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opinion that became stronger and stronger, as instances multiplied, and his experience increased.
Although the act respecting India supervisions passed by a considerable majority in Parliament, it excited great clamours among many of the proprietors. All parties, indeed, admitted that the Company was involved in pecuniary difficulties; yet many said they were only temporary; and that the restraint, imposed on them by the new act, was merely to promote ministerial purposes. The Ministry, however, proceeded to make many other regulations, as remedies to the alledged disorders of their finances. Burke joined his eloquence to the precision and legal knowledge of Dunning, and the commercial information of Johnstone, in vigorously opposing the principle of the regulations, and many of the details. One law empowered the Company to export their teas, duty free, wherever they could find a market. The avowed object of this resolution was to give relief to the India
Company: it was, besides, the intention of Ministry to increase the import revenue from America.
There was this great difference between Lord North and Burke, that Lord North could perceive one class of objects and interests separately, but seldom attended to their relation to other classes of objects and their interests, and the probable effect to the nation in general. Burke thoroughly comprehending the separate interests of different members of the state, grasped the whole in his mind, and considered measures immediately affecting one part, not only in their relation to that one part, but to all the parts and to the whole. Lord North considered the India Company and revenue only: Burke the interests of the whole empire. He perceived that the Americans would see the intention of the drawback on exported tea, would persist in their associations to resist its importation, although lowered in price ; because their objection was not to the price but to the principle. He foretold that this new resolution would bring the disputes to a crisis: and that Britain must either entirely abandon the duty or enforce taxation. From this alternative, he predicted that commercial and political evils would arise, which would altogether overbalance the partial advantage to the revenue and to Indian commerce. Partial and temporary'expedients are more adequate to the capacity of the majority of mankind, than great' and comprehensive counsels. Lord North's proposition was adopted.
The India Company sent out three ships. for Boston, laden with tea..
The Bostonians, on hearing of this cargo. and its destination, renewed the associations into which they, in common with other colonies, had entered. The populace tumultuously surrounded the houses of the consignees of the tea, to frighten them from acting. When the ships arrived, a meeting was held by the Bostonians and the inhabitants of the neighbouring towns, at which
it was determined that the ships, with their cargoes, should be sent back. Notice of this resolution was given to the Company's agents. Meanwhile, difficulties arose * about sending off ships. A clearance from the Custom-house could not be obtained; they could not pass a fort that commanded the mouth of the harbour, without the permission of the Governor, which he refused. On this the meeting was dissolved, and there was a general cry of a mob! a mob! A number of armed men, disguised as Indians, boarded the ships, and threw the cargoes into the sea.
When the news of this outrage was brought to England, it was communicated to Parliament by a message from the King. Two things were alledged by Ministers as necessary to be insisted on :-satisfaction to the India Company for the injury they had sustained, and to the honour of the British nation for the insult it had received. For
* See Stedman's History of the American War, vol. i. p. 87.
these purposes a bill was proposed, to shut up the port of Boston, except for stores for his Majesty's service, and the necessaries of life for the inhabitants, until peace and good order should be restored, and satisfaction made to the sufferers.
The bill, in its progress through the House of Commons, met with very able and ani. mated opposition, especially from Mr. Dempster, Governor Johnstone, Colonel Barré, and, most of all, from Burke...
His speech on this occasion, independent of its reasoning, in relation to the Bostonport bill, may be considered as a history of the disputes between England and the colonies previous to the irreconcileable quarrel. He contended that, if the punishment was for resistance, all the northern provinces were equally repugnant to the authority of Parliament: that if the punishment was merited on account of disaffection, all these provinces were equally disaffected: if the punishment was intended merely on account