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accent according alphabet becomes beginning Bell breath buzzed cause character close combinations common consistently consonants corresponding course Danish dhə difficult diphthongs distinct distinguish easily effect element Ellis English entirely especially ənd fact final force formed French front German gives glide Glossic glottis heard important indicated initial inner instance intermediate language letters lips lowered marked meaning mixed modified mouth narrow nasal natural observed occur ordinary palate pass passage phonetic pitch position possible practical present principle produced pronounced pronunciation quantity raised regarded relations represented require result Roman rounding seems sentences separate short simply sometimes sound speech spelling stop stress strong Swedish syllable symbols teeth tone tongue unaccented values varieties various voice voiceless vowels weak whisper wide writing written
Página 201 - of the following :—b, d, f, g, h, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z. This leaves c, j, q, x undisposed of. We also have y, which is not required as a vowel-symbol in English. If we allow y to retain its present value, we can also retain
Página v - Again, if our present wretched system of studying modern languages is ever to be reformed, it must be on the basis of a preliminary training in general phonetics, which would at the same time lay the foundation for a thorough practical study of the pronunciation
Página 31 - A consonant is the result of audible friction, squeezing or stopping of the breath in some part of the mouth (or occasionally of the throat). The main distinction between vowels and consonants is that while in the former the mouth configuration merely modifies the
Página 98 - The only division actually made in language is that into ' breath-groups.' We are unable to utter more than a certain number of sounds in succession, without renewing the stock of air in the lungs. These breathgroups correspond partially with the logical division into sentences: every sentence is necessarily a breath-group, but every breath-group need not be a complete sentence.
Página 31 - the narrowing or stopping of the oral passage is the foundation of the sound, and the state of the glottis is something secondary. Consonants can therefore be breathed as well as voiced, the mouth configuration alone being enough to produce a distinct sound without the help of voice. Consonants can all be formed with whisper.
Página 97 - Thus the peculiar Japanese (r) seems to be formed by first bringing the tip of the tongue against the gums without any emission of breath, and then passing on to an untrilled (r), allowing voiced breath to pass at the moment of removing the tongue. As Mr. Ellis remarks
Página 143 - Le marquis n'était pourtant pas un homme de génie. Il était savant, mais savant sans spécialité, à moins qu'on ne veuille appeler ainsi une grande habilité pour certains ouvrages sans utilité aucune, dont nous aurons assez souvent lieu de parler plus tard, et qui avaient absorbé jusqu'à la passion, jusqu'à la monomanie, les dix dernières années de son existence.
Página 85 - All consonants consist of three elements, (i) the consonant itself, (2) the on-glide, and (3) the off-glide. Each of these elements may be either voiceless or voiced, and may be modified in various other ways. Consonant synthesis is most clearly seen in the stops, whose synthesis is at the same time the most important.
Página 89 - Stress-glides (Aspirated Stops). All stops, especially when voiceless, postulate a certain compression of the breath behind the stop, so as to produce an audible explosion when the stop is removed. On the force of this compression, which is caused by upward pressure of the diaphragm, the force of the glide and consequently the audibility of the stop mainly depend. The E. (k)
Página 75 - which is the ordinary way of beginning a vowel. (2) The breath is kept back till the glottis is closed for voice, which begins at once without any introductory breath. This is the ' clear ' beginning ([A]a), well known to singers, who are always taught to avoid the ' breathy