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priety of preventing the exportation of our manufacturers under difficulties, under British wool to Ireland entirely on the the idea that they will be able to surmount position, that the quantity we grow is in them. Wool has long sold at a higher adequate to the consumption of our own price in Ireland than in England, which manufacturers; and that the principle of would operate as a strong inducement to an increasing demand, producing a pro. its exportation. The freight of wool from portionably increased supply, does not many parts of England is considerably hold good in this instance, for reasons less to Ireland than to the manufacturing which I have before assigned. But if my parts of Yorkshire. In several particuopponents would be faithful to their own lars the natural advantages of Ireland for principle, I might have spared myself and carrying on the woollen manufacture them the trouble of this long argument; might be shown to be greater than those for I might ask them, if demand, or to of Great Britain, particularly in the artispeak more correctly, the high price cle of water, and of easy internal commucreated by demand, insures supply, how nication by navigable rivers. The intro. can they account for this strange fact, duction of machinery has, in a great dethat for the last seven years the price of gree, tended to produce the present proswool has been uniformly increasing, and perous state of the woollen manufacture ; yet during that whole period, the quantity yet it is notorious that by that very maof the article has been as uniformly di- chinery, the removal of the manufacture minishing. How can this be accounted to another country is facilitated, since for on the principle of my opponents? women and children can, by the help of Does it not stand in the way of their con- machines, perform those operations, clusion, and prove beyond dispute, that which before had required able and exthe principle of demand ensuring supply, / perienced artificers. ' In estimating the for some reason or other does not apply comparative situation of the manufacturers to this commodity? It may be observed of the two countries, it was not possible on the same point, that our increasing po. to forget the prodigious difference, not pulation has not, by producing a greater only in wages of labour, price of proviconsumption of mutton, had the effect of sions, and habits of life, but in taxes and increasing proportionally the quantity of other burthens of a similar nature : one wool. For it is notorious, that the animal of these is the poor-rates. It is urged, now killed at a much earlier period of that we now, in the very face of the proits life than formerly; and it is obvious, tecting duty, export woollen manufactures that for any given number of carcases to Ireland to the amount of 600,000l. per consumed, if they are killed at a year and annum. This is true; but from this po a half, or two years old, we shall have but argument can be drawn as to what would half the wool we should derive from them happen if our raw material should be if killed at three or four years old. To taken away from us. This would com

all the arguments, however, which might pletely change the whole face of things. : be adduced to prove theoretically that Ireland bas by no means been inattentive

the quantity of wool has greatly increased to the encouragement of her woollen ma. and is still increasing in proportion to the nufacture. Premiums have been offered, increased demand for it, I must oppose be- institutions formed, and other measures sides all contrary arguments, the weight adopted, for the express purpose of pro. of positive testimony, unbalanced by any tecting its infant weakness, and fostering evidence to the contrary. If what has been its growth. Considerable effects hare stated at the bar be worthy of credit, been produced by those efforts. Former

there has been for some years an increas. ly, considerable quantities of wool and |ing scarcity of wool which has now be. woollen yarn were imported into this

come greater than at any former period. -- country. Our importation of the former It has been stated, that the natural ad- article gradually lessened, and at length vantages enjoyed by the manufacturers in wholly ceased ; that of the latter also has this country are such that they need fear been gradually diminishing. When I say no rivalship from Ireland. I must ob this, do I feel any narrow jealousy of Ireserve, that this superiority is not so great land, or any disposition to check any efas is conceived. In truth, the natural ad. | forts she may make for her own prospe. vantages of Great Britain for carrying on rity? Far from me be all such ungenethe woollen manufactory, are by no means

rous sentiments! But it is not even for such as to allow us with impunity to lay the benefit of Ireland herself that by an (VOL. XXXV.)


