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ITALY.

FRANCE.

himself ill treated for using them mer death of victims inspired in their relacifully. And Lauderdale told Charles, tives and friends! with an oath, that the duke bad been so civil to the Whigs, because he was a Whig himself in his heart. This made General Count Camillo Borgia lately it a court word, and in a little while all returned to Naples from Africa, after the friends and followers of the duke be- having been engaged in antiquarian regan to be called Whigs; and they, as searches for nearly two years in the the other party did by the word Tory, neighbourhood of Tunis. He established took it freely enough to themselves. such an interest with the Bey and his

STRILA. ministers, as to obtain an unqualified Edinburgh, May 1817.

permission to examine the antiquities of that country. He caused considerable

excavations in various places; espeFrance is now, if we may judge from cially on the scite of the ancient Carthe following paragraph, becoming “ the thage, and at Utica; and the general reclassic land of liberty:"—the beneficent sult of his labours has been, that, along wisdom of the government pervades the the coast, and in the interior, he has whole, and takes literature under its examined the ruins of more than 200 immediate protection; henceforth every cities and towns, and made copies and morceau of that frequently ludicrously- drawings of 400 ancient inscriptions and pathetic species of composition, called remains, hitherto unpublished and unepitaphs, must be polished by the police. known. Among the inscriptions are The dead, in future, will not be per some which appear to be in the ancient mitted to adınonish the living, contrary Punic language. The most important to grammar and the prineiples of the of the public buildings which have been sainte alliance; but to the point:-“The discovered, is a Temple at Utica, concounsellor of state, prefect of the Seine, taining 80 columns of oriental granite, considering that it is necessary to pre- and a statue of the goddess Flora. He vent the engraving on any funeral mo is at Naples, employed in arranging bis nument, erected at the expense of materials, and preparing the result of his families, in the cemetries of Paris, any discoveries for the press. inscription or epitaph contrary to order or public propriety, (convenances pub Letters from Naples mention an exliques;) and wishing to prevent also that traordinary eruption of Mount Ætna, the expression of the pious and touch- and announce, that the little town of ing regrets of those who erect the mo Nicosi has been covered with lava, and numents should be disfigured by the that fears were entertained even for the ignorance or the negligence of those town of Catanea. who construct them has decreed, that from the first of June, 1817, there shall not be engraved, on any funeral monu M. COLLIN, editor of the Literary ment in the cemetries, any inscription Journal of Vienna, is appointed tutor to or epitaph, without its having been pre- Prince Napoleon. viously submitted to the inspection of a special commissioner, appointed by the ECONOMY OF FRENCH COOKERY. prefect; consequently, a copy of cach To the Editor of the Monthly Mag. inscription proposed must be remitted Meaux, in France, Dec. 11, 1816. by the families to the keepers of the ce SIR-In this neighbourhood nearly all metries, who will send it to the prefect the cottagers are land-owners, that is, of the Seine; and, when it shall have possess from half an acre to five acres, been approved, the keepers will take and the cultivation of these littlespots ocbare to see it literally and correctly en- cupies their time, and the produce keeps graved on the monument.” It might their families. Three-fifths of the land be imagined, that nothing in the above is planted with vines, bence we may was intended beyond the improvement conclude the general distress in this of elegaic literature-no such thing: season of scarcity. To alleviate it a the sole object was to prevent the ex- little, the crop of potatoes is every pression of those feelings which the where abundant, and poor families boil

GERMANY.

