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heda, with its antlers of nearly eleven feet from tip to tip,* figures as chief. The finest fallow-deer, red-deer, roes, and stags, belonging to the fossil kingdom, have been found in Scania, Sommes, Etampes, Orleans, or scattered over Europe, in limestone, peat-bogs, or sand pits. M. Cuvier has described seven distinct species, all of which, with the exception of one, are extinct or unknown species. Of the fossil ox, buffalo, and antelope genus, he has given four distinct species, all apparently unknown.
He has also collected fossil remains of the horse and hog genera, without being able to ascertain to what species they belong: and various animals of the order glires or gnawers, as beavers, guinea-pigs, and rabbits, and two decidedly unknown species of the sloth tribe, which he has distinguished by the names of Megalonix and Megatherium, the first as large as an ox, earliest discovered in limestone caves in Virginia in 1796; and the second of the size of the rhinoceros, hitherto found only in South America. Specimens of the ox-sized have since been found in Buenos Ayres, in Lima, and in Paraguay; and of these three the first, a perfect skeleton, was sent as a present to M. Cuvier by the Marquis Loretto in 1789.
Relics of fossil seals and lamantins, though less perfect than most of the preceding, enter also into this extraordinary collection.
In the other classes M. Cuvier has hitherto made less progress; though his collection of fossil, and apparently unknown amphibials, especially of the crocodile and tortoise tribes, is considerable, and highly interesting, and should his life be spared for ten or twelve years longer, we may have reason to expect these classes to be filled up as numerously as that of mammals.
Among the most extraordinary of the fossil amphibials he has enumerated, 5s the gigantic monster first discovered as early as the year 1766, in the limestone quarries at Maestricht, and which was at that time regarded by some naturalists as a whale, by others as a crocodile, and by a third set as an enormous unknown fish. M. Cuvier has sufficiently ascertained that it must have formed an intermediate genus between those animals of the lizard tribe which possess a long and forked tongue, and those with a short tongue and a palate armed with teeth; and it is hence generally regarded in the present day as a Monitor, making an approach towards the crocodile. The length of the skeleton seems to have been about twenty-four feet: the head is the sixth part of the whole length of the animal, which is nearly the proportion it bears in the crocodile. The tail must have been very strong, and its width at the extremity have rendered it a most powerful oar, capable indeed of opposing any violence of the waters; and it is hence chiefly that M. Cuvier regards it as having been an inhabitant of the ocean: though we are hereby put into possession of a kind or species far supassing in size and power any of those which it most nearly resembles, and at least rivalling the magnitude of the crocodile.f
The circumstances under which most of the preceding large and fossil animals have been found, and especially those traced in Siberia, afford sufficient proof that the catastrophe which arrested them must have overtaken them suddenly while in their native regions; and that they could not have been brought into their present situations from a remote distance. And we have
* See Sir Therms Molyneux's account of this animal In rhil. Trans.
This Is the cervus Enrycerus of Dr. Hibbert: a name he has applied to it from Aldrovandus, who appears to have been acquainted with this species of fossil elk, and has referred to it as common at that tuae m various soils in the British isles. Specimens, indeed, are still often to be met with in this quarter: and Dr. Hibbert, in the essay now referred to, quotes part of a letter from Dr. Mitlt^air, of Edinburgh, in which he advertstothe skeletons of three great elks that were lately dug up in Ireland, one of which measures eleven feet between the tips of the horns. And he adds, what would seem to show that this species had not been many ages extinct, that near them, in a three feet stratum of marl, were also found the skeletons of three dugs"; and, at a little distance, several human skeletons. Edtn. Joum. OfStienoe, No. V. p. 134. 18S5.