artificial system like this which is now might enrich themselves, and be profitable proposed, Ireland should be tempted alo to England: they therefore beseech his mamost against her will, to turn her capital | jesty to direct that measures may be used and her industry into this particular for discouraging the Irish woollen manuchannel, when there are many others in facture, and encouraging the linen manuwhich they might flow with equal and factures in Ireland, to which they declare, perhaps greater advantage. Why should they shall always be ready to give their Ireland be tempted to seek for her gain utmost assistance. The king's answer in our loss? Why should the two coun- was an (exact assent to both parts of their tries be thus set in opposition to each address. A speech and an answer of a other? But it may, perhaps, be stated, similar import were made by the lords that I am forgetting that the two coun- justices to the Commons of Ireland. tries are now to be identified. If, indeed, Measures were accordingly taken for the in all other particulars the union were to execution of both parts of this compact be complete, then it might be worth while but that which it is most material to reto make a sacrifice, in order not to vitiate mark, is this, that in performance of our the completeness and integrity of the ar- part of that compact, we have been unirangement. But is this the case? What formly paying a bounty on the exportation are all the protecting duties but so many of Irish linens from this country, which deviations from the principle of union? has of late amounted to about 30,000). Are not the two countries to be altogether per annum; and still more, we have been on a different footing in the important ar. paying 33 per cent. more for all the Irish ticle of corn and other provisions? Above linens we have consumed than we should all, are they not to continue for twenty have paid for the same quantity of linen years at least in different situations in re- imported from Germany, this has amountspect to their taxes, and is not the strange ed" to 700,000l. per annum, according anoma ly to be exhibited of 100 Irish to lord Auckland's statement, and to members imposing upon the British na. 1,000,0001. per annum by lord Castletion taxes and regulations to which they reagh's :this has been equivalent to a bounty are not themselves subject, thereby taking to the same amount on Irish linens, and away from us one of our grandest securi- in fact has been so much paid out of the ties against excessive imposts and op- pockets of the people of this country pressive regulations ? If, then, the prin to the people of Ireland. What have ciple of union is to be qualified in so many been the motives which prompted them instances, why not admit that one further so to do? The answer is obvious: the modification for which I contend ? Can obligation they contracted by the compact it be shown that the importation of wool before named, to encourage the linen ma into Ireland is at all necessary to the nufacture in consideration of the Irish union? It cannot even be stated to be giving up the woollen; yet it is now pronecessary to the commercial well-being posed to us not merely to give up those of Ireland ; for it made no part of the advantages which were the consideratior propositions of 1785. In truth, the union for which England has been making these would be nearly, if not quite, as valuable sacrifices for the benefit of Ireland, nof to Ireland without as with this concession. merely so far as our advantage is con -I must now go upon another ground on cerned to annul the compact, but to pu which I might boldly contend, as a matter Ireland in possession of both parts of the of right, against the arrangement now compact. What would be thought of proposed. I allude to the linen and such a transaction in private life? St woollen compact. In the Journals of the strong do I feel on this ground, that it two Houses for 1698, will be found ad- might safely have rested on it the whole dresses to William 3rd, representing that question, if so many other arguments hat the wealth and power of England in a not concurred to enforce the same con great measure depended on the preserving clusion. Our manufacturers have a vester the woollen manufacture; that from vari capital of five or six millions sterling i ous causes which are stated, the English mills and machinery, which cannot be re woollen manufacture is likely to be pre- moved to another country; they investet judiced by the increase of the woollen this capital in reliance on the protectio manufacture in Ireland. Whereas Ireland of parliament, and surely that protection is peculiarly adapted to the linen manufac. 1 will not now be withdrawn." Anothe ture, the establishment and growth of which consideration is, the discontent which th

