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and School of Massage.

41 Alleyn Park, London, S.E. 21.

Preparation for the Teachers' Number

A residential London College, with good provision for Sports' practice.
Diploma of the Ling Association, and the Certificates of the Chartered Society of Massage, &c.
of students limited; non-residents admitted if vacancies occur.




offers complete Training for Teacher's Diploma in Swedish Educational Gymnastics, Medical Gymnastics and Massage, Dancing, Hockey, Lacrosse, Cricket, Tennis, Net Ball, Swimming, Anatomy, Hygiene, Physiology, Theory of Education, &c.

Students not received under 18 years of age. THREE YEARS' COURSE.

For Prospectus apply-The Secretary.



(FOUNDED IN 1885.)

PRINCIPAL: MISS EVA LETT, Cambridge Med. and
Mod. Language Tripos.
ford and Anstey Physical Training Colleges.

The course of training covers three years, and is based upon Ling's Swedish System. The theoretical work includes Anatomy, Physiology, Hygiene, Theory of Games, Theory of Gymnastics, and Principles of Education. Practical training is given in Educational and Postural Gymnastics, Games, Dancing, Swimming, and Voice Production. A special course in Massage and Remedial Gymnastics is provided for those students who show aptitude for this branch of work. Students practise teaching (under the supervision of the College Staff) in London Secondary Schools and in local Secondary and Elementary Schools.

For prospectus, &c., application should be made to the PRINCIPAL'S SECRETARY at the College.


THE INCORPORATED BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING Offices: 25 Chalcroft Road, London, S.E. 13. HE Association is an Examining Body for Teachers (Men and Women) of Physical Education, and admission to Membership is by Examination only. It holds Examinations in the Theory, Practice, and Teaching of Swedish and British Educational Gymnastics. Fencing, Elementary School Teachers' Drill Certificate. Preliminary Examination admits to Studentship, and Final Diploma Examination admits to Membership of the Association. The Final Examination Certificate is approved by the Teachers' Registration Council as satisfying the conditions for Registration in regard to attainments. Applications for qualified Teachers, or for the Syllabus of Examinations, should be made to the Secretary, Mr. T. WILLIAMS.


Principals: The Misses BEAR. EDUCATED GIRLS TRAINED as TEACHERS of Swedish Educational and Remedial Gymnastics, Games, Dancing, Swimming, Fencing, Anatomy, Physiology, &c. Preparation for Public Examinations.



Principal: Miss STANSFELD.

The object of the College is to train Students to enable them to become Teachers of Gymnastics and Games in Schools.

The Course of Training extends over three years, and includes the Theory and Practice Educational of Gymnastics, Massage and Medical Gymnastics, Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene, Dancing, Lacrosse, Lawn Tennis, Hockey, Net Ball, and Cricket.

An educational centre like Bedford affords special facilities for practice in Teaching and professional coaching in Games, Swimming and Boating in the summer. Fees: £165 per annum.

For Prospectus apply-SECRETARY, 37 Lansdowne Road, Bedford.


OF TEACHERS OF SWEDISH GYMNASTICS (And Affiliated Gymnastic Societies.) FOUNDED 1899.


Offices 10 Mecklenburgh Square, London, W.C. 1. XAMINATIONS held for the Swedish Gymnastic Teachers' Diploma. The Association keeps a list of certificated Gymnastic and Games Mistresses, and Medical Gymnasts -and publishes "Good and Bad School Postures, 5s.; Net Ball Rules, 3d.; Game of Net Ball and How to Play it, 1s.; Rounders Rules, 3d.; Scandinavian Dances (Series I and II), 3d.; Music to Dances, 8d.; Folk Dances from Many Lands, Music and Notes, 1s. All post free. For these, and Terms of Membership, Conditions of Examinations, Entrance Forms, Syllabus, &c., applications should be made to the Secretary, Miss MARY HANKINSON.


and Officers' Training College
for the Girl-Guide Movement
(FOUNDED 1900.)

The College is divided into two-Junior and Senior-and the Course is from 2 to 3 years. The Swedish system is taken, also Rhythmic Exercises, Dancing (all branches), Swimming, Fencing, Sports, and Games.

