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6047. [16, &c.] All Christians were outlawed by the Romans through the influence of Menander.

6048. [16, 17.] The Pagans in India have on the forehead certain marks which they consider as sacred, and by which you may know to what sect they belong, and what Deity they worship.

6052. [ blood-red color.


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20.] The juice of the Claret Grape is of a SPEECHLY, on the Vine, p. 17.

The Grapes intended for white wine are pressed immediately after they are gathered; but those for red wine, are not pressed till they have been trodden, or squeezed between the hands; and the skins and pulp have stood together in the vat to acquire (by fermentation) the requisite tincture. All white wine is not made from white grapes: the very best and whitest, even that of Champaign, which has the complexion of crystal, is produced by the blackest grapes. -It is found by experience, that (fermented) wines are paler or of a deeper red, according as the juice of the skins is intermixed with that of the pulp in a less or greater degree. SMITH'S Wonders of Nature and Art, vol. i. p. 153.


When the Indians paint marks of this kind on their forehead, they always repeat certain forms of prayer, in honor of the deity to whom these marks are dedicated. At the time of public ablutions, this marking is performed by the priest, who paints with his finger the foreheads of all those who have already purified themselves.

6054. [Rev. xv. 2. Mingled with fire] In the year 1811, a volcano broke out in the sea, five leagues west of the port of St. Michael's, and half a league from the land, in fifty or

sixty fathoms water; the wind was a gale from the southward, and blew the smoke over the land. The sea was excessively agitated, and the surf on the shore was dreadful. Fire issued forth at various times, like a number of rockets discharged together. Large masses of stone or lava were continually thrown above the surface of the sea. In eight days it entirely subsided, leaving a shoal on which the sea breaks. Public Prints.

ing on one side Greece and Macedon, and on the other Caria, Ionia, and Phrygia. Univer. Hist. vol. vii. p. 447.

6059. [Rev. xvi. 4.] The quantity of pure water, which Blood, in its natural state, coutains, is very considerable, and makes almost seven eighths thereof. MACQUER'S Chem. p. 575.

6055. [Rev. xv. 2.] On ascending up the side of a hill from a misty valley, I have observed a beautiful-coloured halo round the moon when a certain thickness of mist was Over me, which ceased to be visible as soon as I emerged out of it; and well remember admiring with other spectators the shadow of the three spires of the cathedral church at Lichfield, the moon rising behind it, apparently broken off, and lying distinctly over our heads as if horizontally on the surface of the mist, which arose about as high as the roof of the church.


6056. [Rev. xvi. 1.] A remarkable water-spout fell on Emott-moor, near Colne in Lancashire, June 3d, 1718, about ten in the morning, where several persons were digging peat. On a sudden they were so terrified with an unusual noise in the air, that they left their work and ran home but to their great surprise, they were intercepted by water; for a small brook in the way was risen above six feet perpendicular in a few minutes, and had overflowed the bridge. There was no rain at that time on Emott-moor, only a mist, which is very frequent on those high mountains in suminer. There was a great darkness in the place where the water fell, without either thunder or lightning. The ground also was there torn up to the very rock, about seven feet deep, and a deep gulf made for above half a mile, vast heaps of earth twenty feet over and six or seven feet thick being cast up on each side of it. About ten acres of ground were destroyed by this flood. Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. vi. p. 440.

6060. [ 6. For they [from a murderous spirit in themselves] have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them a blood to drink; for they are worthy] Thus devils are permitted to drink; see Jer. xxv. 27.

Simmers on earth, and devils after death; eat not the flesh and blood of the Son of man, but the bestial spheres that have an animal appearance around all the infernal societies, characteristic of their respective qualities.

6061. [ — 8.] A water-spout, raised off the land, in Deeping-Fen, Lincolnshire, was seen, May 5th, 1752, about seven in the evening, moving on the surface of the earth and water with such violence and rapidity, that it carried every thing before it, such as grass, straw, and stubble; spouting out water from its own surface, to a considerable height, and with a terrible noise. In its way towards Weston hills and Moulton chapel, it tore up a field of turnips, broke a gate off the hinges, and another into pieces. Those who saw it eva-, porate, affirm it ascended into the clouds in a long spearing vapor, and at last ended in a fiery stream.

6062. [

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. x. p. 271.

13.] Pythagoras is said to have been the first (in Greece) who taught the immortality of the soul. As to the transmigration of souls, which was the principal part of his philosophy, some writers say, he meant only the sensitive soul or vital principle of the animal.

Univer. Hist. vol. vii. p. 432.

