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of the child: in other respects we judge moderate things the best; conjugal affection, better than loose; the morning better for generation; the state of the body, not over full, or vigorous, &c. It must also be well observed, that the robust habit of the parents, makes better for themselves than for the child, especially in the mother. Plato therefore judged, unskilfully, that the power of generation was defective, because the woman did not use the same exercise of mind and body as the man: for a difference of powers, between the male and female, is of greatest service to the child; whence women, and nurses, of a delicate and tender constitution, supply the best and most plentiful nourishment to the fætus, and the child. Nor were the children of the Spartan women, who married not before the age of twenty-two, or, as others say, twenty-five, finer, or longer lived, than those of the Roman, Athenian, or Theban women, who were marriageable at twelve or fourteen. And if the Spartans had any great advantage, it was more owing to their sparing diet, than to the late marriage of their women. Lastly, it is manifest from experience, that certain races of men are long lived for a season ; insomuch that longevity, as well as distempers, may be hereditary and periodical.
Persons pale in the face, skin, and hair, are not long lived; but such as are brown, red, or freckly, prove more lasting. Too fresh a colour in youth, is not so good a sign of long life as paleness. A hard skin denotes a longer life than a soft skin : but this is not meant of a thick, or goose-skin, which seems spongy; but of one that is both hard and close. So likewise a forehead with large wrinkles, is a better sign than one that is smooth.
Hard bristly hair denotes a longer life than such as is soft and weak; so likewise does curled hair, especially if harsh, promise better than such as is soft and glossy: so again, does hair, thick and short-curled, better than that in larger rings.
Baldness, coming early or late, is a thing indifferent; for numerous bald men have proved long lived: and even greyness, happening early, is fallacious; for many that were soon grey, have lived long after it; nay, to grow grey before the time, without growing bald, is a sign of long life, though not, if attended with baldness.
Ilairiness on the upper part of the body, is a sign of short life; and those extraordinary hairy on the breast, are not long lived: but hairiness on the lower parts, as the thighs and legs, denotes longevity.
Tallness of stature, if not excessive, and the body be well set, but not thin, especially if attended with agility, is a sign of long life: as, on the other hand, men of a short stature, and slow of motion, live not so long,
As to proportion: they who are short in the body, but long in the legs, live longer than those who are tall in the body, but short in the legs. And again, those who are of a large make belon, but slender upwards, the body thus rising as it were conical, are longer lived than those who are broad shouldered, and squeezed in below.
Leanness, where the passions are calm and the temper easy, and a full habit, where the passions prove more vehement, are signs of long life : but corpulency in youth, denotes shortness of life; though in old age it is a thing more indifferent.
For growth to continue long and gradual, is at sign of longevity; and if it produce a large stature, the sign is great; but smaller, if a less: as, on the contrary, sudden growth to a large stature, is a bad sign; but if to a short one, less bad.
Firmuess of flesh, plump muscles and sinews, a smallness of buttock, and a rising of the veins, denote long life ; and the contrary a short one.
A small head in proportion to the body, a moderate neck neither long nor scraggy, full, nor · short, nor as it were buried in the shoulders ; wide nostrils, whatever be the form of the nose; a large mouth; an ear gristly, not fleshy ; teeth strong, close joined, not small, or thin set; all these are signs of long life; and so much the more if any new teeth shoot out in advanced age.
A wide chest, rather sunk in than prominent; round shoulders; a flat belly; a large hand with but few lines in the palm; a short round foot; a thigh not over fleshy; and a firm calf; are signs of long life.
A large eye, with the iris greenish; the senses not over quick; a pulse slow in youth, but quicker as age comes on; an ability of holding the breath long; costiveness in youth; and laxativeness in age; are also signs of long life.
There has been nothing remarkable observed of the times of nativity with regard to long life, except what is astrological; which is a consideration we here meddle not with ; though it finds a place in our tables of enquiry. A birth at eight months' end is so far from being long lived, that it is scarce thought capable of rearing. And children born in the winter, are accounted longest lived.
A Pythagorean or monastic diet and life, led conformable to strict rules, and always exactly equable, like that of Carnaro, seems a thing of great power in the prolongation of life. On the contrary, of such as live freely, and in the com
mon way, those are frequently found to live the longest that eat and drink to the full, or use a liberal table. A moderate or temperate diet is recommended, and indeed contributes to health, but has little efficacy in prolonging life; for the strict regimen supplies few spirits, and those sluggish; whence it consumes the less; whilst the full diet affords a more copious nourishment, and therefore recruits the more: but the moderate one does neither. Indeed where extremes are hurtful middle courses prove the best; but where extremes are serviceable,, moderation is of little significance. The strict regimen requires watchiing, otherwise the few spirits may be oppressed by much sleep; it requires little exercise to prevent their wasting; and an abstinence from venery, lest they should be exhausted: but the full diet suits best with full sleep, frequent exercise, and a seasonable use of yenery. Bathing and anointing conduce more to pleasure than the prolongation of life. But we shall speak more closely to all these heads, when we come to enquire of intentions* with a view to practice. In the mean time, the advice of Celsus; who was not only a physician, but also a learned and wise man, should not be slighted, when he directs a variety and change of regimen ; though still with the ad
* See hereafter, Sect. viii.