Massage, Remedial Exercises,
Hospital Practice

Great opportunity for teaching and gaining practical experience. Three gymnasiums. 18 acres of grounds for games. IRENÉ M. MARSH, Principal.

All Persons interested in Phonetics are recommended to join the INTERNATIONAL

PHONETIC ASSOCIATION Subscription, 8s. per annum. Entrance fee, 4s. Members receive free of charge Le Maître Phonétique, the official organ of the Association (Editor: P. Passy, 20 Madeleine, Bourg-la-Reine, Seine, France; Assistant Editor: D. Jones, University College, London, W.C. 1).

New members receive in return for the Entrance

fee : The Principles of the I.P.A., What is





Complete training, extending over three years, for teachers of Gymnastics in Swedish Educational and Medical Gymnastics, Massage; Aesthetic, Folk, and Ballroom Dancing; Hockey, Lacrosse, Cricket, Tennis, and Swimming; Anatomy, Physiology, Hygiene, Theory of Movement, Pathology, &c. Preparation for Ling Association Diploma and other Public Examinations. Fees 75 guineas per annum. Principal: Miss M. GARDNER, G.D. (Stockholm).



Manresa Road, London, S.W.3 (SWEDISH SYSTEM)

Principal: S. SKINNER, M.A. (Camb.). Headmistress: Miss DORETTE WILKIE.

Three Years' Diploma Course of University Standard for women desiring to train as teachers of Physical Education.

Application for admission in September, 1925, should be made now. Apply for Prospectus to Miss DORETTE WILKIE (Room 85).

Telephones Kensington 899 and 8007.


British Institute of Elocution and Speech Training

An EXAMINING BODY for these Subjects exclusively.

Examinations: March, June & November CERTIFICATES & DIPLOMAS CRANTED Syllabuses from

M. L. SWINDELLS, Secretary, Parksworth House, 30 City Road, London, E.C. 1

Too Late for Classification

Phonetics? by H. E. Palmer, and La Phonétique CAN any one recommend a district

appliquée à l'Enseignement de la Lecture, by P. Passy.-List of other publications and prices and back numbers of Le Maître Phonétique (from 1889) on application.

where there is an opening for a good class Preparatory Day School for Girls and Small Boys? -Address, No. 11,492, c/o Mr. WILLIAM RICE, Three Ludgate Broadway, London, E.C. 4.



Clár na Meadhon-Mhúinteoirí I nÉirinn.

Fógra do Mhúinteoiri Chláruithe.

Na Teistiméireachta um Chlárú a cuireadh amach nó a bheidh le cur amach roimh 31adh Iúl, 1925, do mhúinteoirí lán-chláruithe, ní bheidh siad dleaghthach tréis 31adh Iúl, 1925, muna gcuirtear thar n-ais chun na gCoimisinéirí Meadhon-Oideachais iad le n-a naithbheodhchaint, maille le fuirm iarratais, a bheidh ar fagháil i mBealtaine 1925, nó i n-a diaidh, ós na Fó-Choimisinéirí MeadhonOideachais, Sráid an Húmaigh, a 1 Baile Atha Cliath. Ba cheart do mhúinteórí a n-Uimhreacha Cláruithe do luadh ag iarraidh fuirmeacha dhóibh.

Le h-órdú na gCoimisinéirí Meadhon-Oideachais.


Sráid an Húmaigh, a 1 Baile Atha Cliath, Eanair, 1925.




Register of the Intermediate School Teachers in Ireland.

Notice to Registered Teachers.

The Certificates of Registration issued or issuable before July 31st, 1925, to definitively registered teachers will not be valid after July 31st, 1925, unless they are returned for renewal to the Intermediate Education Commissioners together with an application on a form which can be obtained in and after May, 1925, from the Assistant Commissioners of Intermediate Education, I Hume Street, Dublin. Teachers should state their Register Numbers when applying for forms.