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6066. [

21.] Mezeray, in his history of France, tells us of a terrible shower of hail, which happened in the year 1510, when the French monarch invaded Italy. There was, for a time, a horrid darkness, thicker than that of midnight, which continued till the terrors of mankind were changed to still more terrible objects, by thunder and lightning breaking the gloom, and bringing on such a shower of hail, as no history of human calamities could equal. These hail-stones were of a bluish color; and some of them weighed not less than a hundred pounds. A noisome vapor of sulphur attended the storm. All the birds and beasts of the country were entirely destroyed. Numbers of the human race suffered the same fate. But what is still more extraordinary, the fishes themselves found no protection from their native element, but were equal sufferers in the general calamity.

GOLDSMITH'S Hist. of the Earth, &c. vol. i. p. 371.

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The Fathers of the Church tell us, that the Pagans under the venerable name of mysteries consecrated prostitutions, and other more heinous crimes, and call the assemblies of Ceres schools of abominations and debaucheries. The mysteries of Ceres, with Egyptian ceremonies, were translated from Athens to Rome by the emperor Adrian, and never totally abolished till the reign of Theodosius the elder. Ceres was deified about the year 1007, before Christ. Univer. Hist. vol. vii. p. 5.

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might plainly be distinguished from the Sea-side at Hastings by the naked eye, weut down from his house there immediately to the shore, and was surprised to find that, even without the assistance of a Telescope, he could very plainly see the cliffs on the opposite coast; which, at the nearest part, are between 40 and 50 miles distant, and are not discernible, from that low situation, by the aid of the best glasses. - He then went upon the Eastern Cliff, which is of a considerable height, from whence he could at once see Dover Cliffs, and the French Coast, all along from Calais, Boulogne, &c. to St. Vallery; and as far to the westward even as Dieppe. By the Telescope, the French fishing-boats were plainly to be seen at Anchor; and the different colors of the land upon the heights, together with the buildings, were perfectly discernible. This curious phenomenon continued in the highest splendor (though a black cloud totally obscured the face of the sun for some time) from about 5 till past 8 o'clock in the afternoon, when it gradually vanished. He learnt that the same phenomenon had been equally visible at Winchelsea, and other places along the coast.

6076. [Rev. xvii. 8.] When John wrote the Revelations, Oracles had ceased. They revived, when the image of the Beast spoke, ch. xiii. 15. This was what the world wondered at.

sun of the cross and those at the ends of the horizontal circle, were other two mock suns, of the same kind and size, one on each side; so that in this horizontal circle were five mock suns, at equal distances from each other, and in the same line the real sun, all at equal heights from the horizon. Besides these meteors, there was, very near the zenith, but a little more towards the circle of the real sun, a rainbow of very bright and beautiful colors, not an entire semicircle, with the middle of the convex side turned towards the sun, which lowered as the sun descended. This phenomenon continued in all its beauty and lustre till about half after two. The cross went gradually off first; then the horizontal circle began to disappear in parts, while in others it was visible; then the three mock suns farthest from the sun, the two in the sun's circle continuing longest; the rainbow began to decrease after these; and last of all the sun's circle, but it was observable at three o'clock, or after it.

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. xvi. p. 182.
See on Chap. xxi. 18 — 21.

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6077. [ 10.] Parhelions, or mock Suns, are observed in Iceland chiefly at the approach of the Greenland ice, when an intense degree of cold is produced, and the frozen vapors fill the air: there are many instances proving, that under such circumstances, the sun never appears without shewing one or several parhelions, and often a rainbow (from the melting or the rising of the frozen vapors) on the opposite side.


PINKERTON'S Coll. vol. i. p. 643, note.

At Fort Gloucester in North America, a little before two o'clock P. M. January 22d, 1771, was observed a very large circle or halo round the sun, within which the sky was thick and dusky, the rest of the hemisphere being clear; and, a little more than one-third way from the horizon to the zenith, was a beautifully enlightened circle, parallel to the horizon, which went quite round, till the two ends of it terminated in the circle that surrounded the sun; where, at the points of intersection, they each formed a "luminous appearance about the size of the sun, and so like him when seen through a thick hazy sky, that they might very easily have been taken for him. Directly opposite to the sun was a luminous cross, in the shape of St. Andrew's Cross, cutting at the point of intersection the horizontal circle, where was formed another mock sun, like the other two mentioned above. And directly half-way between the

6080. [ten tribes. the senate.


12.] The republic of Athens consisted of As the head of each tribe, there was an archon in

Univer. Hist. vol. vii. p. 2.