t The fossil animals of this class have been since considerably enlarged by other discoveries; among the most curious of which, perhaps, are the Pieslosaurtrs of ihc iate Mr. Conybenre. and the Megalosaurus of Professor Quckland. The remains ofthe last are the most imperfect; though from' a; large portion of the lower jaw dug up from the anil at Btoneaflcld, near Oxford, and a thigh-bone found at Cucknciil, in Sussex, Mr. Buckland has been able to ascertain its mode of dentition, as also to estimate that its face must have terminated in a flat, straight, and very narrow snout. Its length seems to have been upwards of sixty feet, and its bulk to have equalled that of an elephant seven feet high. Geoi. Trans, aeries ii. vol. I. part \L
The structure of this genus makes an approach to that of fishes, but it has a length and flexibility of hence facts to show, as we had occasion to observe formerly, that various quadrupeds of the largest size, as the elephant, mammoth, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus, which are now traced in a living state in the hot parts of Asia, Africa, or America alone, formerly existed, as to certain species that have been long extinct, in the highest northern latitudes: and that, consequently, such species must have had such a discrepancy of habit and organization, like the dog and the ox tribes of our own day, as enabled them to endure the difference.
Such, then, is a brief sketch, I will not say of the animal kingdom, but of the most popular arrangements which have hitherto been attempted concerning it. It would have been much easier, and might have been much more interesting, to have extended the survey: but the thread of connexion would then, probably, have escaped from us, and we should have lost the system in the fulness of the description.
Enough, however, and more than enough, has, I trust, been offered to prove that the study of zoology is of a most interesting and inviting character, equally calculated to win the heart, and to inform the head. I have dwelt somewhat more at large upon the three lowest classes of worms, insects, and fishes, for the very reason that these classes have too often been passed over by naturalists, as little worthy of their attention; and because I wished to impress upon your minds, by the incontrovertible fact of living examples, that nothing is low, nothing little, nothing in itself unworthy, in the view of the great Creator and common Parent of the universe; that nothing lies beyond the reach of his benevolence, or the shadow of his protection. God alike supplies the wants and ministers to the enjoyments of every living creature: he alike finds them food in rocks and in wildernesses, in the bowels of the earth, and in the depths of the ocean. His is the wisdom that, to different kinds and in different ways, has adapted different habits and modes of being; and has powerfully endowed with instinct where he has strikingly restrained intelligence. It is he that has given cunning where cunnmg is found necessary, and wariness where caution is demanded; that has furnished with rapidity of foot, or fin, or wing, where such qualities appear expedient; and where might is of moment, has afforded proofs of a might the most terrible and irresistible.
At the head of the whole stands man, the noblest monument of creative power " in this diurnal scene," and in a state of purity and innocence, a faint image of the Creator himself; connected with the various classes of animals by his corporeal organization, but infinitely removed from them by the possession of an intelligent and immortal spirit; his chief distinction, to the external eye, consisting in the faculty of language, and the means of communicating and interchanging ideas:—a subject full of interest and of importance, and towards which, therefore, I shall beg leave to direct your attention after we have examined this lord of the universe in the different varieties he exhibits in different parts of the world, under the influence of climate, manner of life, and incidental circumstances.
Thus nature varies: man, and brutal beast, And herbage gay, and scaly fishea mule,
aeek like that of the larger birds; and from the form of its paddles, it ia probable that, like the crocodile, It awim on the surface of the ocean; an idea which is confirmed by various specimens found on the DorsetIan coast, where the present writer has seen one or two nearly entire specimens.
ON THE VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN RACE.
Thus far we have confined ourselves to the different classes of animal* below the rank of man. The sketch has been rapid and unfinished, but I hope not altogether unfaithful, or without its use. Let us now proceed to a general survey of the human species; the generic character by which man is distinguished from other animals, and the family character by which one nation is distinguished from another nation.
If we throw an excursive glance over the globe, and contemplate the different appearances of mankind, in different parts of it, and especially if we contrast these appearances where they are most unlike, we cannot but be struck with astonishment, and feel anxious for information concerning the means by which so extraordinary an effect has been produced. The height of the Patagonian and the Caffre is seldom less than six feet, and it is no uncommon thing to meet with individuals among them that measure from six feet seven to six feet ten: compared with these, the Laplanders and Eski- maux are real dwarfs j their stature seldom reaching five feet, and being more commonly only four. Observe the delicate cuticle, and the exquisite rose and lily, that beautify the face of the Georgian or Circassian: contrast them with the coarse skin and greasy blackness of the African negro, and imagination is lost in the discrepancy. Take the nicely-turned and globular form of the Georgian head, or the elegant and unangularoval of the Georgian face: compare the former with the flat skull of the Carib; and the latter with the flat visage of the Mogul Tartar, and it must, at first sight, be difficult to conceive that each of these could have proceeded from one common source. Yet the diversities of the intellectual powers are, perhaps, as great as those of the corporeal: though I am ready to admit, that for certain interested pur
Eoses of the worst and wickedest description, these diversities, for the last half century, have, even in our own country, been magnified vastly beyond their fair average, though the calumny has of late begun to lose its power.