half a-peck of potatoes, a couple of ket, and takes it to a public house to cabbages, and balf a pound of bacon, dress, where he spends his time and his which forms their breakfast, dinner, and money, and forms bad connexions. In supper. It is unnecessary to state the the parts of Paris, inhabited by the laquality of the soup made from such ma- bouring classes, women have stalls with terials, a little improved by twoor three frying pans, gridirons, chops, herrings, carrots and a roasted onion. Such is potatoes, (fried,) &c. &c. where, for their fare, an 1 must be during the win- two-pence, a poor man may make a toter. Labour is also extremely cheap, lerable repast. The gridiron is on the a man will go thirty miles with his horse fire, and, for one half-penny beyond the and cart, laden both ways, for 78. ster- cost of the meat, or fish, it is nicely ling; and a master gardener earns only fried. The writer of this article has 18d. per diem, providing his own food. frequently stood by and admired the Female labour is from 5d. to7 1-2d per dexterity, the clea:liness, and economy day; the hire of a horse for work, (a of these persons: lie has left the scene, sort of galloway,) is 30 sous, (15d;) and gone to a restaurateur's, ordered the of an ass, 7 1-2d. It is an old adage, same things for bis dinner, costing him that three Frenchmen would live where three shillings, and found them neither one Englishman would starve-it is so well dressed nor so well served. As very true, and live well. An English England suffers from scarcity, these man will broil a stake and lose all the hints, circulated by the Monthly Mafine delicious juice in the fire; a French- gazine, may produce much comfort man will boil half the quantity with ve amongst the lower classes; and, in getables, bave good broth for three per- keeping persons from public houses, sons, and meat enough for all; or he where they now are often obliged to go will fry it, and, with the juice of the from necessity, public morals will, unmeat left in the frying pan, he will doubtedly, be benefitted. The scheme make a better soup than is frequently would take at first from its novelty, and to be found in English coffee-houses at be continued from its evident utility, as a shilling per bason. In a French kit persons would thus make a better meal chen, whether great or small, nothing for three-pence than they now do often is wasted; and a French cook would for a shilling.

S. T. Y. think it the sin against the Holy Ghost, from which even the Pope would not absolve him, were he to waste or sell If we were to credit all that is said his dripping

about Xerxes, by high bistorians, we We say, the French bave no word to cannot feel astonished at his cruelties express comfort; true, but they have and follies, and at the same time bethe idea and practice it, while we too lieve him to be an example of humanioften content ourselves with the name; ty and of every heroic excellence. Senfor instance, a poor woman who keeps a eca, in his noble piece, De Ira, informs stall in a market from morning to night, us that an old man, named Pythius, bad how miserable is her situation in Eng. five sons, whom Xerxes ordered to the land, she never has a comfortable meal; wars. The father begged one for the look at a French market-woman, she support of his age. The monarch gave has a morsel of meat and a few vegeta- him his choice; but immediately combles, perhaps only two ounces of bacon, manded the son who was selected to be beef, or mutton; she has a little earthen cut asunder, and the parts to be laid on furnace like a flower pot, and a penny- each side of the high way, for the exworth of charcoal, she stews her mor- piation of his army. So much for the sel at her feet in an earthen sauce-pan, barbarity of the man; now for his folly. and with a little bread has two or three He commanded the sea to be beaten warm comfortable meals, while the with rods, and cauterized with hot charcoal keeps her feet warm all day. irons; and he wrote a letter to Mount Can we doubt then as to the relative Athos. Such are the tales and condegree of comfort enjoyed by the temptible incongruities foisted upon French and English women!

mankind, under the name of history In England, if a poor man has no read in the first universities in the home to dress his victuals, he buys a world; noted, illustrated, and commorsel of indifferent meat at the mar- mented upon by the learned, and, with

XERXES.

FRANCE.

most simple faith, credited by many, buildings; command of water; divilike the stories invented about Napo- sions of fields; and farm roads. leon, to justify the late wars and the 3. To point out “ The various modes treatment of him. There are many of improving land," by cultivating other stories about this celebrated per- wastes; inclosing; draining; manuring; sonage, Xerxes—such as his army paring and burning; fallowing; weeddrinking up rivers, leaving the Lissus, ing; irrigation; flooding; warping; emthe Chidorus, and even the Scamander banking; and planting. dry-and, above all, the story related 4. To explain “ The various modes of the cattle of the prodigious army of of occupying land,” in arable culture; this prodigious king, being so numer- grass; woods; gardens; and orchards; ous, that they exhausted a lake of five and, miles in circumference. Yet this is 5. To offer some general remarks on history.

