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thou knowest not now, but thou shalt P know hereafter.
1 Matt. xxiii.
vi. 16. 1 Cor. set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have 131 Ye call me Master and Lord and ye
S. Phil. ii.
done to you?
m Luke xxii.
14 m If I then, your Lord and
n Rom. xii. 10.
Galvi. 1.2. Master, have washed your feet; "ye also ought to wash
1 Pet. v. 5.
g ver. 12.
h ch. iii. 5.
1 Cor. vi. 11.
i ch. xv. 3.
k ch. vi. 04.
P render, understand afterwards.
a better, hath been bathed hath no need: see note.
better, for this cause.
vv. 9, 10. (3) The great Act of Love, the
him that was betraying.
Lord's words. The expression, if I wash
12. Know ye what I have done to
an example, o
do q James i. 25.
one another's feet. 15 For I have given you that ye should do as I have done to you. verily, I say unto you, u The servant is not greater than his lord: neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him. 17 9 If ye know these things, y happy are ye if ye them. 18 I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that P. x9. eateth bread with me [a hath] lifted up his heel against me. 19 s b Now I tell you before it come, that, when it is sch. xiv. 20: come to pass, ye may believe that I am he. 20 t Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me: and he that receiveth me receiveth
Matt. xxvi. 23. ver. 21.
u render, There is no servant. render, as usual, blessed. brender, From this time.
thee not, thou hast no part with Me." The command will rather find its fulfilment in all kinds of mutual condescension and help, than in any literal observance.
In these times," continues Bengel, “pontiffs and princes obey this injunction to the letter: but it would be a more wonderful thing to see a pontiff, for example, wash the feet of one equal, than of twelve poor beggars." The custom of literally and ceremonially washing the feet in obedience to this command, is not found before the fourth century. 15.] Notice that our Lord commands us to do, not "that which I have done to you," but " as, in like manner as, I have done to you." Our Lord's action was symbolical, and is best imitated in His followers by endeavouring, "if a man be overtaken in a fault, to restore such an one in the spirit of meekness:" Gal. vi. 1. 16, 17.] The proverbial expression, There is no servant greater than his lord, is used here in a different sense from that which it has in ch. xv. 20. Here it is, "if the Master thus humbles Himself, much more should His servants and messengers;" see Matt. x. 24; Luke vi. 40; and on ver. 17, Luke xii. 47, 48. The mere recognition of such a duty of humility, is a very much more easy matter than the putting it in practice. 18.] I say it not (viz. the "if ye do them") of you all: for there is one who can never be blessed. Our Lord repeats His words, "but not all," of ver. 10, and the sad recollection leads to His trouble in spirit, ver. 21. I know] The I is emphatic; and the reason of its emphasis is given in ver. 19. Connexion: It might be supposed that this treachery has come upon Me unawares;
Matt. xi. 20.
Phil. ii. 5.
John ii. 6.
p Matt. x. 24.
Luke vi. 40.
ch. xv. 20.
t Matt. x. 40: XXV. 40 Luke x. 16.
X render, nor apostle.
Z render, chose. c render, as below, come to pass.
but it is not so: I (for my part) know whom I have selected (viz. the whole twelve; see ch. vi. 70, not only the true ones, as in ch. xv. 16, said when Judas was not present): but this has been done by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, declared in the Scriptures.' The words of the citation here are given freely, the LXX having, "magnified the lifting up of the heel against me.' This is another instance of the direct and unhesitating application of the words of the Psalms by our Lord to Himself. his heel] Bengel observes that this saying is pertinent to the washing of the feet, and also to the custom of reclining in eating bread. See on ver. 23. 19.] Now, from this time, I announce it to you, that when it shall have happened, you may believe that I am (the Christ).' See ch. xvi. 1, and above on "I know," ver. 18. 20.] See Matt. x. 40. The connexion is very difficult, and variously set down. It has been generally supposed that the words were to comfort the Apostles for the disgrace of their order by Judas, or in prospect of their future labours. But then would not the words "whomsoever I send" have been expressed by "you?" Another view is to refer back to vv. 16, 17, and suppose the connexion to have been broken by the allusion to Judas. But is this likely, in a discourse of our Lord? I rather believe that the saying sets forth the dignity of that office from which Judas was about to fall: q. d. not only was he in close intercourse with Me (ver. 18), but invested with an ambassadorship for Me, and in Me, for the Father; and yet he will lift up his heel against Me.' And the con
u Matt. xxvi. him that sent me. 21 u When Jesus had thus said, he
xiv. 15. Luke was troubled in d spirit, and testified, and said, Verily,
X ch. xii. 27.
y Acts i. 17.
verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me. 22 Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting z ch. xix. 26:7, of whom he spake. 23 Now there was leaning on Jesus'
bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved. 24 Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, g that he should ask who it should be of whom he spake. 25 He then h lying on Jesus' breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it? 26 Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give a sop, when I have dipped it. And when he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, [ the son] of Simon. 27 a And 1 after the sop Satan entered into him. m Then said Jesus
e render, reclining at meat in.
a Luke xxii. 3. ch. vi. 70.
d render, his spirit.
frender, maketh a sign.
8 The text is in confusion: some ancient authorities reading as above, while others have, and saith unto him, Say, who it is of whom he speaketh?
h render, leaning back.
not expressed in the original. 1 more strictly, after the sop, then Satan. m render, Jesus therefore said.
sideration of this dignity in all its privileges, as contrasted with the sad announcement just to be made, leads on to the troubling of our Lord's spirit in the next
21-30.] Contrast of the manifestations of love and hate. See notes on Matt. xxvi. 21-25. Mark xiv. 18-21. Luke xxii. 21-23. 21.] See above. This was one of those mysterious troublings of spirit, which passed over our Lord,-ch. xi. 33 and xii. 27.