measure will produce in the minds of an risk of endangering the continuance of immense body of people, if it should be this happy scene, and of drying up or dipassed in its present shape. My right verting the stream which has proved to hon. friend himself stated that he should this extensive district the source of so be strongly disposed, not to wound many blessings. I once more earnestthe feelings and even the prejudices, of ly entreat the committee to consider any great body of people, and this, which that the step now proposed is not like is the policy of every wise government, is a vicious law which may be repealed powerfully enforced upon us by the pre- when once taken, it will be irrevosent state of public affairs. It is impossible cable. On the whole, therefore, I must not to be struck with the impropriety of object to the article as it stands, and fixing for ever the arrangement now propo- propose instead of it, not that Great sed to us. During the war our exports, Britain should continue to enjoy the adhave exceedingly increased, partly fromour vantages over Ireland she has hitherto not being rivalled in the markets of Europe possessed, but that each country should by some of our old competitors ; partly by be suffered to retain and work up itself theincreased demand occasioned bythe war. the wool which it produces. I will deliver poopinion, whether or not our Mr. Pitt said, that however warmly he exports after a peace will continue equal might feel in favour of the liberal principle to their present amount; but I know that which ought to exist in the event of an doubts at least are entertained on this incorporate union between the two counhead by many able and experienced men. tries, namely that there should be a free Is it wise, then, to take the present mo- commercial intercourse between them, ment for inflicting a wound on our staple and however anxious he was for the full manufacture, under an idea of its vigorous application of that principle, still if he was „state rendering the blow of no importo convinced that there was any reasonable ance? But the woollen manufacture has ground for apprehending those conseanother claim to the notice of parliament. quences which had been predicted, he It has a value not to be stated in figures, would not hesitate to deviate from that not to be estimated from a book of rates. principle. After the most minute invesMany manufactures which contribute tigation, he was satisfied, that to permit largely to the national wealth are highly the exportation of the raw material to injurious to the public morals, but what. Ireland might gradually, and in the course ever other claims of equality may be set of time, be productive of advantage to up for the cotton manufacture I may Ireland; but that it could not, even upon justly assert for the woollen manufacture the principles laid down by the petitioners a superiority of a higher kind. It is a themselves, cause the least mischief to the domestic manufacture not so much carried manufacturers of England. By the adopon in large factories where multitudes are tion of the present article, they were collected together, and children too often doing that which, in his view of the subleara prematurely, the vices of more ad. ject, might tend greatly to the advantage vanced age; but any industrious individual of Ireland; but which considered as a sapossessing credit for a capital of 101. buys crifice on the part of England, would be therewith a pack of wool, works it up trifling, and on the part of the manufacwith the assistance of his wife and family, turers, nothing. If his view of the subject and brings it to the public market for sale was correct, any transfer of manufacture just as the little farmers bring their seve- which the adoption of this article might ral articles of produce; the wealth thus be supposed to make to Ireland, would acquired and diffused, is not obtained at not make any void that would not be the expense of domestic happiness, but in much more than filled up by the inthe enjoyment of it. I have myself wit. crease of our trade in this article. If nessed the scenes I am imperfectly the effect of permitting the exportation describing, and could the committee be- of the raw material to Ireland should be come personally acquainted with the that of transferring any portion of manuprosperity, the domestic comfort, the in- facture to Ireland, it would only be gradudustry, the spirit of independence and of ally, and in the course of a great number rational liberty, which the woollen manu- of years. With respect to the arguments facture has diffused over a country natu- urged by his hon. friend, some of his obrally barren and thinly peopled they jections were contradictory to each other. would be backward to incur the smallest In one part of his speech' his bon, friend

had contended against permitting the ex- objection which had been made to the portation of wool to Ireland, because the continuance of the protecting duty upon effect of it would be to transfer the whole the manufacture, showed that the manuof the manufacture to Ireland: and in ano. facturers of this country were of opinion ther part he had objected to it, because it that they would be still able to beat Ire would be highly injurious to England, land, even after she was furnished with without being productive of any great ad- the raw material necessary for the manuvantage to Ireland. Now, both these ar- facture. Now, with respect to the manuguments could not be founded : because facture furnished by this country to Irein the question of the transfer of a manu- land, it amounted to about 700,0001. a facture, it was impossible (supposing the year. Now, he begged the committee to demand to continue, which was not compare this supply with which we furdoubted) that England should lose with nished Ireland, with the whole of the maout Ireland gaining exactly in the same nufacture of this country, both for its own proportion. In order to form a correct consumption, and for the supply of the estimate how far this manufacture could foreign markets; and it would be found be the subject of transfer, and how far this that the whole of the exportation to Irearticle had a tendency that way, it would land did not amount to above 1-30th part be necessary to consider in what markets of our whole manufacture. After this Ireland could rival us. There were but statement, it would be impossible to conthree markets in which she could rival us; tend, that this was a question about ruinin her own, by supplying as much of the ing the great woollen manufacture of manufacture as was necessary for her con- England—of giving a shock to the vast sumption ; in foreign markets; or in our own capital vested in it—of turning the persons market. He would not contend that the occupied in it out of employment, and effect of the adoption of this article would consequently of increasing the poor-rates. not be in time to enable Ireland to supply her The utmost that could be urged was, not own market, and consequently to diminish that our manufacture would be diminished our manufacture by so much as we now but that the rapid increase, which we were supplied for the consumption of Ireland. making might, in a small degree, be reHe would even admit, that in the course tarded ; that our increase, though great, of time Ireland might, in some branches would not be quite so great as if we had of her manufacture, be able to meet, or kept the Irish markets. With regard to even obtain a preference over us in foreign the question, whether the demand for this markets; but that she should be able to manufacture would continue to increase? meet us in our own markets inust be ob- he believed some difference of opinion viously impossible. His hon. friend had existed. Some persons were of opinion, advanced, as an objection to the proposed that the demand would probably diminish regulation, that it was unequal, because it on the conclusion of a peace. He had permitted the exportation of the raw ma- upon other occasions, stated his reasons terial to Ireland, while it established pro- for thinking that, in the event of a peace, tecting duties upon the manufacture. a great increase would take place in the Now, if the manufacturers were of opi. whole of our commerce. But the comnion that it would be advantageous to mittee had not only his opinion upon this them to suffer the Irish to send over their subject, they had also the evidence of the manufacture to England free of duty, witnesses who had been examined; for after we had permitted the free exporta- they had stated, as a reason against pertion of our raw materials, it was clear mitting the exportation of the raw matethat they must be of opinion that the ma- rial, the probability of an increased denufacture would be still better and mand for the manufactures on the termicheaper in England, and that they en nation of the war, The question then reentertained an apprehension of Ireland solved itself into this, whether, with our beating us in our own market, because manufactures in a state of unprecedented otherwise they must be anxious for the prosperity, a prosperity which had ioexistence of a protecting duty. He had creased, and 'was likely to increase, already admitted, that there might be we would not consent