“ The means of improving a country;" by diffusivg information; by removing

obstacles to improvement; and, by poA translation into French of the sitive encouragement. “ Tales of My Landlord,” has just been The work is intended to form a large published at Paris, in 4 vols. 12mo. volume in octavo, and it will be pub

lished early in August. No less than five new epic poems are announced as being soon to enrich the MR. Arthçe Young, is preparing literature of France. Their titles are for the press, The Elements of the PracPhilip-Augustus, by Mr. Perceval. tice of Agriculture, containing experiGrandmaison; The Maccabees, by Mr. ments and observations made during a Raynouard; The Holy War, by Mr. period of fifty years. It appears that Fontanes. Tasso, by Mr. Campenon; Mr. Young, now blind, and verging on and Richard, by Madame de Stael. bis eightieth year, has published be

tween the years 1767 and the late tenth The catalogue of the late Leipzig edition of his Farmer's Kalendar, no Easter Fair occupies 330 octavo pages, less than THIRTY-THREE several works. being considerably thicker than of late years—a proof of the favourable influ. In September will be published, in ence of the present pacific state of affairs double columns octavo, Vol. I. Part I. upon the branches of trade connected of the EDINBURGH GAZETTEER, or with literature and the sciences. GEOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY,

prising a complete body of geography, SIR JOAN SINCLAIR announces his physical, political, statistical, and comlong desired Code of Agriculture, mercial. founded on all the publications of the board, and intended to comprise a A work on Biblical Criticism on the summary of their results. The follow Books of the Old Testament; and transing are the outlines of his plan: lations of sacred songs, with notes, cri

1. To consider those “ Preliminary tical and explanatory, by SAMUEL points,” to which a farmer ought to at- HORSLEY, LL.D. F.R.S. F.A.S. late tend, otherwise he can never expect to lord bishop of St. Asaph, is preparing carry on, in a useful manner, any sys- for publication. tem of husbandry. These particulars are, climate; soil; subsoil; elevation; The continuation, in octavo, with enaspect; situation; tenure, whether in gravings, is printing, of Travels in property or on lease; rent; burdens on; South America, by Messrs. HUMBOLDT and size of the farm.

and BONPLAND; translated from the 2. To inquire into the nature of French, under the superintendance of “ Those means of cultivation, which M. Humboldt, by HELEN MARIA Wilare essential to insure its success:” these are capital; regular accounts; arrangement of agricultural labour; The Elements of History and Geofarm servants; labourers in husbandry; graphy, ancient and modern, exemplilive stock; implements; agricultural fied and illustrated by the principles of

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PERPETUAL VOTION.

chronology; containing a connectedvember. There is a species of the inview of the origin, progress, decline, sect in New South Wales of the same and fall, of the several states and king- appearance, and which makes the same doms, from the creation to the present sort of noise, but produces no manna. time; by the Rev. J. Joyce; will soon be published, in two volumes, octavo, A new census has been taken of the with several maps.

population of Paris, which has been

found to exceed 860,000, being 20,000 Speedily will be published, in two more than London within the bills of volumes octavo, Lectures on the Histo- mortality, ry of Ancient and Modern Literature, translated from the German of FRED. SCHLEGEL, with notes, and an introduc To the many supposed solutions of tion, by the translator.

the problem of perpetual motion, ano.

ther has just been added by a M. Louis Bath

Literary und Philosophical So- of Valence, formerly captain in the ciety-March 17.-Mrs. Groce favour- Neapolitan service. He has found, he ed the Society with some specimens of says, " means to raise a column of wathe Cicada mannaferens, or locust of ter strong enough to force another to New South Wales, and likewise of the the same height. Thus, when the imwild honey or manna deposited by that pulse is once given, this machine will animal on a large forest tree called the perpetually retain its action, if there Eucalyptus. This insect continues but exists a fluid which does not lose by a short time in its winged state; it was evaporation; or a material indestructifirst observed in November, 1800, by ble by use. One may however employ Colonel Paterson, in the pupa state, a quantity of water sufficient in play for and on the same day it appeared with several years. This same machine may its wings through an opening in the be employed as the impelling power, for back of the outer covering: it was then the production of various kinds of rein a very weak state, and slowly left gular motions. The inventor proposes its original abode. The rapidity with to adopt a clepsydra to it, and he is conwhich the insect enlarges after this is vinced, that by means of a basin or resurprising; in the course of a few hours servoir, a private house might derive itcan fly to the top of the tallest eucalyp- various advantages from it. tus, which generally grows to the height of sixty or seventy feet. On this tree Colonel Paterson first discovered The regulations recommended by the manna in great quantities, apparent- the committee of the house of Commons ly produced by these insects. It may appointed to consider of the means of be collected both in a liquid and in a preventing the mischief arising from exsaccharine state: the inhabitants gather- plosion on board Steam-boats are as foled it, and used it for some time as sugar, lows:but soon discovered that it possessed in That all steam-packets carrying passome degree the quality of manna. The sengers for hire should be registered at extraordinary noise these little crea the port nearest the place from or to tures make is deserving of notice: the which they proceed. males first begin with a note similar to That all boilers belonging to the enthat of the land-rail

