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it was lowered stern foremost into the water; a steersman stood at the rudder; a tow-line was attached at the bow rollock, if the steamer happened to be going with the stream, at the rate of fifteen miles an hour (which is not uncommon, as they are built for river navigation, like a spoon); away spun the boat to the bank, at the rate of twenty miles an hour; the passengers jumped on shore, and the engine, by an ingenious and simple addition to the machinery, wound up the tow-line, and the boat returned to the steamer without any pause or diminution in its speed. Now, however, (after some fatal accidents,) they stop the engine for a few minutes, and take more time to land their passengers.

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In the summer and autumn the steamers on the north rivers have been known to have seven or eight hundred passengers on board at a time; people from New York, or the unhealthy southern States, proceeding to the springs at Saratoga, or about to travel west by the Great Erie Canal. On these occasions it is impossible to walk about on deck; the dense multitude stand or sit composedly, and get their meals in succession, without noise or inconvenience, by each getting a ticket, and having his place fixed at table.

Some time ago an Englishman, unaccustomed to such crowds, was proceeding up the Hudson, and after spending a night of discomfort on board, in the morning was desirous of refreshing himself by



performing his ablutions. He inquired where he could wash, and was directed to a recess, where he saw basins in use, and rapidly passing from hand to hand. He saw also a looking-glass, on one side of which hung a brush by a string, and on the other a comb, which were applied indiscriminately to the "haffet locks" of the citizens. He was rather disgusted with this strange scene, and despaired of being able to secure a basin before the breakfast-bell rang, when at last a passenger, who had just washed, turning round, saw the distress of the John Bull, and immediately emptied his basin, poured a little pure water into it from the cock, and laying it down on the slab, pointed to it and made a low bow to the Englishman, who thanked the stranger for his civility, and gladly availed himself of it.

At breakfast-time the Englishman related to a compagnon du voyage what had happened previously, and added" I see opposite to us the gentleman who behaved so civilly to me, and so unlike the others; I wonder who he can be!"Why," answered his friend, "I have just learned that that is the ex-King of Spain, Joseph Buonaparte !"


The Hudson unfolded to us its beauties in succession as we voyaged down its noble stream. The Knatskill Mountains on the right presented their majestic sides, along which clouds were rolling; the opposite bank of the river was smiling

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with fields, woods, and occasional villas, and where rocks and cliffs appeared, it recalled recollections of the far-famed Rhine, but without its castles. On the deep tide were frequently seen the white sails of sloops, conveying flour and deals to New York. The town of Hudson was passed on the left, pleasantly looking down from its hill, but altogether modernized and changed since its great founder, Henrick, "shook from his skirt the dust of mortality." The river next expanded into a succession of lakes, and did not contract its channel till we approached those scenes of many a wild tale and martial achievement, the Highlands. We passed through the cleft of the mountains at Windgate, and found ourselves navigating between most romantic precipices, amongst which Dunderberg and Anthony's Nose were looked on with peculiar interest.

We emerged from the deep shadows of the impending masses of rock, and saw the Military Academy at West Point, on its elevated plateau, and surrounded with the traces of military works constructed during the great struggle for American independence; then Fort Putnam, on its · natural platform on the right, recalled the memory of the chivalrous but unfortunate André. On looking back at the southern entrance to the bold scenery of the Highlands, it seemed like a Scottish loch; the trees descended from high ridges to the water's edge, and here and there a



bare peak of granite towered above the foliage. Then Verplanks Point appeared, with its family mansion, commanding beautiful views of the river; after which we were in the Tappaan Sea, a lake of the Hudson, with the primeval forest alternating with clearings and snug farm-houses. On the eastern shore was the Sleepy Hollow of Rip Van Winkle, and the Palisades. A wall of granite, extending on our right for several miles, marked the shore of New Jersey.

Night had now closed in upon us, and the termination of our swift course was indicated by a long line of glimmering lights on the left, proceeding from the fair city of New York.


Leave New York to see Congress opened.-General Wool.— Sail to Brunswick in New Jersey.-Trenton.-Memorabilia connected with it. The Delaware.-Joseph Buonaparte.Bristol and Burlington.-Philadelphia.-The William Penn Steam Vessel.-Newcastle. The Chesapeak and Delaware Canal.-Sail up the Patapsco to Baltimore.-Uninviting appearance of Maryland.-Slavery and its Effects too apparent. The great Chesapeak and Ohio Rail-road. Bladensburgh. Pass over the Battle-field. Silent approach to Washington. - Resembles a Russian city. — The Streets. Houses indifferently heated. Audience of President Jack

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-A Sketch of his Career.-The Pennsylvania Avenue.— The Capitol, Sculptures, and Paintings. - The Rotunda, National Library.-Halls of the Senate and of Representatives. -The President's Message. A gratifying Account of the Prosperity and Prospects of the United States. - Visit Mr. Clay.-Inspect the Arsenal.-Visit the Theatre and attend Church.-Mr. Bankhead.-The Nunnery.-A Party at the President's.

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A FAVOURABLE opportunity presenting itself for journeying by way of Philadelphia and Baltimore to Washington, to see Congress opened, being invited to join the party of General Wool, consisting of himself, his excellent lady, and the two accomplished daughters of the Secretary at War, Governor Coss, I did not tarry long in

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