to communi some articles of the manufacture which, cate a part of our advantages to a king. as industry must always find its level, dom with which we were about to effect a might in time be distributed some in one complete union? The next question was country, and some in the other. But the with regard to the propriety of permitting

the free communication of a raw material / would be ruined by permitting its exporfrom one part of an united kingdom to tation to Ireland ? Had it been found to another. As a general principle this had be so in the case of Scotland ? Had she not been denied ; but his hon. friend had ruined our manufactures, and transferred stated that it was applied only to this ar- them to herself? Undoubtedly not ; and ticle of wool; this statement, however, yet at the time of the union with that was not correct, for the principle was not country her taxes were considerably applied to the article of wool alone: the po- higher than those of England, and were licy which governed all these articles was, so at the present moment. What had to make the intercourse between the two been the effect of permitting the free countries, with respect to raw materials, communication of the raw material to and the whole of the trade between the Scotland ? Why, among other sources united kingdoms, as free as possible, under from which we obtained that article, all the circumstances of the case, to carry Scotland was one; and the woollen mathis principle into full effect; but every nufacture of Scotland was only of the effort had been used to make the excep- coarsest and cheaper sort-He begged tions to it as few in number, as small in now to consider this question as it related extent, and as sbort in duration as possible. to the three markets in which Ireland The ground upon which these exceptions could by any possibility rival this country, were admitted was, to prevent any sudden and to the possibility of Ireland beating shock to capital vested in trade, which us in them in consequence of our permitmight arise from the permission of an im- ting the exportation of the raw material. mediate and complete freedom of inter- The first consideration was, the comparacourse between the two countries. It tive price of the raw material in the two was upon this ground that he had stated, countries, in order to decide how far, by on a former night, that, although on the permitting Ireland to import it, she might first view of the subject it might be natu- beat us in foreign markets. Did those ral to suppose that in the event of an gentlemen who predicted the ruin of our union it would be desirable that each manufactures take into their consideracountry should be permitted to ma- tion the wealth of Ireland as compared nufacture that which it found most with that of Englard, when they talked convenient, yet that could not be car- of her out-bidding us in our own markets? ried to its full extent, because such a Surely not. She might, it was true, ensudden freedom of intercourse might in deavour to purchase a certain quantity of certain cases injure the capital vested in the raw material in England, and, by bidparticular manufactures. But though the ding, far increase the pricc: but would necessity of some temporary restraint was that be urged as a mischief? If the maclear, as applied to manufactures, it was nufacturers complained that the quantity by no means so when applied to the raw of wool had decreased, surely the making material

. Now, with respect to the gene the growth of it more profitable would ral equity of the principle: as to its effect tend to increase the supply. He did not upon manufactures, it had been consider. see how it could be contended that Ireed as a doubtful question whether per land could beat us in the manufacture by mitting the free exportation of wool from procuring the raw material cheaper, and this to other countries would not be bene- that her bidding for it would raise its ficial to the landed and to the commercial price. If she bid for it, England, as the interest. Upon this point he wished to richer nation, might out bid her, or, at give no opinion, though it was one in most, she could obtain it at an equal favour of which much might be said ; but price, and then the competition between when he saw that the manufactures of the two countries would go on as it was this country had risen to such an unpre at present. With respect to the compacedented state of prosperity by the adop- rative price of the raw material in the tion of a contrary system, he certainly two countries, at this very moment it was would not, upon any speculative reason something higher in England than it was ing, consent to disturb it, as far as related in Ireland. He contended, therefore, to foreign countries. If, however, it was that, as far as depended upon the compaa doubtful point whether the free expor- rative price of the raw material in the two tation of our wool would not be advan countries, the regulation now proposed tageous to our manufactures, could it be could not have the effect of transferring. contended, that it was clear that they the manufactures to Ireland. But even if

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