By order of the Intermediate Education Commissioners,

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neatly and promptly executed. 12 copies of one testimonial, 1s. 3d.; 25 copies, 2s.; 50 copies, 35. 6d. MSS. from 1s. per 1,000 words.-F. KNIGHT, Stapeley, Nantwich.

LADY.M.A. Lond. and Lond.

Diplomée in Education, desires_visiting work near London. Successful College Lecturer and Schoolmistress. English to Hons. B.A., Education, Classics, &c. Well recommended and experienced.— Address, No. 11,488*.


USIC MISTRESS desires post.Five years' experience. R.A.M. Examination successes. Interview desirable. Free April.— Address, No. 11,491*.

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N Examination will be held on
June 8, 9, 10, and 11, 1925.

The following Scholarships will be offered:
Open to boys under 14 on June 1, 1925, Two NEW
JUDD Scholarships of £100 per annum and One of £80
per annum.

Open to boys under 15 on June 3, 1925, One JUDD Scholarship of £40 per annum.

Five FOUNDATION Scholarships entitling the holders to exemption from payment of the tuition fee.

Allowance is made for age in the award of all Scholarships.

For particulars, apply to the SECRETARY to the Headmaster, THE SCHOOL HOUSE, TONBRIDGE.





N Examination will be held on

AN March 10, 11, 12, 1925, when six Entrance

Scholarships are offered for competition, value from
40 to 100 guineas, also six Exhibitions, value 30
Guineas. Particulars may be obtained from the

Leaving Exhibitions ranging in value from £65 to £30 per annum, tenable at any University or other place of higher education approved by the Governors, are awarded at the end of the Summer Term. For particulars apply to the HEADMASTER, Wrekin College.

Replies to these advertisements should be addressed "No. -, c/o Mr. William Each must contain sufficient loose stamps to cover postage on to advertiser.

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(i) SIX SCHOLARSHIPS varying in value from £30 to £40 a year; GOLDSMID ENGINEERING ENTRANCE SCHOLARSHIP of the value of £40 a year for three years; all on the results of an examination to be held in May, 1925.

(ii) TWO BARTLETT EXHIBITIONS of the value of £40 a year for three years or five years in the Bartlett School of Architecture, and an ENTRANCE EXHIBITION of £40 for two years in the SCHOOL OF LIBRARIANSHIP. Application must be made before May 30, 1925.

(iii) A FELLOWS SCHOLARSHIP IN LAWS of the value of £20 a year for three years, or for six years.

(iv) A BUCKNILL SCHOLARSHIP of the value of 160 Guineas, and two MEDICAL ENTRANCE EXHIBITIONS of the value of 55 Guineas each in the FACULTY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, on the results of an examination to be held in June, 1925. The value of any Scholarship or Exhibition may be increased by the grant of a supplementary Bursary if the circumstances of the Scholar or Exhibitioner make such a grant necessary.

Full particulars may be obtained from the undersigned: WALTER W. SETON, Secretary, University College, London. (Gower Street, W.C. 1)




of the value of £40 downwards, and open to boys between twelve and fourteen,

are offered annually for

Next Examination will be in June, 1925,
For Prospectus and other information apply to the

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Rice, Three Ludgate Broadway, E.C. 4."
Post cards will NOT be sent on.

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This book of verses is as fine an anthology for youth or age as has yet been culled from English poetry. The compiler is to be congratulated on his faultless taste. There are exquisite things on page after page, and the book, in the hands of an understanding teacher, should become for his or her pupils one of their most treasured possessions."



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The teaching of Latin has been very much before the public in the last few weeks. There was a debate on this subject at the Headmasters' Conference, opened by the headmaster of Merchant Taylors, Dr. Nairn, who confessed himself to be an adherent to the traditional methods; whilst at this same conference the case for the modern or direct" method was ably put by its chief exponent, Dr. Rouse, of the Perse School, Cambridge. The debate was fully reported in the press, and there was a considerable flow of letters bearing upon this subject. Dr. Rouse also addressed the Association for the Reform of Latin Teaching on the " Direct Method in Teaching Latin and Greek." It may be well, therefore, to take stock, as it were, of the present position.

