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namented kind, I have in the second chapter compared together two real scenes; the one, in its picturesque, unimproved state; the other, when dressed and improved according to the present fashion. The pictu resque circumstances detailed in this scene, very naturally lead me in the third chapter, to investigate their general causes and effects; and in that, and in the six following chapters, I have traced them, as far as my observation would enable me, through all the works of art and of nature.

This part, the most curious and interesting to a speculative mind, will be least so to those, who think only of what has a direct and immediate reference to the arrangement of scenery: that, indeed, it has not; but it is a discussion well calculated to give just and enlarged ideas, of what is of no slight importance-the general character of each place, and the particular

eharacter of each part of its scenery. Every place, and every scene worth observing, must have something of the sublime, the beautiful, or the picturesque; and every man will allow, that he would wish to preserve and to heighten, certainly not to weaken or destroy, their prevailing character. The most obvious method of succeeding in the one, and of avoiding the other, is by studying their causes and effects; but to confine that study to scenery only, would, like all confined studies for a particular purpose, tend to contract the mind; at least when compared with a more comprehensive view of the subject. I have therefore endeavoured to take the most enlarged view possible, and to include in it whatever had any relation to the character I was occupied in tracing, or which shewed its distinction from those, which a very superior mind, had already investigated; and

sure I am, that he who studies the various effects and characters of form, colour, and light and shadow, and examines and compares those characters and effects, and the manner in which they are combined and disposed, both in pictures and in nature,— will be better qualified to arrange, certainly, to enjoy, his own and every scenery, than he who has only thought of the most fashi onable arrangement of objects; or who has looked at nature alone, without having acquired any just principles of selection.

I believe, however, that this part of my Essay, and the very title of it, may have given a false bias to the minds of many of my readers: readers: I am not surprised at such an effect, for it is a very natural conclusion, and often justified, that an author is par tial to the particular subject on which he has written; but mine is a particular case. The two characters which Mr. Burke has

so ably discussed, had, it is true, great need of investigation; but they did not want to be recommended, to our attention: what is really sublime, or beautiful, must always attract or command it; but the picturesque is much less obvious, less generally attractive, and had been totally neglected and despised by professed improvers my business therefore, was to draw forth, and to dwell upon those less observed beauties. From that circumstance it has been conceived, or at least asserted, that I not only preferred such scenes as were merely rude and picturesque, but excluded all others.

The second part is built upon the foundations laid in the first; for I have examined the leading features of modern gardening, in its more extended sense, on the general principles of painting: and I have shewn in several instances, especially in all that


relates to the banks of artificial water, how much the character of the picturesque has been neglected, or sacrificed to a false idea of beauty.

But though I take no slight interest in whatever concerns the taste of gardening in this, and every other country, and am particularly anxious to preserve those picturesque circumstances, which are so frequently and irrecoverably destroyed, yet in writing this Essay, I have had a more comprehensive object in view: I have been desirous of opening new sources of innocent, and easily attained pleasures, or at least of pointing out, how a much higher relish may be acquired for those, which, though known, are neglected; and it has given me no small pleasure to find that both my objects have in some degree been attained.

That painters do see effects in nature, which men in general do not see, we have,

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