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between his former sentiments, and his full performance eould render the connewly acquired religious opinions. He jugal state happy; her husband must was not a professed theologian; and have been happy. He was happy while this will excuse a little inaccuracy, the she enjoyed health; he was tortured by subject of which appertains equally to her sickness and agonies. botany and divinity. He says, of her 0! may the same Almighty hand, early afilictions, we may indulge the which has so heavily pressed him to the belief, that in this solitary and sorrow. earth, raise him from the death of sin, ful period, were sown those seeds of enable him to imitate his beloved wife grace, which, though buried for a sea in the hour of sickness and of death, son, sprouted forth, and in after years and finally join her again in those ceflourished like the green bay tree, and lestial mansions where there is no more finally produced the richest fruits of sickness or pain.' bumility, charity, and vital piety.' p. From the thirty-third to the forty18. He could not have been aware of second page, we have a specimen of the fact, that the green bay tree never the admirably descriptive powers of produces any fruit, and that although it Mr. Grosvenor. The history of the widely extends itself, yet, it is for the commencement of the pulmonary disdestruction of all vegetation around it, ease, which terminated his partner's by the deathful influences of its leaves. career, excites a lively nterest in the He could not have known that the mournful scene. We should extract Scriptures compare none but the wick- several pages for the gratification of our ed to this tree. "I have seen the wicked readers, did we not deem it a sort of in great power, and spreading himself literary robbery to take so much from like a green bay tree;' (Psalm xxxvii. so small a volume as this. 35.) for the destruction of all around To the Sketch is added an Appendix, him. It would better have suited the which contains a well written, but brief nature of the case, had our author notice of Mr. Grosvenor. compared his partner to the palm tree

planted by the rivers of water, that KIRK and MERCEIN of New York bringeth forth his fruit in his season: have just published, in a handsome ochis leaf also shall not wither.' Ps. i. 3. tavo volume, Colden's Life of Robert Of this tree, it is a literal truth, that it Fulton, Esq., with a portrait. “The never sheds its leaves.

profits arising from the sale of this On the 29th page commences one of work, are to be appropriated to the the finest strains our author. It fund for erecting a statue to the memomust please every reader.

ry of the late lamented Mr. Fulton, un· Her character as a wife is known der the direction of the Literary and but to one in this world.

Philosophical Society. She was capable of that deep, generous, self devoting sentiment, which, M. CAREY and Son have issued proin retirement, springs amid mutual cha- posals for publishing by subscription, rities and mutual pursuits, links itself a work, entitled Vegetable Materia with every interest of life, and twipes Medica of the United States; or Mediitself even with hopes of immortal hap. cal Botany: containing a botanical, gepiness. She was a wife but nine months, neral, and medical history of medicinal five of which were passed in sickness, plants, indigenous to the United States; and in suffering. But if the tenderest illustrated by coloured engravings, sensibility of soul, the purest and warm- made after original drawings from naest heart, a sound judgment, a disposi- ture, done by the author. By William tion sweet and placid, a lively and play- P. C. Barton, M. D. Professor of Boful wit, a firm, constant, self devoting tany in the university of Pennsylvania, attachment, knowledge various and ele- &c. It will be published in eiglit quarto gant, a delicacy which almost shrunk numbers, each containing six plates, from observation, and enthusiastick love coloured according to nature, and about of domestick life, a deep and solemn 60 pages of letter press.-Price three sense of religion; a knowledge of all dollars a number. her duties, and a soul intent upon their




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ART. I.-The Life of Robert Fulton, by his friend Cadwallader

D. Colden. Read before the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York. 1817. p. 371. OME one has observed, that mankind respect most and reward

best, first those who murder and destroy them; secondly those who blind their understandings and cheat them; thirdly those who amuse them; last and least, those who endeavour to instruct and benefit them. In this class must be included authors and projectors; appellations that associate in their common acceptation, a portion of pity mixed with contempt.