The external characters thus glanced at form a few of the extreme boundaries: but all of them run into each other by such nice and imperceptible gradations in contiguous countries, and sometimes even among the same people, as to constitute innumerable shades of varieties, and to render it difficult, if not impossible, to determine occasionally to what region an individual may belong when at a distance from his own home.
It has hence been necessary to classify the human form: and the five grand sections, for we can no longer call them quarters, into which the globe is divided by the geographers of our own day, present us with a system of classification equally natural and easy: for in each of these sections we meet with a marked distinction, a characteristic outline that can never be mistaken, except in the few anomalies already adverted to, and which belong to almost every general rule; or in instances in which we can obviously trace an intermixture of aboriginal families.
Before we attempt, then, to account for these distinctions, let us endeavour, as briefly as possible, to point them out; and consider them under the five heads of the
European Race; Asiatic Race; American Race; African Race; Australian Race; or, as they are denominated by M. Blumenbach, in his excellent work upon this subject,* the Caucasian, Mongolian, American, Ethiopian, and Malay varieties.
Gmelin has pursued the same general divisions, but has merely distinguished the respective races; and accordingly his five definitions are the white, brown, copper-coloured or red, black, and tawny man.
I. The most symmetrical, and therefore the most elegant variety of the human form, is that which I have called European, in consequence of its being traced in the European division of the globe more largely than in any other; and the most perfect lineaments of this variety are those of the region of Asia Minor, on the borders of Europe, the parent spot from which it has been imported—lineaments which we find distributed among the Georgians, Circassians, Mingrelians, Armenians, Persians, and other nations that skirt the southern foot of the vast chain of the Caucasus. And it is on this account that M. Blumenbach has given the name of the Caucasian variety to the European form in general. It is remarkable that in this spot of the globe man was first created: here he first received the breath of life, and arose in the image of his Maker. The die has not yet lost its divine impress: for here we still meet, and in all ages have met (so far as relates to the exterior graces), with the most exquisite models of symmetry and beauty.
The general colour of the European or Georgian variety, the White division of Gmelin, is fair; that of the cheeks more or less red; the head globular; the face straight and oval, with the features moderately distinct; the forehead slightly flattened; the nose narrow, and slightly aquiline; the cheek-bones unprominent; the mouth small; the lips a little turned out, especially the under one; the chin full and rounded; the eyes and hair variable, but the former, for the most part, blue, and the latter yellow, or brown and flowing.
II. The colour of the Asiatic, or Mongolian, the Brown-man of Gmelin, is yellowish brown or olive, with scarcely ever an appearance of red in the cheeks, which seems to be confined to the European variety; the head, instead of being globular, is nearly square; the cheek-bones wide; and the general face flat; the eyes are black and small; the chin rather prominent; and the hair blackish and scanty.
III. The American, or Red-man of Gmelin, is of an obscure orange, rusty-iron, or copper colour; the head is less square, the cheek-bones less expanded, and the face less flattened than in the Asiatic; the eyes are deeply seated; and the hair is black, straight, and thick. This variety seems to form a middle point between the European and the Asiatic.
IV. The colour of the African, the Ethiopian of Blumenbach, and BlackMan of Gmelin, varies from a deep tawny to a pitch or perfect jet. The head is narrow; the face narrow, projecting towards the lower part: the forehead arched; the eyes projecting; the nose thick, almost intermixed with the cheeks; the lips, particularly the upper one, very thick; the jaws prominent; the chin retracted; the hair black, frizzled, and woolly. The countenance in this variety recedes farther than in any other from the European, and approaches much nearer than in any other that of the monkey.
