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At the end of autumn the tree has com At the end of autumn a small portion pleted its vegetation; the sap and pecu- of water will remain in the tree, and, in liar juices no longer exist in it as such, conveying it to the various places at but are changed into wood and other which it is to be used, more will necessolid matter, and in consequence are sarily be absorbed. To expel this, and not so much disposed to decomposition to season the timber, the logs should be as they were when in a state of iuidity; first sided, or cut out into their different the water is nearly gone, and the wood, qulifications, and then placed in sheds as if so designed by Nature, is fit for cut- constructed for that purpose, of large ting, being in a state of suspended ani- capacity, and with sides of swinging loomation, which state, I supposemay be pro- ver-boards; in these must be placed longed by cutting off the sources of fu- stoves, the funnels of which should run ture vivification. I have noticed Elm trees through the whole length of the buildwhich were cut down in the spring, ger ing, and be capable of raising their at. minating the succeeding spring, and, on mosphere to a temperature between 90° rending away part of the bark, have and 100°, when some of the loover found the sap in circulation; had these boards are canted to admit a current trees been cut and converted to use, I of air; those to windward should be have no doubt that instead of finding a canted below, and those to the leeward branch, I should have seen a fungus. aloft; care must be taken that the curFrom the above, I draw the conclusion, rent of air be not very rapid. By adopthat spring is an improper tiine to fell ting this method, the water may be totimber, and that its being loaded with tally expelled in a few weeks, and the juices disposes it to a hasty decay. timber may then be removed to other
It will be objected to the plan of cut- buildings of the same construction, but ting timber in the autumn and winter, without stcvest; and thus timber in a that the bark will be ruined. It bas short time inay be rendered fit for use, been proved that trees will continue to well seasoned, and of greater durability grow and flourish when deprived of a and strength than that at present used. great part of that covering; it will be of To diminish the heat of the atmosno injurious consequence to the tree, phere on shipboard, and in buildings, is then, to strip it of its bark at the most the next consideration. The method for convenient time, and suffer the tree to ships that are laid up in harbour, and for remain until autumn to complete its buildings, is, to open channels for the vegetation*, taking care to envelop the free circulation of air into all parts of trunk with hay or straw bands, so as to them. For ships in employ, let a numdefend the sap vessels from the sun and ber of conical holes be made, so that wind. But, even supposing that the their bases shall open immediately begrowth of the tree should be affected by low the lower deck (in ships of war callthese means, yet it will be the external ed the gun-deck), and the summit of the zone alone that will suffer; and that is of cone rise as it approaches the outside, but trifling consequence, as, in the con so as to make it of as great a height version of timber for shipping especially, above the water-line as possible. To that part is cut array. By these means, then, timber may be procured free from 1. Solution of nitrate of silver, precisap and the peculiar juices, to which pitated bitter principle. fluids the fungus owes its origin; for, up
2. Do. Gelatine Do. Taopin. on analysis of it, I found it yielded most 3. Infusion of galls Do. Gluten. of the principle of which they are com
4. Muriate of alumine Do. Extracposedt: procure timber free from these tive. two fluids, and fungus will be prevented.
5. From the Spirituous tincture,
water precipitated Resin. * The practice of barking trees in the 6. Evaporated the spirtuous tincspring, and felling them in the winter, is ture, residuum Resin. of ancient date: it was recommended in † It is indispensible to keep timber 1687 by Dr. Plott to king James the dry at all times for its preservation, as second, and by him referred to the con- exposing it in stacks to the rain and sun sideration of the Admiralty and Navy is the sure means of its destruction. I Boards.
have known thousands of loads of timber † Analysis of Fungus.--To the decoc- to be ruined for want of the above pretion I added;
these holes solid cones of oak should be pavement has led to a further specimen fitted, be wound round with oakum, and in Spurr-street, Leicester-fields, and smeared with tallow, and then driven in that there is little doubt but in a few bard. On each side of the conical hole years stone-pavements will be banished a strong staple being fixed, and the solid from our streets as clumsy and expencone furnished with an iron face and sive, uneven and perishable.-Another knob, a strong bolt passed through the great improvement has taken place in staples, and over the knob, would effec- gas lights, in the introduction of pipes of tually secure it in its place. In fair wea Delft ware, which are a fifth of the exther, the cones being withdrawn, and pense of iron, and actually more durable. the holes being in number abouttwenty, This reduction of expense will rapidly equidistant fore and aft on both sides, an accelerate tbe general introduction of abundance of fresh air would be poured gas lights as well in London as in counin through them into the lower parts of try towns. More than half London is the ship. Large trunks might also be now lighted by gas, but we have not an passed down the stem and stern; and a accurate list of provincial towns, in communication being opened fore and which it has been introduced. aft in the hold, that part of the ship, which is now the residence of noxious Miss A. M. PORTER, author of the vapours and heated air, would by these Recluse of Norway, will soon publish means be rendered cool and whole- the Knight of Saint John, a romance. some; and these might be kept open at all times, being furnished with a hood to Miss BENGER, is preparing for the prevent the rain and sea passing down press, Memoirs, with a selection from them. One of the tubes at each end of the Correspondence, and other unpubthe ship should be considerably shorter lished Writings, of the late Mrs. Elizathan the other, for the purpose of con- beth Hamilton, authors of Letters on Feying away the heated air.
Education, Agrippina, &c. in two voThus I presume, I have pointed out lumes, small octavo. methods of obviating the causes of dryrot.
