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surprise them yet more is, that the lencies," some hundreds of honours," Americans are quite indifferent about and “honourables," and thousands of the exercise of their right. Multitudes“ esquires,” annually created by the continually neglect it, and multitudes American people, to say nothing of more would never go to the polls, were their military titles, which are 6 too they not ferreted out of their retire- numerous to mention;" or their civil ment, and dragged thither. In the and religious titles, such as the “ select Southern and Middle States, this in- men” and deacons, some of which are difference is most remarkable. often very amusing, and hardly ever Throughout New England it is hardly withheld from these republican dignamanifest.
taries. True, there are no game laws; and Their President and Vice-President, when an Englishman first puts bis foot the Secretaries of the war, state, upon the soil
, he is wild with delight, navy, and treasury departments, and on finding that he may wander whither their foreign ambassadors, are all exhe will, over any man's land, in pur- cellencies; their judges, who probasuit of—what he can find, without any bly exceed five hundred, are all honsort of qualification. But his ardour ours; all their senators, whether of a soon abates, when he finds that every State, or of the United States, and body else may enjoy the same privi- sometimes their representatives, parlege; that there is no distinction in it; ticularly to Congress, are honourables; and that there is very little of what may all members of the bar, from the attorbe called game in America, unless he ney and conveyancer upward, all machoose to go into the wilderness. By gistrates, merchants, public officers,gen-, and by he comes to care as little about tlenien, and those who have no other sporting as the Americans do about particular title, are esquires. Such is suffrage, or as any man would for the consistency of republicans when grapes, who should have them continue left to themselves. ally before him. Toujours pedrix is the complaint of all mankind, after the
We hear a good deal, too, of repubfever of excitement is over. Those lican economy. We are told that the things wbich delight us most are apt twenty-four Governors, and the Presito weary us the soonest. Let people dent, Vice President, the twenty-four have their own way for a little time State-houses of Representatives, and among rarities, and they will soon be the twenty-four Senates, together with come tired of them. The pastry-cooks the Senate and House of Representaand confectioners understand this, and tives, or Congress, (all of whom are put it in practice on every new appren- paid,) with all the expenses of the tice.
twenty-five governments, civil and But the Americans have a small military, including the salaries of all standing army, all that they require the ambassadors, judges, and public offor their protection ;) a national debt, ficers do not cost the people of the which, however it may be in the way United States so much as the people of extinguishment, is bitterly com- of this country allow annually to the plained of there ; taxes, that are not King of Great Britiain. thought low in America ; a formidable
This may, or may not, be true. It aristocracy of wealth ; a great regard is hardly worth our while to examine for family and birth; and what is yet the fact on this occasion. We are wilharder to believe, when we call to ling to admit, however, for a moment, mind the genius of their government, that it true. and the clause in their constitution
But it should not be forgotten that which prohibits the creation of titles, our population is much greater, much the republican Americans have titles richer, and fuller of resources; that in abundance, and are quite as jealous our supreme executive is in one indiof them, too, as any other people un- vidual'; that a large portion of the supder the sun.
ply so voted to bim, is diverted into There are some dozens of " excel- other channels ; that our legislative
body receive no pay; that our judi- comparative power, such as that which ciary, on the whole, is not near so cost- we allow to this or that nation, when ly, (because not near so numerous ;) - compared with another, but positive that our situation is one of continual power—the strength and vigor of the danger,requiring proportional disburse. government. This is always in proporment; that the supreme executive of tion to the strength of the majority ;America is not in reality one person, and this majority may be in the form the President, but twenty-six persons, of wealth, numbers, religion, law, or viz, a President, Vice-President, and military force. twenty-four governors, (and some lieu Men may say what they will about tenant-governors and councils ;) that the comparative advantages of a mothe supplies voted to each, are exclu- narchical and republican government. sively applied by each individual to Both have their advantages, both their his own use ; that all the legislative disadvantages. The form of governbodies there are paid; that the civil list is ment often, and the substantial freea matter of separate appropriation; that dom of the people almost always, dethe judiciary in America, on account of pend upon the situation of the countheir numbers, are a great expense to try. the people; and that America is remote A wealthy population, occupying a from danger, and, of course, not under rich and fertile territory, full of tempthe necessity of being so continually. tation to the plundering banditti of the prepared for encroachment.