The very existence of an Association for the Reform of Latin Teaching suggests that there is at any rate a certain amount of dissatisfaction with present conditions. It must, of course, be admitted at the outset that the traditional method has proved its value as a means of culture for the brilliant boy with a real taste for the detailed examination of a text with special reference to grammatical minutiae. But there can be little doubt that to a large number of average boys the old method was far from attractive; it produced very little of worth, and certainly failed to produce any passion for the "grandeur that was Rome." Many of us who are still comparatively young look back with no great pleasure to some very dreary Latin lessons. The writer of this article was taught by a teacher who had taken a first in Moderations and a first in "Greats" at Oxford, but he remembers Livy as a happy hunting

ground for strange subjunctives and other points of grammatical and philological interest. It never dawned upon him, while at school, that he was reading great literature, or that Livy was a great artist. He remembers the surprise and joy with which he read the great appreciation of Livy contained in Hippolyte Taine's study of the Latin historian. He could not help feeling how much better it would have been to have thrown the emphasis, not on grammar and philology, but upon the study of the civilization and literature of ancient Rome. This may be an extreme case, but the writer is inclined to think that such teaching was, and still is, quite common; it was sound and efficient, and admirably adapted to train young philologians and grammarians, but it was wasted on the average boy, and produced little beyond a feeling of ennui. If any one doubts this, let him look through the scripts even now submitted at the various school certificate examinations; dozens of them are utterly worthless.

In such circumstances, it is perhaps natural that there should be attempts to experiment on different lines. The most distinguished exponent of the modern methods is of course Dr. Rouse, of Cambridge. For a number of years past he has taught Latin at the Perse School exactly as if it were a modern language, and has employed the direct method as employed by modern language teachers. From the very first the boy has been taught to speak Latin. Translation has been banned from the reading lesson, and all new Latin words have been explained by those already understood. There is little doubt that this method has introduced a new atmosphere into the class-room; there has been a new vitality, a happy activity, a human interest which is little short of a transformation. The emphasis has been upon the language as a means to express ideas, not as an opportunity for grammatical disquisitions. The boys have come to take an interest in the everyday life of the Roman boy, an interest which leads on in due course to an appreciation of the civilization and literature of Rome.

It is certainly claimed that the number of those who fail completely to benefit by such teaching is relatively small, and few if any boys so taught look back with any sense of weariness upon their Latin lessons.

There are, of course, a number of objections urged against the Reform Method. It is urged that it does not provide sufficient "mental gymnastics." Dr. Rouse would reply that mental gymnastics are provided wherever the mind is strenuously exercised; the difference between the old type of mental exercise and the direct method is the difference between the treadmill and a game of football; football is the harder work, but the boys enjoy it. There can be little doubt that the direct method, vigorously applied, calls for hard and exact work on the part of the pupil.

It is also urged that it is impossible to get teachers competent to teach on the new method. The old method is, it is urged, fool-proof; the headmaster of Christ's Hospital stated at the Headmasters' Conference that any fool can teach it (and most of us have) and any fool can be taught by it (and most of us have been). It would be foolish to deny that the new method throws a greater strain upon the teacher--the newer method is not fool-proof; all the same, any really intelligent man who is prepared to take pains can learn the more difficult technique required by the newer method.


There are other difficulties, rather more serious, which militate against the general adoption of the direct method. For its success it demands moderately small classes, say 16 to 20; with classes of 30 to 35, such as exist in some secondary schools under present conditions, it would probably become unworkable, and a number of the backward boys would probably be completely overlooked, and certainly, adequate oral drill would be impossible.