The ten Attic tribes took their names from the ten following heroes; Acamas (1) the son of Theseus, Ajax (2) the son of Telamon, Cecrops (3) the founder and first king of Athens, geus (4) the ninth king of Athens and the father of Theseus, Erectheus (5) the sixth king of Athens, Hippothoon (6) the son of Neptune, Leo (7) who sacrificed his daughter (or made her a priestess) for the welfare of his country, Eneus (8) the son of Pandion the fifth king of Athens, and Antiochus (9) the son of Hercules.

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6089. [Rev. xvii. 15.] As upon viewing the bottom of the ocean from its surface, we see an infinity of animals moving therein, and seeking food; so were some superior being to regard the earth at a proper distance, he might, consider us in the same light he might, from his superior station, behold a number of busy little beings, immersed in the aerial fluid, that every where surrounds them, and sedulously employed in procuring the means of subsistence. This fluid, though too fine for the gross perception of its inhabitants, might, to his nicer organs of sight, be very visible; and, while he at once saw into its operations, he might smile at the varieties of human conjecture concerning it: he might readily discern, perhaps, the height above the surface of the earth to which this fluid atmosphere reaches: he might exactly determine that peculiar form of its parts, which gives it the spring or elasticity with which it is endued; he might distinguish which of its parts were pure incorruptible air, and which only made for a little time to assume the appearance, so as to be quickly returned back to the element from whence it came. But as for us who are immersed at the bottom of this gulf, we must be contented with a more confined knowledge; and wanting a proper point of prospect, remain satisfied with a combination of the effects.

GOLDSMITH'S Hist. of the Earth, &c. vol. i. p. 298.

which grows in the greatest perfection in Anam or Cochin-china. Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. i. p. 36.

6087. [Rev. xviii. 12.] The Byssus of the Antients, according to Aristotle, was the beard of the Pinna, or Sea-wing, but seems to have been used by other writers indiscriminately for any (such as cotton) spun material, which was esteemed finer or more valuable than wool. Reaumur says the threads of this Byssus are not less fine or less beautiful than the silk, as it is spun by the silk-worm; the Pinua on the coasts of Italy and Provence (where it is fished up by iron-hooks fixed on long poles) is called the silk-worm of the sea. The stockings and gloves manufactured from it, are of exquisite fineness, but too warm for common wear, and are thence esteemed useful in rheumatism and gout. DARWIN'S B. G. vol. i. p. 74. N.

6088. [—————— 17.] The late improvements in navigation enable a man in two years, to travel twenty-seven thousand miles! Nat. Delin, vol. ii. p. 302.


The quantity of water contained in the air, even in the driest weather, is very considerable. We may be said to walk in an ocean; the water indeed of this ocean does not, ordinarily, become the object of our senses; we cannot see it, nor, whilst it continues dissolved in the air, do we feel that it wets us; but it is still water, though it be neither tangible nor visible; just as sugar, when dissolved in water, is still sugar, though we can neither see it nor feel it.

WATSON'S Chem, vol. iii. p. 85.

6085. [Rev. xviii. 4.] What is opposite takes away, it also exalts, perceptions and sensations: it takes them away, when it commixes itself; it exalts them, when it is not commixed. Hence the Lord exquisitely separates what is good from what is evil in man, that they be not commixed; as He separates heaven from hell.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence, n. 24.

6086. [ 12.] Sweet wood: This is the fragrant wood, called alluwwa in Arabic and aguru in Sanscrit,

6089.21.] On the first of April 1812, about eight o'clock in the evening, a brilliant light was seen in the atmosphere at Toulouse, and for several leagues around: this was followed by a very loud noise. A few days afterwards it was discovered that this phenomenon had been accompanied with a shower of stones, two leagues W.N.W. of Grenade. The light which was continuous, and not instantaneous like that of lightning, appeared spread over the atmosphere all at once and for some time. Though the sun had set for an hour and a half, and the air was dark, the light was so brilliant that the mayor of Grenade could read the smallest characters in the streets of the town; and the mayor of Camville compared it to the light of the sun, adding that the town-clock was as visible as at noon-day, and that a pin might have been picked up in the streets. The sky around being dark, the body which produced the light could not be seen. Scarcely bad it disappeared, in the place where the aerolites fell, when there were heard in the air, three strong detonations, similar to the report of large pieces of cannon: they succeeded each other rapidly, and almost without any interval. They were heard twenty leagues from the spot where the stones tell; and were followed by a very loud noise, which some compared to that of several heavy carriages rolling at once on the pavement. After this subsided, a sharp hissing was heard, which ended in considerable shocks, similar to grape-shot striking the ground: these phenomena were produced by the fall of the aerolites, which consist of a homogeneous paste of a stony nature, containing a very great quantity of small particles of

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