world, surrounded by warlike barbaBut the way in which the compar. rians, or standing armies, must have ison is made is not a fair one. We the power of protecting themselves, inshould estimate the population and re- stantaneously—must have standing arsources of each country; we should mies, or an equivalent-must endow recollect that, by the distribution of the their chief magistrate, whatever he may governing power in America into twen- be called, or iheir executive, in whatty live parts, each paying its own offi- ever shape it may exist, with more cers, the utmost vigilance and frugality power, of every kind, than would be are insured in the administration of necessary if they were poor, afar each ; and that, hy the concentration of off, remote from, or inaccessible to the whole governing power into one danger, whether they were entrenchpoint, as in Great Britain, it is gradual- ed by mountains, or encompassed by ly the interest of some one (or more) oceans. of the parts to encourage expenditure Thus, before the American revoluin the whole, that itself may profit tion came to a close, the Congress of
the Confederacy endowed Washington Unluckily for those who seel a sober with nearly absolute power-in effect. concern about the American people, as They allowed him to choose his own forming a large part of the human fa- officers (with two or three exceptions); mily, her institutions have become, in- to levy contributions, and to call for stead of what they should be, a matter men, at his discretion. of serious investigation, rather a theme And if the United States were, at for poetry and eloquence.
this hour, situated in the middle of Eú. Yet, after all, it will be found, per. rope, or if a separation should unhaphaps, under the present constitution of pily take place among themselves, (a things, that, in one respect, all govern- very probable event, notwithstanding ments are alike-arbitrary in propor. Mr. Munroe's ingenious and plausible tion to their power. We do not mean supposition, *) they would soon be obli
* Mr. Munroe, in his last message, speaks of the remarkable faculty, inherent, as he supposes, in the constitution of the American confederacy, by virtue of which, on the admission of every new State, the chance of separation is diminished, while the strength of the whole is augmented.
Mir. Munroe is mistaken. The confederacy is already too large. The longer the sceptre, the more onmanageable it will always be. Sources of difference already exisi, and are continually multiplying. The alleged encroachment of the Supreme Court, as the supreme judiciary of the country. upon the legislative power, under pretence of construction, which amounts, in reality, to legislation; the disputes between Virginia and Kentucky ; the sectional prejudices; the real inequality of representation and taxation, are some of these. In faci, every State has its own particular grievances; and, of course, if you augment the num.
ged to keep up a standing army, or a of a different constitution, temperament militia continually under arms; to or habits. choose military men for civil offices ;– Above all, do not believe that a peoto reward the popular favourites, who, ple are much freer under one kind of iu time of war, would, of course, be government than under another. The the must fortunate and adventurous of form, afier all, is only a shadow. Powtheir military men, by the highest of. er will be felt whenever it is tempted or fices; to give the President the power provoked ; and every government, of declaring war; and, probably, to whatever may be its nature--civil, keep him in office during life, partly on military, or religious,-or however conaccount of his experience, partly to stituted, fashioned, or named, will be avoid the danger of electioneering con- arbitrary, in proportion to its power. troversy,and partly, whatever he inight formidable minority will always be, under the fear of changing for the be respected ; an overwhelming maworse.
jority will always be tyrannical and And so, too, if Great Britain were as unjust. remote froin the influence and peril of In Turkey, such a minority would great political combinations as are the be free. In the United States, such a United States, there would be less need majority would be—for they have of monarchical vigour, royal preroga- been—wholly regardless of decency tive, and power, or standing armies. toward the minority, exactly in proIn such a case, the disturbers of pub- portion to their own ascendancy over lic tranquillity, by mischievous writing them. or speaking, might be generally left, as Let war be declared against this they are in America, to the discretion country to-morrow in America. Let. of the public themselves.
one man alone lift up his voice against A prosecution for seditious or blas- it, or presume to remonstrate, and he phemous writing, or for a libel upon would be treated with contempt, lamgovernment, or any of its officers, pooned, burnt in effigy, or perhaps was probably never heard of in Ame- tarred and feathered. But let a third rica.
