of a certain num- formly opposed it on the grounds of its ber of members from Ireland into our dangerous and destructive tendency, and House of Commons, or of 32 Irish peers its vital hostility to the genuine principles into that House, would tend to strength of the British constitution. The present en the hands of the crown against the frame of parliament, as experience had rights and privileges of the people, or fully proved, was perfectly adequate to all enable ministers to exercise a greater its purposes. The present frame of the share of undue influence. These 32 House of Commons was the great bulwark peers would hold their seats by the same of the constitution; if once overturned, tenure that their lordships now did, viz. no means would exist to resist the torrent for life. The precedeni of the union of anarchy and Jacobinism; if the French with Scotland had been as closely fol- revolution had found us in the moment of lowed as the nature of the two cases reform, what might not have been the would admit. In respect to the benefits consequences ? So attached was he to the to result to Ireland' from a union, not present frame of parliament, and so fully being likely to take place immediately, convinced of its political perfection, as far the noble lord had viewed the subject in a as in the nature of things could be exvery narrow and unstatesmanlike light pected, that if he ever felt the least objecindeed, when he regarded it on so con- tion to the measure of union, it was on the tracted a seale. In looking at a matter ground of its unavoidably introducing an of such magnitude as the legislative union alteration, however slight, in the frame of of two great countries, an enlightened po- parliament. If it was true, that the relalitician, would consider it in two distinct tive situation of both kingdoms was such points of view; the one, the immediate that they must stand or fall together, necessity that imperiously demanded it; then he was convinced a union was the other, the general benefit that would absolutely necessary, as the only means gradually and ultimately be secured from left to secure the connexion, and render it it to the two countries so united as an en- indissoluble. tire empire. With respect to the Ca- The House divided: Contents; 82. tholic question, from the very first day Not-Contents 3. The Not Contents were the business was discussed, to the present the earl of Derby, and lords Holland and moment, no such idea was ever heard of, King. The House then went into the as that thrown out by the noble lord; but Committee. The three first Resolutions all persons seemed to agree, whatever dif- were agreed to. ference of opinion there might exist respecting the measure in other points of April 25. The House having again view, that the Catholic claims could be resolved itself into a Committee, the conbest discussed and settled by an imperial sideration of the 4th, 5th, and 6th Resoluparliament, and that without the least in- tion was postponed. The 7th Resolution convenience or cause of uneasiness to the being read, a long conversation took place people of Ireland. In a united parlia- on its several clauses, after which, the ment no danger was to be apprehended Resolution was agreed to. from their numbers, in that they would form but a very small minority. The noble April 28. The House went again into lord had exultingly said, that as the union the Committee, when of the two legislatures was a direct inno. Lord Grenville rose to move the fourth vation of the constitution of Great Britain, Resolution. His lordship said, that it those who had hitherto opposed a parlia- necessarily arose from the nature of the mentary reform could no longer resist case, that in uniting the legislatures of the

Nothing could be more two kingdoms, a certain portion of Irish easy than the answer to this burst of ex. members should be infused into the Brioltation : the infusion of a certain portion tish House of Commons; that 100 had of members from Ireland into the British been the number fixed on, and those apconstitution, was a measure of indispensa portioned, as stated in the Resolution, ble necessity, as a main ingredient in the viz. two for each county of Ireland, two constitution of a legislative union of the for the city of Dublin, two for the city of two countries; but it was sufficiently Cork, one for the university of Trinity

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