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The Antichamber and Stair-Case of this famous Library were designed by Michael Angelo, and are deservedly admired.

In the Church of Santa Croce, belonging to a Convent of Benedictines, a Gothic edifice, erected by Arnolfo, in 1294, are seen a number of interesting Monuments, particularly those of Galilleo, the Precursor of Astronomical Truth, and of Michael Angelo Buonarotti, who died at Rome, in his 89th year, but was here interred, by command of the reigning Duke.*

Galilleo,

I need not tell the well-known story of the Persecution of the Astronomer-because his discoveries were supposed to controvert the descriptions of the Sacred Books; nor need I add the mortifying recantation by which the Philosopher was fain to make his peace with the Bigots of his Age: But it may not be generally known that some of the works of Galilleo are yet prohibited in his native city.

Galilleo is happily represented, upon his funeral urn, as having gazed through his telescope until weariness obliges him to discontinue his contemplations. He is accompanied on one side by the Genius of Astronomy, on the other by that of Geometry, with their discriminating attributes.

Buonarotti, reposes upon a monumental stone, surrounded by the Sister Arts of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, weeping over the happy Genius by whom they were once-and but once united.

LETTER VIII.

Miscellaneous Remarks-Travelling Anec

dotes.

AMERICUS Vesputius, the reputed

Discoverer of the Western Conti. nent, who has had the honour to give his name to the New World, to the prejudice of Columbus (whose comprehensive genius had already penetrated with an Eagle's eye, the western horizon) was a native of Florence.

The Academia della Crusca boasts among its Members many persons of distinguished eminence, in learning and the arts; and the salutary institutions of the Grand Duke, Leopold, afterward Emperor of Germany, however disgraced by his bigoted prohibition of Protestant doctrines, entitle him to rank with Howard, Rumford, Lownes, and other bene: volent Individuals, in Europe, and America, who have reduced the theories of philanthropy to National practice; and displayed to the World the encouraging example of successful experiment, in the temperate correction of idleness and vice.

perorz

During the reign of Leopold, no Florentine could be imprisoned for debt, though his Creditors might seize his property to satisfy their demands; and no offence whatever was punishable with death, though murder incurred a sentence more dreadful to hardened villany -perpetual labour in the gallies. By

these

these and other political measures, such as the protection of the Jews, those active agents of Commercial enterprise; the abolition of sanctuaries, so mischievously privileged to shelter crimes; and the absurd or rapacious penalty of confiscation of Family Property, which punishes the Innocent for the sins of the Guilty; together with the natural progress of things in the Eighteenth Century, Tuscany was cleared of robbery and murder, and the happy Subjects of the Grand Duke were increased from a Million to

twelve hundred thousand Souls.

Florence has always been remarkable, even among the cities of Italy, for the most superstitious attachment to Monks and Friars. Churches and Convents accordingly abound, and painted Madonnas,

the

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