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fundamental right of juries. The motion was negatived.
Two speeches were this session delivered by Burke on the conduct of Ministry respecting Falkland Island. These speeches take a very wide range, and display the vast extent of his knowledge. As to the merits of the question, Burke seems, in this case, not equal to his private friend and public opponent, Johnson, although generally superior to him in political discussion. The Doctor demonstrates, that from the magnificence of the object, after the con-. cessions of Spain, war would have been extremely impolitic. Johnson's observations (after discussing the main question) on the duty of Ministers, in every case consistent with national safety and honour, to avoid war, are equal to any of the productions of that great and good man's wisdom and philanthropy.
Although Mr. Burke and Dr. Johnson - disagreed concerning political ineasures, in
ternal and external, they still continued mutual friendship. Indeed the disagreement in principle was rather apparent than real. The Tory was the supporter of personal independence; and regarded political liberty as far as it appeared to him to produce private liberty and happiness. Though averse to resistance, unless under great oppression, he admitted that if the abuse be enormous, Nature will rise up, and, claiming her original rights, overturn a corrupt political system.' The Whig was the friend of subordination, the reverencer of rank and dignity, and the enemy of popular violence. Johnson did not maintain the duty of obedience to Kings and rulers on the ground of any divine right they had to such obedience; but on account of the conduciveness of the obedience to the happiness of the governed. Burke allowed that it was the duty and interest of the governed to obey their governors, unless in cases of very flagrant oppression ; and considered the greatest evil of certain ministerial measures to be their tendency to arouse the people to forcible resistance. A wise Tory and a wise Whig,' Johnson himself observes, in their politics rarely agree; their principles are the same, their modes of thinking are different: sufferance and irresistance must always be de. termined to be right or wrong by the circumstances of the case; and not by antecedent definitions and abstract principles.
Although the political differences of Johnson and Burke did not interrupt affection and veneration, their diversity of opinion, combined with the rough manners of the lexicographer, frequently led to asperity ; but generally witty rather than serious, Burke displayed equal force of wit and argument, but much greater suavity of manners. Dr. Robertson observed that Johnson's jokes were not the stabs of malevolence, but the rebukes of the righteous, which are like excellent oil; and break not the kead.- Oil, replied Burke, oil of vitriol.
Mr. Boswell is at great pains to prove that Burke possessed wit. In his conclusion
mo t readers will agree, but not on the grounds which he adduces. The instances which he details are puns, at best mixed, not pure wit. Some of the examples cited by Mr. Boswell seem to be introduced as much for the purpose of recording certain observations for which he values himself, as of illustrating the wit of Burke.
i One day, Boswell trying to make a definition of man, that would distinguish him from all other animals, calls him a cooking animal-a man alone can dress a good dinner, and every man is more or less a cook, in seasoning what he himself eats. "Your definition,' replied Burke, is good; I now see the full force of the common pro. verb, « there is reason in the roasting of eggs.' Boswell afterwards speaking in the club of an intention he had of going to view the Isle of Man, Burke repeated Pope's words:
The proper study of mankind is Man.' Boswell telling him that he had seen at a Blue-Stocking Club a number of ladies
sitting round a worthy and tall friend of their's (Johnson), and listening to his literature. • Ay,' said Burke, · like maids round a May-pole.'
I have already noticed instances, not of puns or conceits, but of great wit in some of his speeches ; and shall, as I proceed, have occasion to quote more. His wit is often joined with humour, either light and pleasant, or satirical and contemptuous. Speaking of Lord North's determined adherence, merely because he had adopted it, to a plan of coercion, proved, from its effect, to be hurtful, he compared him to Dr. Sangrado, when Gil Blas represented to him that death was the consequence of his specifics, and advised him to alter his method. "No,' says the Doctor, · I cannot leave off warm water and bleeding (although my patients do not often recover) since I have written a book in its favour.' Johnson mentions a more uniformly pleasing qualification for company than wit and humour, which Burke was allowed, by all that knew him, eminently to