V. The Australian, or inhabitant of New South Wales, and the numerous clusters of islands that begirt that prodigious range of unexplored country, together with the South Sea islands in general, constituting the Malay of Blumenbach, and the Tawny-man of Gmelin, is of blackish-brown or mahogany colour: the head is somewhat narrowed at its upper part; the forehead somewhat expanded; the upper jaw slightly prominent; and the nose broad, but distinct; the hair harsh, coarse, long, and curly. This variety seems to form a middle point between the European and the African; as the American does between the European and the Asiatic. So that, in a more compendious view of the human race, we might contract the five varieties into three:—the European, Asiatic, and African; and regard the other two as mere intervening shades of variety. ,
In this general classification of mankind, however, there are two observations that are peculiarly worthy of attention. The first is, that although these distinctive characters will hold in the main, it is not to be expected that they will apply to every individual of the particular division to which they refer; nor that they belong so exclusively to such division as never to be traced, even by a natural introduction, among other divisions. The second is, that from the restless or inquiring spirit of several of the divisions, and the migrations which have hence ensued, we ought to expect to meet occasionally with the distinctive characters of such divisions among other divisions, and in regions to which they do not naturally appertain.
A perfect jet of the skin has never, perhaps, been found in our own country, in any person of genuine English race; but a dark, swarthy, and even copper-colour is by no means uncommon; and an equal difference is observable in the globularity of the head, and the flatness or sharpness of the face. In like manner the skin is occasionally found fair among the red tribes of America;* and black among the tawny tribes of Australia, and even the olive nations of India. So Captain Cook informs us that, among the natives of the Friendly Islands, he saw hundreds of European faces, and not a few genuine Roman noses. And Adanson asserts that he was struck with the general beauty and proportion of several Senegambian females, in spite of their colour: while Vailant and Le Maire give a similar testimony concerning the Caffre women, and the negresses of Gambia and Senegal.
The most inquiring and consequently the most migratory of the five divisions under which we are contemplating the race of man, is unquestionably the European. And hence we have reason to expect that we shall meet with more numerous establishments of the European form in regions to which it does not naturally belong than of any of the others. And experience confirms this expectation. It is, in truth, the migratory spirit of this peculiar division that has filled Europe itself; for, as I have already had occasion to remark, the division in its earliest state was confined to the southern foot of the Caucasus, and branched out into Europe from this region. And thus, in the west of Africa, extending from Fez to the Zaara, we discover considerable patches of the same lineage, the progenitors of which have either shot through the isthmus of Suez or crossed the Mediterranean; while every one knows that, from a similar spirit of migration, America, both North and South, and India in its southern promontory of the Deccan, have for several centuries past exhibited patches of a similar kind.
The Asiatic race, properly so called, have in like manner had their migrations; and hence we trace the form and features of this family, spreading southerly through the whole of Egypt and Abyssinia; northerly from the Imaus or Caff of the Caucasus towards the Arctic boundaries of Europe and America, amid the Laplanders and Nova Zemblians of the former, and the Greenlanders and Iskimos or (as we have it from the French writers) Esquimaux of the latter; and westerly from the north of Persia along the banks of the Euxine, in successive waves, and chiefly under the different denominations of Fins, Goths, Alans, and Huns; the last two uniting on various occasions, and especially under the triumphant banners of Attila, and overrunning great part of Germany, and consequently intermixing with the European race; at the same time driving the Fins into higher northern latitudes, along the shores of the Baltic, where they at length intermingled with the Laplanders. Among both these nations, therefore, whether blended or separate, we still meet with very strong marks of the true, genuine Asiatic face, flat, wide, and of a sallow or olive hue; the eyes being small, and the hair dark and scanty.
It is probable, also, that the more polished nations of America, as the Toltecs and Mexicans that belong to the northern, and the Peruvians and Araucans that belong to the southern division of this continent, have originated from an Asiatic source. De Guignes, Forster, and Humboldt concur in believing them to have been of Chinese or Japanese descent; while the mass of the numerous tribes that constitute the chief population of this continent, and are altogether distinguished in external and internal character from the preceding nations, seems to have issued, in various migrations, from some of
* See M. Humboldt; Essai Politique sur le Royaume de la Nouvelle EapagM. Parte, 1806,180%