Fulton ranked among the class last enumerated. His life was spent in devising the means of promoting the comfort and facilitating the intercourse of civilized life, and counteracting the evils of modern warfare. In proportion as he succeeded in demonstrating the practicability of his plans, he gave birth to obloquy and opposition. During the last years of his life his plans of public utility were greatly interrupted. He was forced to protect himself against men who speculated on his ideas: who were ready to deprive him of the honour, and to rob him of the profit of those inventions, by which his fellow citizens had been so much benefitted, and the reputation of his native country so much promoted.*

The present life of Fulton by Mr. Colden, is a plain, unaffected, unexaggerated account of what Fulton did and proposed to do for the benefit of his country and of mankind. It is neither prolix nor pompous; it does not offend by any over-strained panegyric, nor does it omit any part of Fulton's character, performances, or projects, that the public is interested in knowing. It is creditable to the very useful man concerning whom it is written, and to the biographer who writes it.

Robert Fulton, the subject of the present memoir, was the third of five children born of Robert and Mary Fulton. His father was of Kilkenny in Ireland; his mother was also of Irish descent. There are two countries in Europe, insignificant in point of popula

* The Chevalier Cadet de Gassicourt in a letter from Paris, January, 1817, proposing the substitution of the hydraulic-press to the force of steam, as a moving power to prepel vessels, observes that “Steam Boats offer such great advantages to commerce, that England, France, and America with one accord proclaim the glory of Fulton.” Month. Mag. May, 1817 p. 299. VOL X.


tion and extent, that have furnished more examples of brilliant intellect, and useful knowledge, than nations of ten times their size and number. Ireland may challenge Europe for her proportion of men of genius, and the petty territory of Sweden has done more towards chemistry and natural history than any single nation in that quarter of the globe. It is not easy to defend the practice of characterising masses of men by a few individual instances, but it is hardly possible to with-hold our assent to permanent traits of character ascribable to nations, and it is gratifying to ascribe them when they are so honourable.

Fulton was born at little Britain in Lancaster county, Pennsylyania, in the year 1765: his father died in 1768, leaving little patrimony to his children. Robert Fulton the son, was attached in his youth to drawing and painting, and from his earnings and savings in this profession between his 17th and 22nd year, he purchased a small farm in Washington county, Pennsylvania, on which he settled his mother; who remained on it till her death in 1799, thirteen years. Fulton, therefore, commenced his career of life, by sacrificing the profits of his earliest exertions to make his surviving parent comfortable and independent. This was a commencement of excellent augury.

Probably, much of Fulton's success in his plans, depended on the ease with which he was able to express his ideas on paper by means of his pencil Drawing, is the first acquirement necessary to that most useful and important character, a civil engineer: next to that is a perfect readiness in all arithmetical and mathematical calculations, particularly of the higher mathematics; next chemistry and natural philosophy. It is thus that Smeaton, and Watt, and Woolfe and Clegg, have been made in England; men, who when weighed in the balances of public utility against the monarch and the ministry, the peers and the commons of the parliament of that country, would cause the scale of the latter to kick the beam. It is not too much to say that the duke of Bridgewater, Boulton and Watt, Wedgewood, and Bentley, and sir Richard Arkwright have been worth to their native country, a hundred millions of pounds sterling. We shall have no such men here, till more time is allowed to education, than the superficial manners of the present day deems necessary in this country-till boys are permitted to remain boys until nature and education shall make men of them.

It was by pursuing with steady attention his mathematical studies which he found absolutely necessary to his success, and by his acquirements in physical science, that Fulton himself was enabled to bring his native talents so usefully into play: for genius uneducated and unimproved, is often a nuisance, and seldom of value, either to its owner, or mankind.

Soon after he had settled his mother, he set out for England to study painting under Mr. West. But while in that country, in 1793, he became acquainted with the duke of Bridgewater and lord Stanhope, and turned his attention toward the construction and the use of navigable canals; å scheme, to which the duke of Bridge

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