part of the country stand up with him, The truth is, that a republic is well and they will be treated with most refitted for a time of tranquillity ; but spectful consideration,just as they would the moment that invasion presses upon be in Turkey. it, all its administration is obliged to Institute no political comparisons, take upon itself more and more of a therefore, we would say : for it is a monarchical vigour and bearing, not hundred to one, whether you be an Aonly in the military, but civil: depart- merican or an Englishman, that you do ments.
not well understand what you are talkWe would say, then, to our country- ing about. men, and to the Americans, Have done If you happen to be an American, with all political comparisons, unless do not believe that you have captured, you choose to go profoundly into the sunk, and destroyed the whole British subject. Let us have no pratiling upon navy ; and if you are an Englishman, the solemn bosiness of government.- do not dream of re-colonizing AmeriDo not imagine that a monarchical or Avoid these two things, and you republican form of government is the will do well enough. best for every people, in every possible Leave it to such men as Mr. Cobsituation. It were wiser to believe in bett, in this country, and some others a panacea—what is good for one will, of a like temper in America, to keep for that very reason, be bad for another up a state of artificial hostility between
ber of States, you aagment the number of their grievances, and, therefore, the chances of separation. Because, if one desire to separate, and is afraid of being presented by force, she will combine with others, uintil sufficiently strong, each belping to relieve the other. These grievances are not felt now ; but, in a time of war, with an enemy at the door, and heavy taxes pressing them down, as they suppose, unequally, almost estry state will have the disposition to dictate some sort of terms to the rest, and the power, very often, d. enforce her claims, be they just or unjust. The last war was full of waruing on this point.
the two countries. We mention Mr. same speeches, on the same occasion, Cobbett, because we happen to have had the sagacity to adopt a course of met with an amusing —and yet we know policy precisely similar to that of the not if it would not be more proper to American. He did not resort, as a call it a melancholy coincidence, be- vulgar pamphleteer would, to a downtween the opinions of him and an A. right calling of names ; but he affected merican editor, of a similar character, to believe that Mr. Canning had for. upon the same point.
gotten bis dignity as an English minisWhen the last message of the Ame- ter, and truckled to an agent from a rican President was put into our nation of shopkeepers. Had many hands, it was accompanied with an others of Mr. Canning's countrymen American paper. We were rejoicing believed this, he would have been dein the apparent simultaneous express. spised, and the American hated. ion of similar sentiments by our cabi Thus much to show what mischief net and that of America. Mr. Mun. may be done by a light, hasty, or roe and Mr. Canning had spoken the thoughtless piece of humour-even if same language, almost at the same we are willing to consider their retime. This was either preconcerted, marks in the light of humour. Let all or it was pot. If it was.-what a voice such things be avoided. to the nations of the earth ! How A little mutual forbearance, a little plainly did it say, “ Thus far shall ye charity, and a little patient inquiry, go, but no further."
If it was not will do inore toward effecting a hearty how much more terrible! The one and permanent reconciliation between would have been the voice of two cabi- the people of the two countries, than nets, the other of two nations ; the one all the enthusiasm of all the reformers, a communication by the telegraph, the poets, and philanthropists that ever other, by electricity. It was at this lived. We are all of the same family; murnent, while we were yet full of the descended from the same parents; haproud, confident feeling, which a ving the same religion; the same laws; course of reflection like that would nat- the same language ; the same habits, urally produce, that our attention was and the same literature. attracted by the name of Mr. Canning, What, then, should keep us asunder ? in the American paper.
We only want to know each other inIt was at the head of a speech, by timately and truly, to become one great that gentleman, at the Liverpool din- brotherhood. Will the political genius ner, where he and Mr. Hughes acci- of the two governments prevent this ? dently met. The time had gone by —Nofor though one be a monarchy, for the American editor to abuse the and the other a republic ; and, thereBritish minister. It was no longer po- fore, to all appearance not likely to pular. He chose quite another course. seek a coalition of themselves, unless He affected to believe that Mr. Can- they are forced into it by an equality of ning, whose reputation for wit stands pressure on every side-yet there is high in America, was only playing off now, and will probably be for a long a little of his cabinet pleasantry upon time, such a pressure ; and if the subthe credulous American. Nothing, of ject be seriously investigated, it will be course, had it been believed, could have found that the two governments, and been more provoking.
the two nations, after all, are more esBut not long after this we wet with sentially the same, in all that constitutes a precisely parallel case, in the manage the source of attraction, affinity, and ment of an English politician, or rather attachment amung nations, than are political writer, on the very same any two republics, or any two mopoint. It was for this reason alone narchies, under heaven. that we have remembered it.
