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miles in extent.

thousand square miles in extent.

Whether this will prove a blessing or a curse to the Union, it is impossible to say; at present, the morals of the miners are represented to be in the worst possible state. The Government does not interfere with the mines, in which foreigners have principally invested capital.

The amount received at the Mint from the United States gold region, was

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It appears, therefore, that shortly the United States will not require gold from Africa, South America, Mexico, and the West Indies, as heretofore; and if they secure the Texas, they will also have silver within themselves.

The conduct of the South Carolinians was constantly discussed by the people I fell in with on the road, for among them are found the most determined of the nullifiers, that is, they claimed a right to nullify or set aside any Act of Congress which at all interfered with their interests. Thus they said "That in order to protect the manufacturers of New England, Congress makes us pay heavily for our goods, whereas we could import them much cheaper and better from Europe." Some of the Carolinians, by way of

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experiment as to the course their Government would pursue, had just imported woollens from Liverpool, on which they refused to pay duty at the Charleston Custom-house, and were sentenced to be fined; but the matter was referred to the highest authorities, and the final settlement of the question will occupy some time. In the mean time, the nullifiers threaten to demolish their own custom-house, and separate themselves from the rest of the Union. "They must be blockaded, I swear," said a New Yorker to me. "These Carolina planters are as proud aristocrats as any in the world, and think nothing of a man unless he can ride in his coach. They abuse the tariff which protects our manufacturers, and say it prevents the cotton growing! Some years ago, they got twenty-five cents for their cotton per pound, and this year only eight-all the blame is laid on the tariff. They may separate from us if they like, and perhaps we might be better off if we wanted the tail."

We passed through Elizabeth Town, and after a beautiful ride came to the Salt River, which we crossed, on á large raft, near where it debouches into the Ohio, its clear stream gliding majestically between wooded hills to join the turbid waters of the Mississippi. We then struggled on through a muddy road, and arrived at Louisville, Falls of Ohio, an hour before sundown. The town, as we passed through the streets, had a very thriving aspect, and many of the houses had

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a substantial air about them, for they were of

brick, and rough cast.

We were set down at a

large hotel, among a crowd of citizens waiting for their supper. Their hair was generally long, hat turned up behind, and every man of them had his hands in his pockets. In passing the bar I heard the usual interrogatory at the bar-keeper"Have you got any good gin, sir ?"-" Yes, sir, hollands." Well, mix me a cocktail I want to wet up."

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I had an introduction from Mr. Audabon the naturalist, to his relations here, with whom I supped, and next day was occupied in walking along the river viewing the canal, which goes past the rapids or falls, and in seeing some of the public places in the town.

The canal seems a very complete work, and overcomes a height of twenty-four feet of limestone rock. The cross section is two hundred feet in width from bank to bank at top, fifty at bottom, and forty-two feet high. There are one guard and three lift-locks combined, each about one hundred and ninety feet in the clear. The canal is intended to accommodate steam-vessels of the largest class.

Louisville contains ten thousand inhabitants, and will increase rapidly in population, from its excellent site and freedom from the scourge of yellow fever, with which it was afflicted before certain swamps were drained near the town. The environs are very picturesque, especially the river



view, with its woods, villas, and cultivated fields on the banks of the broad Ohio.

A laughable proof of the freedom of election in America happened to an acquaintance here, which I may as well repeat. He saw a crowd assembled at the door of a tavern, and on inquiring what was the occasion of it, he was told, that a lieutenant of militia was desirous of being made a general, and was then treating his friends with sling previous to the election. The privates elect their own officers by ballot in the States. A drunken fellow then staggered up to the stranger, and holding a bottle of rum by the neck, demanded, in a threatening voice, "Who are you for, Mister? D-n you, won't you vote for General Twig ?”—" Excuse me," said my friend, smiling, "I won't vote for either General Twig or General Wig!"-" You won't vote for General Twig, eh?" (shaking the bottle at him ;) "what



for ?"-" Because," quietly answered the stranger, "I have no right to vote at all; I'm not a citizen of the Union !"-" Oh! that's it! 66 Why the devil did you not say so before? Come, take an anti-fogmatic, then!" and they amicably pledged each other in a horn of old Jamaica. "Vote for my man or else get your head broke," is often the maxim in the back settlements.

I was tempted to stay in Louisville by an offer of an introduction to certain young ladies with blocks of houses, (a block is half a dozen or a dozen contiguous dwellings built on the same

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plan,) but as I had no inclination to locate myself on the banks of the Ohio, pleasant though they be, and handsome the fair that are found beside them, I embarked in a steamer, the Lady Byron, and paddled away up the river, bidding an eternal adieu to the attractions of Kentucky.


'Away! away! o'er earth and sea,

This land is not a home for thee.

Arise! and with a roving wing,

To seek elsewhere the smiles of spring!"

In the morning the mists, lay on the valley of the river until touched by the magic beam of the sun, when they began to move, gradually separated, and rolled away in clouds of white vapour among the hills, just lingering for a moment on their tops, and, disappearing, left the glorious carpet of variegated foliage, which is said to be more beautiful in the fall, or Autumn, in America than in any other part of the world. part of the world. Here, on the hills of picturesque outline the yellow leaf of the poplar was contrasted with the red foliage of the maple, and masses of evergreen pines gave relief to the gorgeous sylvan mantle of scarlet and gold. But this theme has been exhausted before; the beauties of the banks of Ohio, and of the glorious Hudson in the fall, have been painted by other and abler limners; and, like the accomplished author of "The Dutchman's Fireside," nothing is left for us but to repress the feelings of our swelling hearts by silent musings.

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