Again, the direct method rather demands an early start with Latin, say, at about II years of age. Methods that suit the young boy of II who has no self-consciousness, and is willing to take part in oral work of all kinds, might fail seriously if applied to boys starting much later, e.g. at 14 or 15 years of age; and in the newer secondary schools there are probably a goodly number of such boys. Moreover, boys who start Latin late probably have to push ahead very rapidly, and have to be content with a method which will help them to translate with the aid of a dictionary as rapidly as possible. Finally, the exponents of the newer method do not claim that the best boys taught on the new methods can outstrip the best boys taught on the older lines, after both have done four or five years' Latin. What they do claim is a changed attitude on the part

of the average boy towards his work, a new atmosphere in the class-room, and a much smaller proportion of complete failures. Finally, what is the outcome of this discussion of methods? Is it not after all that methods are made for the teacher and not teachers for the methods? Every teacher worth his salt will work out his own method. He will take the best from all methods, and he will be ready to adapt his own methods to the ever-changing conditions of his own class-room and his own boys. All sorts of compromises are possible as between old and new, and all sorts of variety of method are useful even with the same boys under different conditions. But in any case the newer methods have taught us all many things. They have taught us the value of oral work, and its use in rapid revision; they have thrown the emphasis on the life, literature, and civilization of Rome, rather than on grammatical minutiae; they have demonstrated the value of realien in the class-room, models, maps, coins, pictures, plans, casts, &c.; they have reminded us of the value of the spoken word, of accurate pronunciation and enunciation, the value of repetition, of occasional plays and dialogues; in fact, of everything that can stimulate the imagination and vitalize the lesson. And this, it must be allowed, is no small achievement.

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LORD GORELL, when addressing the Association of history teacher well-read enough to discount the eccen


Assistant Masters at the beginning of January, referred in very disparaging terms to Mr. J. Drinkwater and Mr. H. G. Wells for having Cenius and the temerity to express. opinions on education. His criticism of Mr. Wells as a deserter from the teaching ranks, as a propounder of crude educational theories, as too thick-and-thin a supporter of the late headmaster of Oundle, and-crowning all-as ignorant of history, was superior in its tone and not a little unkind. It may be suggested that his own record scarcely justifies his sitting in the seat of the scornful, and condemning, in the name of education, men of great creative achievements. As the son of a distinguished father, and educated at Winchester and Balliol, it is natural for him (being interested in education) to be called to preside over educational bodies, such as the Army Education Committee, and Imperial Education Conference, and the Teachers Registration Council-besides becoming a member of the Consulta tive Committee of the Board of Education. There is, however, a world of educational work and experience, beyond that in which he may be accepted as speaking with the authority of first-hand knowledge.

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By their

Fruits ...

author of "Love and Mr. Lewisham," whose career has been so great a stimulus and inspiration to teachers, and whose sympathy with and understanding of them appears throughout his books; pointing out that it was health trouble that drove Mr. Wells from their ranks; also, that an Oundle master took up his parable by reminding the meeting that it was Mr. Sanderson's pioneer quality and his driving sense of reality that drew him and Mr. Wells together as kindred spirits, and went far to justify any encomium, however great. Finally, that a

tricities which detract from the full value of Mr. Wells's "Outline of History,"such as his comparative ignoring of Great Britain's world-influence, exercised through her Parliamentary system and her sea-power-was moved to dilate upon a signal and pioneer service to mankind which the "Outline" has accomplished-in visualizing for the first time, in a continuous curve of development, the vast sweep of history when all national and artificial barriers alike are removed, and in thus helping us to enjoy its vast harmony:

The diapason closing full in Man.

If these reminders had been given, Lord Gorell would have been the better prepared for the cold douche of the days that ensued, when his challenging taunts were met by his chosen protagonists, not by the clash of indignant rejoinders, but by the dignity of silence.

T is perhaps not surprising that Prof. Gardner's presidential address at this year's Conference at University College should have received considerable attention in the press. There is still Our Examination a large number of people for whom System. education means examinations and little else. Anxious parents, and prospective entrants to the professions and public services, naturally tend to fall into this class; and the pressure which can be exerted by a public opinion largely formed in this way, is seen in the effect produced upon teachers of all grades, but especially upon those who work in secondary schools. Admittedly this is far from being a desirable state of things, and it is the easiest thing in the world for the pure idealist to point out the evils of the situation. It is not so easy to devise means whereby we may rid ourselves of these evils without inducing others which may prove to be worse. The chief virtue of Prof. Gardner's address lies in the fact that while it fully recognized the abuses of the examination system in the

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