Rt. Dadd. Sir HUMPHREY DAVY states that
flame is gaseous matter heated so highly An Academy, in some measure simi as to be luminous, and that to a degree lar to our society for the encourage- of temperature beyond the white beat of ment of Arts, has been recently estab solid bodies, as is shown by the circumlished at Vienna; it is endowed by the stance, that air not luminous will comEmperor with bis grand collection of municate this degree of heat. When an Natural History, and likewise possesses atteinpt is made to pass flame through a an extensive chemical and philosophical very fine mesh of wire-gauze at the laboratory, together with models and common temperatnre, the gauze cools specimens of machinery, &c. The Aus- each portion of the elastic matter that trians hope by its means to improve their passes through it, so as to reduce its temmanufactures, and to become indepen- perature below that degree at which it dent of foreign industry. The design is is luminous, and the diminution of tempotriotic, and we wish them success; but perature must be proportional to the of this we are certain, that as foreign smallness of the mesh and the mass of nations become rich by means of manu the metal. Sir Humphrey Davy is at facture, so will a new class start up for Paris. M. Busch, the learned traveller the purchase of British manufactures. in Lapland, is there also. M. Bior is in A country, merely agricultural, is never Scotland, to assist in the grand trigonoa very good customer.-[Edin. Mag. metrical survey, &c. and to visit the
Orcades. M. MUFFLING, charged by Among other projected improvements, the king of Prussia with continuing the we have seen the plan of an iron bridge trigonometrical survey of the French enof tenacity, from Holborn-hill to St. Se gineers, is in France, for that purpose. pulchre's-church, which it is to be re Colonel MUDGE, charged with a similar gretted, was not thought of before the labour by the Britsh government, bas new streets were built. It affords us invited several of the savans of France pleasure too to observe, that the deci- to cross the channel, and verify his opesive success of the experiment of an iron ratiops. Tbe baron CoCQUEBERT DE
MONTBRET, known by his immense la- ture-Quotations from the Old Testabours on the statistics of France, is gune ment in the New, with New tables of to the southern departments to pursue all the Quotations Applications of the the geological researches still wanting Principles of Scripture-Interpretation to complete the
physical history of the to the Historical, Prophetical, Dockingdom. M. Prevost, of Geneva, is trinal, and Moral Parts of the Bible. on his way to England and Scotland. Part III. will be appropriated to the
Analysis of the Scriptures, comprising
an account of Canon of the Old and Animal Magnetism is at present in New Testaments, together with Critical high repute in Germany, as a remedy in Prefaces and Synopes to each Book. A the cure of diseases. Many large works, copious Appendix will be subjoined, and numberless pamphlets, have been containing an account of the principal written on this subject within two or MSS. and Editions of the Old and New three years, and even hospitals have Testaments—of various Readings, with been established, for the reception of a digest of the chief Rules for weighsuch patients as require the aid of mag- ing and applying them-Rules for the netism.
better understanding of HebraismsA periodical work is publishing in Lists of Commentators, and Biblical Switzerland, by a society of veterinary Critics of eminence, with Bibliograpractitioners, under the title, “Ar- phical and Critical Notices of each, exchives of Veterinary Medicine.” Four tracted from authentic sources; together numbers have already appeared. with Chronological and other Tables,
There is publishing in Hanover, by necessary to facilitate the study of the Crome, a Manual of Natural History Bible. It is a peculiar feature of this for Agriculturists. It promises to be a Work, that references are made throughvery popular and useful work.
out to the most approved writers on Henriette Schubart has lately pub- every topic, in order to assist further lished, at Altenburg, a translation of researches, and thus render the volume Walter Scott's Scottish ballads and a usefal Manual to the Biblical Stusongs.
dept and to Divines. There has lately appeared at Frank Mr Accum has in the press, Chemifort, by Dr Diels, a systematic work on cal Amusements, comprising a series the principal species, kinds, and varie- of curious and instructive Experiments ties, of fruits cultivated in Germany. in Chemistry, which are easily perform
A little volume, entitled, Plurality of ed, and unattended with danger, Worlds; or some remarks, Philosophi
An Account of the Origin, Progress, cal and Critical, in a Series of Letters, and Actual State of the War carried occasioned by Discourses on Christian on between Spain and Spanish Ameriity, viewed in connexion with the Mo- ca, by a South American, is nearly dern Astronomy, as published by the ready for publication. Rev. Dr Chalmers, is in the press.
Preparing for publication, in two large A general history of the quadrupeds svo volumes, illustrated with maps, of America, illustrated by coloured “ An Introduction to the critical Study plates engraved from original drawings, and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, is preparing for publication. It will by Mr. Horne, sub-librarian of the correspond in forin with the late Alex. Surrey Institution. This Work, on ander Wilson's splendid illustrations of which the author has been engaged for American Ornithology. many years, will be divided into three parts. Part I. will contain a view of the The ancient library of Heidelberg bas Geography of the Holy Land, and of been restored in great splendor, and now the Political, Religious, Moral, and contains some of the most curious manCivil, State of the Jews, illustrating uscripts in Europe. the principal Events recorded in the Scriptures. Part II. will treat on the various subsidiary means for ascertain ERRATA.Page 355, Art. II, for ing the sense of the Scripture-Figu- “Officer of the United States' army," rative Language-The reconciling of read, Officer of the United States' Nathe apparent contradictions of Scrip- vy.