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nant and peaceful reign! Therefore “let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice: and be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one another, even as God, for Christ's sake, hath forgiven you."
Nothing, perhaps, has tended more to the extinction of these beautiful charities, than the rivalry, the jealousies, the dissentions, the embittered controversies of sects and parties. It is not my intention to trace to their origin these interminable feuds in the church of God, by an exposure of those intolerant measures, those efforts to produce by coercion a uniformity of faith, those violations of the rights of conscience, and impositions of unscriptural terms of communion, which first of all have compelled the minority, in various instances, either to recede, or basely to surrender the liberty wherewith Christ has made us free. We have now to take the fact as we find it, and to suggest its evils and its remedy. The charge of sectarian hostilities, carried on in the spirit of angry warfare, and conducive to any cause rather than that of truth, which with every party is the ostensible pretext, is equally applicable to disputants within and without the pale of the Established Church. In the present state of things, every real or supposed discovery of an important truth, instead of being a contribution to the common fund, so much thrown into the public treasury, to subserve the interests of the universal body of the faithful, by an accession to its knowledge and its piety, is the rallying point of a new party, and the signal for warfare. All this is in express violation of the apostolic precept, “Keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace, and grieve not the Holy Spirit whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.” This is not to hold the truth in love. This violation of concord by rival denominations, has produced incalculable mischiefs. Within the bosom of the Christian church, it quenches the Spirit by extinguishing brotherly kindness; and abroad, it confounds the weak, perplexes the doubtful, and gives occasion of triumph to the ungodly. Nor can it fail to retard the progress of Christianity, by substituting intestine feuds for that combination of zeal and charity, that sublime and simultaneous effort for the conversion of the world, which being viewed with approbation by the Divine Paraclete, might insure his blessing, and bear down all opposition. The religion of Christ, it cannot too often be reiterated, is the ministry of reconciliation'; and it is the office of the Spirit, by giving efficiency to this ministry, to repair the breach which sin has made in the social order of the universe, by the abolition of enmities. So long, therefore, as resistance shall be offered to his pacific influences by the pride and obstinacy of partyspirit, which yields nothing for the sake of reciprocal accommodation, and even thinks it liberality enough to abstain from avowed hostility, or from acts of coercive violence, as if Christian charity were a mere negation,--the prospects of the church and of the human race are overhung with gloomy discouragement. Whereas a general dissemination of better feeling would be the auspicious omen of the regeneration of the nations; nor perhaps, in that case, would the hope be too romantic, that, in some future age, will be realized the beautiful, but hitherto visionary conception of a universal church, in undivided communion all over the world.
• If the preceding remarks are just, there may be some reason for moderating our expectations of any considerable outpouring of the Holy Spirit, until existing causes of offence against the Spirit of grace, are removed by a return to the simplicity and soundness of the primitive religion. That the spirit may be resisted, grieved, quenched, cannot be denied, but by a rejection of the testimony of the Scriptures; nor can it but appear presumptuous, to supplicate extraordinary communications of his grace, if there are evils permitted to continue, which known to be obnoxious to his righteous indignation. The first step to be taken is a resolute and conscientious effort to get rid of these evils. At any rate, our earliest supplications for the grace of the Spirit, should have in view the removal of those obstacles which, on every consistent view of the Christian theology, must be regarded as opposed to his more copious effusions. Any other line of conduct would be more allied to ignorant fanaticism or empirical imposture, than to religious sobriety of mind; and will more probably be resented as an affront to his sanctity and his majesty, than approved as a devout acknowledgement of his grace.' pp. 147–154.
We have already given the titles of the other two discourses, and have left ourselves no room to advert to them more specifically. It is no ill compliment to say, that on such a
, topic as Mr. Hull as selected in the fifth discourse, he seems at home, and appears to most advantage. It is in some respects the most interesting discourse in the volume.