X. Y. Z. Mr. Cobbett, in speaking of the Lundon, June S.
(Lond. Lit. Gaz.) CHARACTER-HIGH-STICKS.
“ I cares for nobody, no not I, * To get on board, I descended from the quay to the deck.
And nobody cares for me." “ Please, Sir, to remember the ladder," By his side, and still gazing at the said an old grey-headed, blear-eyed shore, stood a young Colonel. His hat man. Aye, aye, my friend, you need
was frequently waving above his head, not speak upon that subject, for there's and now and then we could distinguish a spoke gone, which nearly tumbled a flash of something white upon the me overboard ; I shan't forget o' one beach : it told a tender tale of parting while.”—“ It's customary, your hon- love. Behind them sat a learned M. our.”_“ What, a broken ladder ?”- D. who was making a pil-grim-ige to
No, your honour, that was accident ; the Continent for the benefit of his pabut every body gi’es some-ut.”—“ Do tients. On the stern-rail a scene-paintthey? then I must follow the mode,” er was sketching the coast for a new putting a small coin in his hand. “Let pantomine ; overlooked by a novelist go the head-rope, (hallooed the Cap- searching for originals on one side, and tain,) and haul her bow nd ; let go, a scientific tra er on the other.let
of all !"_" Aye, aye, Sir, there Stretched on a pile of baggage, forward, she goes ! there she walks ! Hats and lay an Irish sergeant fast asleep, while wigs, gemmen, look out for the main- his faithful Judy, with a short dodeen boom.”—“ How does she go, mate,” in her mouth, watched o’er his purly cried the Captain at the helm. “Never slumbers. A keen, sharp-eyed genius, better, Sir ; her bow is between the with an assumed look of stupidity, and two cat-heads.”—“Steady, and keep habited like a methodist parson, lolled her so. Steady, 'tis mate, steady !” – over the windlass end, turning his eaAnd thus we passed between the pier- gle glance on every one around, displayheads, receiving the farewells of those ed the dealer in contrabands. “A rough we left behind. After parting with the shock head, frequently thrust up the spectators, it was very natural for us to companion from below, inquiring whelook at one another. For myself, I had ther all was shafe, and how much more little else to do. Close shut up in her they had to go ?” proclaimed an Israelcarriage lashed on one side of the deck ite indeed. Beside those already menwas the Countess Dowager of — and tioned, the passengers were, a French Sir C- W-, who thus took an op- captain, a Mad-dame from the Magazin portunity of journeying to Paris (in des Modes, (whose bonnet resembled a company with a female friend) to visit May-day garland decorating the steeple his wife, after she had been making a of a village church,) escorted by a little tour of the Continent with a gentle coue abbé all smiles and frisks, the licensed sin. On the bench abast them sat a possessor of her conscience ; an Italian Cossack chief and suite. They had opera-dancer, a Dutch burgo-master, a been to England to try our beef against sergeant-at-law, two ordinary M. P's. a their bæuf de cheval. The top of the city alderman, and a Dover magistrate, sky-light was occupied by Sir F-F- with his family, going on a visit to their and Lady, a Deputy Commissary-gen- old friends at Calais. The sails were eral, Sir, whose carriage and four nicely trimmed, and being, as an hongreys were aboard, and a young buck est Jack observed, “ past all safety," of fashion, who lithped hith accenths my old friend the Captain resigned the tho. On the opposite side of the deck helm to one of the crew, and joined me was an ancient, farmer-looking man.- in conversation. The passengers, too, He appeared equally in his element in began to group themselves together, as ploughing the wave, as he would have if by instinct. “Shadrach Levi, who had been upon his own estate. There was ventured on deck, took the smuggler for a good humoured unconcernedness a companion ; and all seemed admiraabout him, and his looks seemed to say, bly attached except the honest farmer with the old miller's song,
(as he appeared ;) bis blunt manners 53 ATHIEVENY vol. I. neon series.