, and repeat it for gines by which such vessel shall be several times; at length the females worked should be composed of wrought join, when the combination of notes iron or copper. exactly resembles the no.se of grinding Thatevery boiler on board such steamknives or razors; and hence the insect packet should, previous to the packet is popularly known by the name of the being used for the conveyance of pasrazor-grinder. It makes its appear- sengers, be submitted to the inspection ance about the end of November, and of a skilful engineer, or other person early in January deposits its eggs in the conversant with the subject, who should ground. The larva is perfect in Sep- ascertain, by trial, the strength of such tember, when it is formed into the pu- boiler, and should certify his opinion of pa, in which state it remains until No- its sufficient strength, and of the secu•

STEAM-BOATS.

rity with which it might be employed to the pressure at which such safety valves the extent proposed.

shall open, which pressure shall not exThat every such boiler should be pro- ceed one third of that by which the boilvided with two sufficient safety valves, er has been proved, nor one-sixth of one of which should be inaccessible to that which by calculation it shall be the engineman, and the other accessi- reckoned able to sustain. ble both to him and to the persons on That a penalty should be inflicted on board the packet.

any person placing additional weight on That the inspector shall examine such either of the safety valves. safety valves, and shall certify what is

Domestic Literature and Science. About the middle of October, Judge between two and three months, at three COOPER proposes to commence his Ge- Lectures a week. Tickets 15 dollars. ological and Mineralogical Lectures in The Chemical Lectures of the same the University of Pennsylvania. They professor will begin in the University at will consist of the following parts: the usual time in November next. 1. Introductory Lecture.

Judge Cooper is preparing Notes for 2. On the Globe of the Earth: on the new editions of Peere Williams's Changeneral properties of Mineral Sub- cery Reports; and Brown's Treatise on stances; specific gravity, hardness, Civil and Admiralty Law. fracture, chrystallization, colour, &c. CUVIER'S THEORY OF THE EARTH.

3. On the rocks called Primitive, and It is with great pleasure weannounce, their component parts.

that Kirk & Mercein, of New York, have 4. On the Substances found in Primi- in press one of the most important and tive rocks.

interesting books with which science has 5 On the rocks termed Transition, been enriched in modern days. It is the and their component parts.

third edition of Cuvier's Essay on the 6. On the Substances found in Tran- Theory of the Earth, with ample Notes, sition rocks.

by professor Jameson, nearly equal in 7. On the rocks termed Secondary. extent to the original work. The third

8. On the Substances found in Se- edition has lately issued from the Loncondary rocks.

don press (in May or June last.) It con9. On Alluvial Formations.

tains a new plate, in addition to the 10. On Basins. The great Basin of the three former ones of the older editions, Mississippi. The Basin at Richmond, viz. the Ornithocephalus, found near Virginia. The Paris Basin. The Lon- Aich tedt, in Germany. Although this don Basin. The Isle of Wight Basin. is a publication replete with profound

11. On Volcanic Formations. On views of science, it is sufficiently interFloetz Trap.

esting and entertaining to repay the 12. On Organic Remains.

time bestown' hnit by the general readof Mineralogy, which, as er. Ireba, fa the present day, no man the reader 1 l see, is verridiffe abine is entiti a to be considered as well read its outline f.om any hitherto attempted, in fastionable literature, who has not will billustrated by : py priate speci- bestowed some time on the wonderful mens, Judge Coon cabinet, being progress made within these ten years in now the best adap?l for the purpose, of the science of Geology. We strongly any in the United States, colonel Gibbs's recommend this work to our readers. excepted. To which gentleman, and

BIGELOW's BOTANY. Mr. Maclure, Judge Cooper expresses A specimen of the plates of the first his obligations for the kind assistance number of professor Bigelow's work on they have afforded him in this respect. Medical Botany, has arrived in Phila

This collection of between three delphia. It is by no means inferior to and four thousand specimens, consists of professor Barton's. We wait for the lethis own collection; of the late Rev. ter press, before we can give any acMr. Melsheimer's, and of M. Godon's. count of the work, which seems to be of It is expected the Course will occupy good promise.

C.

This cou)

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