Art. IV. Narrative of a Tour through some Parts of the Turkish
Empire. By John Fuller, Esq. 8vo. pp. 560. London, 1830. THIS HIS volume was not originally intended for publication’;
nor did its Author set out on his travels with the wilful intent to make a book. His object was simply, he says, to amuse himself. Consequently, he was neither so minute in his researches, nor so careful to note his seeings and doings, as a regular Traveller. Had he traversed regions unknown or rarely visited, we should not readily have forgiven his gentlemanly indolence in this particular, nor the tardiness of his publication. We heard of his exploits some seven years ago;
recollect that when Captains Irby and Mangles returned to Cairo from Upper Egypt, the Writer of this volume had just started for the Cataracts. Wadi Elfi, we learn from Chapter VII., was his ne plus ultra ; and he there fell in with a flotilla of boats belonging to Mr. W. Bankes and his companions, who were returning from an unsuccessful attempt to penetrate into the higher country. The adventure failed, in consequence of their camels having been driven away or stolen by the drivers, at the instigation, it is supposed, of their own servants, who did not relish the fatigue and danger of the journey. In 1820, how
ever, Messrs. Waddington and Hanbury penetrated as far southWard as the extremity of Dongola. Burckhardt crossed the Nubian Desert to the Abyssinian frontier; but gentlemen travellers are not very fond of leaving the banks of the Nile, nor do we blame them. Crossing the desert is no recreation; and neither Sennaar nor Foor holds out any powerful attractions. Nevertheless, we think that a premium could not be better bestowed by any Society desirous to promote geographical discovery, than on the individual who should first succeed in ascending the White River to the ferry at Hellet Allais, and in reaching Lake Tchad by that unknown route.
Mr. Fuller commences his travels with Naples, Corfu, and the Morea. From Athens, he proceeded to Smyrna and Constantinople. He thence sailed for Alexandria, and ascended the Nile to the Second Cataract. Returning to Damietta, he proceeded by sea to Jaffa,'
went up to Jerusalem', visited Jerash, Acre, Dehr el Kamr, Damascus, Balbec, and Palmyra, and after an excursion or two in Syria, embarked for Cyprus, and thence sailed to Rhodes, Smyrna, and Zante. A tolerably extensive and varied excursion this, which appears to have occupied (including a stay of nearly twelve months in Syria) about three years. The narrative is pleasingly written, without any affectation or pretence of any kind; and if it does not add much to our previous information, it takes us rapidly through scenes which, often as they have been described, never fail to delight and interest the imagination. The moral of the tale, is thus given in the concluding paragraph, which will shew the general temper of the volume.
• An Englishman who makes the tour which I did, can hardly fail to return strengthened in the proud conviction, that without civil liberty and equal laws, no nation can be permanently great and flourishing; although, as a friend to mankind, he may be glad at the same time to have learned, that a fertile soil, a genial climate, and a bright sunshine, may produce much individual happiness, even in those countries where Trial by Jury is unknown, and the writ of Habeas Corpus runneth noti
560. Of the happiness which a genial climate and bright sunshine can bestow, a poetical Traveller has taught us to form a proper estimate.
Man seems the only growth that dwindles here.'
Any regular analysis of the present volume would be quite a work of supererogation. All that either the Writer or our readers can expect, is, that we should select a few paragraphs as a sample of its lively and amusing contents. As we seldom hear much about the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the following account of the state of things in Apulia at the time of our Author's journey, will not be uninteresting.