The word testified implies the delivery of some solemn and important announcement. This was the first time He had ever spoken so plainly. All four Evangelists agree in the substance of the announcement. 22.] In Matthew and Mark they express their questioning in words. St. Luke's beginning to enquire among themselves would appear to imply the same. We seem called on here to decide a much-controverted question,-where, in St. John's narrative, the institution of the Lord's Supper is to be inserted? I believe certainly before this announcement, as in Luke: and if before it, perhaps before the washing of the disciples' feet: for I see no break which would admit it between our ver. 1 and ver. 21. 23.] Since the captivity, the Jews lay at table in the Persian manner,
on divans or couches, each on his left side
unto him, That thou doest, do quickly. 28 Now no man
• i. e. What.
word then carries a graphic power and
P render, kept.
What thou doest (art doing)...] These
Now e ch. xii. 23. him. dch. xiv. 13.
1 Pet. iv. 11.
position, see ch. xii. 5. The gift to the poor might be, to help them to procure their paschal lamb. 30.] The remark, and it was night, seems to be added to bring the whole narrative from ch. xiii. 1 to ch. xviii. 3 into precision, as happening on one and the same night. It is perhaps fanciful to see, as many have done, an allusion to the darkness in Judas's soul, or to the fact expressed in Luke xxii. 53, "this is your hour, and the power of darkness;" though doubtless there the Lord alludes to its being also night but I quite feel, with Meyer, that there is something awful in this termination-it was night.
31-XVI. 33.] HIS LOVE IN KEEPING AND COMPLETING HIS OWN. And herein, 31-XIV. 31.] He comforts them with the assurance that He is going to the Father.
31-38.] Announcement of the factits effect on Peter. Here commences that solemn and weighty portion of the Gospel (ch. xiii. 31-xvii. 26) which Olshausen not without reason calls the most holy place.' He beautifully remarks, These were the last moments which the Lord spent in the midst of His own before His Passion, and words full of heavenly meaning flowed during them from His holy lips-all that His heart, glowing with love, had yet to say to His own, was compressed into this short space of time. At first the conversation with the disciples takes more the form of usual dialogue: reclining at the table, they mournfully reply to and question Him. But when (ch. xiv. 31) they had risen from the supper, the discourse of Christ took a higher form: surrounding their Master, the disciples listened to the Words of Life, and seldom spoke (only ch. xvi. 17, 29). Finally, in the sublime prayer of the great High Priest, the whole Soul of Christ flowed forth in earnest intercession for His own to His Heavenly Father.' Olsh. ii. 329. 31. Now is the Son of man glori
32 [er If God be glorified in him,] God shall also glorify
ch. xv. 12,
Eph. v. 2.
1 Thess. iv.
8. Pet. as I [t have] loved you, that ye also love one another.
i. 22. 1 John
ii. 7, 8: iii. 35i By this shall all men
11, 23: iv. 21.
11 John 5: if ye have love one to
e ch. xvii. 1, 4, 5, 6.
fch. xii. 23.
g ch. vii. 34: viii. 21.
h Lev. xix. 18.
romitted by many of the most ancient authorities: but probably by mistake in transcribing, from the two similar endings, in him . . . in him.
I render, saith.
8 render, is.
know that ye are my disciples, 36 Simon Peter said
fied] It was not that the presence of Judas, as some have thought, hindered the great consummation imported by this glorification, but that the work on which he was gone out, was the ACTUAL COMMENCEMENT of that consummation. "Now at length," says Lampe, "as if an obstacle were broken down, the rushing rivers of grace flow from the lips of Jesus." It is true that Judas's presence hindered the expression of these gracious words. The glorification is spoken of by anticipation, as if accomplished, because the deed was actually in doing, which was to accomplish it. The glorifying spoken of here, and in ver. 32, is not the same. This is the glorifying of God by Christ on earth, in His course of obedience as the Son of Man, which was completed by His death ("he became obedient even unto death," Phil. ii. 8). And His death was the transition-point between God being glorified in Him, and He being glorified in God-manifested to be the Son of God with power by His resurrection, and received up to the Father, to sit at the right hand of God. This latter (ver. 32) is spoken of by Him here as future, but immediate (straightway) on His death, and leads on to the address in ver. 33. 32.] in himself is in God (the Father), not in Christ. The word himself reflects back on the subject of the sentence: and in does not mean by means of,' but keeps its literal force;-by the resurrection of Him into that glory, which He had indeed before, but now has as the Son of Man, with the risen Manhood; so "glorify thou me with thyself," ch. xvii. 5. Grotius compares 1 Sam. ii. 30, which stands in the LXX, "them that glorify me I will glorify." Origen remarks, The Father recompenses to Him more than the Son of
Man hath done."
forming (ver. 35) an united Body, the Church, in which all shall recognize My presence among you as My disciples.' 34.] The newness of this commandment consists in its simplicity, and (so to speak) unicity. The same kind of love was prescribed in the Old Test. (see Rom. xiii. 8): -'as thyself' is the highest measure of love, and it is therefore not in degree that the new commandment differs from the old, nor in extent, but in being the commandment of the new covenant,-the firstfruit of the Spirit in the new dispensation (Gal. v. 22); see 1 John ii. 7, 8 (and note), where the word new is commented on by the Apostle himself. 35.] all men,all the world,-and the object is to be, not mere vain praise or display before the world, but that men may be attracted by the exhibition of the Spirit of Christ, and won over to Him. The world, notwithstanding this proof of His presence among them, shall hate them: see 1 John iii. 10-15. But among all men they themselves are also included-brotherly love is