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(JEFFERSON.) When, in the course of human events, I it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among


of the earth | the separate and equal station | to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, I a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. I

We hold these truths to be self-ev'ident: that all men are created equal ; | that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights'; that among these are life', lib'erty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are insti

The Declaration of Independence was publicly read from the steps of the State-House, July 4th, 1776.

Tråths; not trůthż. bIn-dl'yền-å-bl. • Gdvan-ments.

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tuted among meni, / deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; I that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abol'ish it, / and to institute new government, I laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, I as to them shall seem most likely | to effect their safety and happiness. | Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes ; , and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer | while evils are sufferable, | than to right themselves / by abolishing the forms to which they are accus,tomed. | But when a long train of abuses and usurpationsI pursuing invariably the same object, I evinces a design to reduce them under absolute děspotism, I it is their right', \ it is their duty i to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. / Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies ;d | and such is now the necessity | which constrains them to alter their former systems of gov.ernment. | The history of the present king of Great Britain | is a history of repeated injuries and usurpa'tions,b | all having in direct object | the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, | let facts be submitted to a candid world, 1

He has refused his assent to laws | the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. |

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, I unless suspended in their operation till his assent' should be obtained ; and, when so suspended, I he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other laws | for the accommodation of large districts of people, I unless those people |


* Trån’shë-ént. Yủ-zúr-på'shủng. De-sin. Kol'o-nė .

would relinquish the right of representation in the leg islature,"i a right inestimable to them, and formi. dable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unu'sual, I uncom'fortable, I and distant from the depository of their public records, |.for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. |

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. I

He has refused for a long time after such dissolutions to cause others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, / incapable of annihilation, Ï have returned to the people at large for their exercise, | the state remaining, in the mean time, I exposed dangers of invasion from without and convulsions within. 1

He has endeavoured to prevent the popula'tion of these states ; | for that purpose I obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners, refusing to pass others 1 to encourage their migrations hither, I and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands. !

He has obstructed the administration of justice l by refusing his assent to laws | for establishing judiciary powers. 1

He has made judges dependent on his will alone' | for the tenure of their offices, I and the amount, and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, / and sent hither swarms of new officers | to harasse our people and eat out their substance. I

He has kept among us in times of peace' standing ar mies without the consent of our legislatures. 1

He has affected to render the military | independent of, and superior to the civil power. I

He has combined with others | to subject us to a

· Ledi'is-là-tshủr. De-poż'é-tůr-é. An-nl-he-la'shủn. Nåttshů-rål-e-zå'shún. e Džu-dish'å-ré. i Te'nür. & Hår'rås.

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jurisdiction | foreign to our constitutions | and unacknowledged by our laws', 1 giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation, for quartering large bodies of armed troops among us; for protecting them by a mock tri'al | from punishment | for any murders which they should commit ) on the inhabitants of these states ; | for cutting off our trade with all parts of the worldı ; I for imposing tax'es on us without our consent ; ! for depriving us in many cases of the benefits of trial by ju'ry; | for transporting us beyond seas' to be tried for pretend ed offences; I for abolishing the free system of English laws | in a neighbouring province, I establishing therein an arbitrary governinent, I and enlarging its boundaries, I so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument ) for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies; for taking away our char'ters, abolishing our most valuable laws', / and altering fundamentally I the forms of our governments;| for suspending our own legislatures, I and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. |

He has ab'dicated government here | by declaring us out of his protection I and waging war against us. I

He has plundered our seas', i ravaged our coasts', burnt our towns', / and destroyed the lives of our people. 1

He is at this time' | transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries | to complete the works of death', | desola'tion, and tyr'anny | already begun | with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy / scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages | and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation. /

He has constrained our fellow-citizens | taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, | to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. | He has excited domestic insurrections among us, | and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers | the merciless Indian sav'ages, / whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sex'es, and conditions.

a Fôr'rin.

In every stage of these oppressions, we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms, :I our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated in juries.

A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant | is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. ]

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. | We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. | We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here: | we have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, / and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred, I to disavow'a these usurpations | which would inevitably interrupt our connexion and correspondence. | They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. I We must therefore acquiesce in the necessity I which denounces our separa'tion! | and hold them as we hold the rest of mankind, I enemies in war, Jin peace friends. . 1

We therefore the representatives of the United States of America / in General Congress assembled, | 'appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world | for the rectitude of our intentions, 1 do in the name, and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare', that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, I free and independent states. ; | that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain / is, and ought to be, I totally dissolved; I and that as free and

a Dis-à-vou.

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