• The Apulian provinces, which under the more vigorous government of the French had with difficulty been kept in subjection, on the return of the Bourbon dynasty fell into a state of disorder little short of open rebellion. In addition to the grand society of Carbonari, which was diffused over the whole kingdom, and as to whose real designs much uncertainty seems still to prevail, others of a less doubtful nature were organized in these provinces, under the various names of Patrioti, Philadelphi, and Decisi. Of these the professed objects were all nearly the same; though the last, as its name implies, was more bold in the avowal of them, and comprehended in its ranks all the most desperate characters in the country. Its members were initiated with various frightful ceremonies, and were bound together by the strongest oaths. Their commissions or certificates of admission to the Society, one of which was shown to me, were ornamented with representations of skulls and cross-bones, and the more important passages were written in blood. Their principal badges were a black flag and a dagger ; and the meaning of these emblems, in itself obvious enough, was further explained in a sort of creed or catechism which was placed in the hands of the initiated. The professed objects of the society were benevolent and philanthropic; but under the specious pretext of " War to the Palace and Peace to the Cottage ", they spread terror, rapine, and assassination among all classes of the community. The members were regularly organized in greater and smaller divisions, called camps and sections, and they met openly for training and exercise, even at the gates of the great towns." Lecce alone could muster several hundred ; and it was calculated that the whole number enrolled in the two provinces amounted to from thirty to forty thousand armed men.
· The Government, alarmed at these formidable combinations, determined on appointing to the command of the district Lieut.-Colonel Church, whose energetic character had been displayed in raising and disciplining a Greek corps in the English service: and in the autumn of 1817, he repaired to his post, with about fifteen hundred Neapolitan troops, and four or five hundred Albanians, who were glad to rejoin the standard of their old commander.
• The malcontents seem to have been overawed by this imposing force; and after a smart action at Marsano, in which a large party of them was defeated, no serious resistance was offered, except by a small corps headed by the priest Ciro Anichiarico, a man whose courage and enterprise might have qualified him to shine in a more honourable situation. He belonged to a family of respectability in one of the provinces, and had risen to some rank in his order; but being disappointed in his hopes of further preferment, and thinking that his pretensions were unjustly neglected, he changed his pursuits, and became one of the most daring leaders of the bands of the Decisi. The acts of atrocity which had been committed by himself and his followers leaving him no hope of pardon, he boldly took the field at the head of about 150 men, and having the advantage of a perfect knowledge of the country, sustained himself for several days against the very superior force which was brought against him. He probably expected to be relieved from pursuit by a general insurrection of his associates; but finding that this did not take place, and that his followers were gradually dropping off and seeking safety in flight, he formed the resolution of shutting himself up with six or seven of the most desperate, in a solitary “masseria”, or farm-house, near Grotaglia. In a country so subject to the attacks of banditti, these are generally places of strength ; and he was able to defend himself against the troops for three days. During this time he kept up a brisk fire of musquetry, and killed several of the assailants, till at length his ammunition being exhausted, and his little garrison suffering severely from want of water, he was forced to surrender. He was immediately tried by a court-martial, and met his fate with perfect unconcern. An officer who told me the story, asking him just before his death in how many assassinations he had been implicated, he coolly replied, that he could not recollect the exact number, but that he had committed sixty or seventy with his own hand.
• A military commission was still sitting at Lecce, for the trial of those who had been concerned in the late outrages, or who were members of the obnoxious associations. The president was a colonel of the provincial militia ; and as far as I had an opportunity of judging, the proceedings were conducted with coolness and impartiality. Many of the accused were connected with respectable families in the provinces, and their fate of course excited considerable interest, though this was in a great degree lost in the general feeling of satisfaction which per. vaded all ranks of the community at being freed from the thraldom of the Decisi. The sentences of the court-martial were all referred to the commander-in-chief of the district, who, being armed with the Alterego or full delegation of the royal authority, had the power of enforcing them without appeal. About eighty persons in all paid the forfeit of their lives : but of these it was satisfactory to learn, that not one suffered for political offences only,—all having been found guilty of assassination, or of some other crime equally deserving capital punishment. The good-will which the General seemed to have universally conciliated, even in the execution of so unpleasing a duty, was a sufficient proof that his power had not been exercised with undue severity.' pp. 9–13.
The improvements which had taken place in Corfu, in the interval between the Author's first and second visits to the Island, were so decided as to force themselves upon the most cursory observation.
• In 1818, the most ordinary articles of foreign manufacture were scarcely to be procured, and, from the total want of inns, a stranger who did not happen to have an introduction to some member of the Government, or some officer of the garrison, might run a very fair