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G H A P. IV.

An explanation of the names given to the defcendants of Japhet, and some of those of Ham, by the Greeks; a reconcilation of them with the names by which they were called by Mofes and the prophets, with further proofs of their migrations.

ROM what has been offered in the foregoing

ib. F "St cnaPters, &' appears that Japhet's sons spread very rapidly over all Europe to its most western boundaries, by the two grand routs mentioned before; . that in the mean time thofe remaining of Magog's issue, . as well as of that of his brothers, Mejhech and Tubal, were situated, and sounded monarchies, in the northern quarters, about and beyond the Euxine Sea; and those' remaining of the descendants of Gomer, rilled Greece, and every other country south and south-west of Europe, in their turns. Now what I am to enquire further concerning them in this chapter is, what denominations they went under in their subdivisions in and about Greece, the isles of Elisha, and by whofe incursions the first introduction of exotic words was made into their original language.

I Have amply {hewed before, where the sons and grandchildren ot Japhet were first fettled; yet, in order to introduce this enquiry, I must enforce it by a quotation from the sixth volume of the Univerfal History, p. 139, where the learned authors have given credit, as I have before, to Josephus, in his account of the Jones, as being

originally originally so called from Javan, or Jon) rather than from yon, the grandson of Deucalion; which is justly suspected of being fabulous, and of Greek invention. ,. Some authors suppofed, that the Pelasgians were so called from Peleg, descended from Shcm, misled by a passage in Epiphanius, who fays, that Peleg, or Phaleg, . removed, towards Europe, to part of Scythia, and' was joined to thofe nations from which the Thracians came. Now the Thracians were absolutely descended from Ja~ pheis issue; which were the Aborigines of every part about the Euxine Sea, and southward all over Greece, as fast as they increased and multiplied; which though I have proved before, yet I am willing to insert the following quotation, because the opinion of authors of so much credit adds great weight to my own; and, in a matter of so high antiquity, I am the more careful to benefit my account with proofs that agree so well with Holy Writ.

"The passage from Epiphanius, fay these authors, "wherever he got it, has been sufficiently confuted by "Bochart, who shews that both Phaleg and Ragau, and "their descendants, continued still in the confines of Me"dia and Armenia; and we have elsewhere shewn, that "the Scythians were the descendants of Magog, and not of Phaleg, or Ragau. They were the sons of Japhet, "and not of Shem, that divided the istes of the Gentiles; "we shall therefore leave the Pelasgians to their own w sounder, and find a much more likely one for the ancient Greeks in the following note: > " First, from the authority of Josephus, above quoted. "Secondly, from the name itself of the patriarch, sound

"ing

"ing more properly Jon, than Javan, without the points. "Thirdly, from the authority of Moses, who fays, that by "the sons of yaphet were the isles of the Gentiles divided; "which, according to the genius of the Hebrew, means "not istands, properly so called, but all maritime coun4< tries, at any distance from Palestine, especially those u which are along the Mediterranean. Fourthly, from "that of the prophets, who call Græcia by the name of u Jon, or Javan, as pointed, according to which, thcjews. "have all along to this day called die Greek tongue Ja* "vanish. All this is further confirmed, from the clear w remains of Eli/ha, yavans eldest son, which were still"to be found in that of Elis, one of the ancient kingdoms (C of Peloponnesus."

The changes of the names of the Aborigines of the first: nations inhabited after the flood, which the Greeks made, are certainly not only very arbitrary, but also have been the means of rendering the histories of the highest antiquity much less intelligible than they otherwise would. have been, if the names of persons and places were inviolably preserved; but these were a people, who, when they had formed their language out of the adventitious mixture of several others from Phœnicia, Egypt, and some of the divided nations of the Eajl, together with' the original tongue of the house of yaphet, grew conceited and idolatrous, embracing the rites of the Egyptian mythology, and corrupting, by degrees, those who inhabited more northward in Greece, and who, till now, were worshippers of the True God, not only with their heathenish worship, but with a gradual change of language too, by the intren

duction duction os new words from thofe mentioned, then used by the descendants of Ham; who first peopled the regions of Assyria and Egypt.

But the facred historian was more faithful; he directs us to the first and true names of the patriarchs, and the prophets Ezekiel and "Jeremiah retain their appellations, many centuries after these opiniated Greeks, who were a mixture of the first nations in Africa and AJia, with the issue of Japhet in Greece, and who had established, in the Southern parts of Greece, the language which their poets and historians used, and handed down to us, as well as their preposterous sables: whilst the issue of Magogs Mejhech and Tubal on the Northern^ and thofe of Gomer on the South-wejlern quarters of Europe, travelled westward, and kept their original language uncorrupted to this day, in their ultimate residence in Britain and Irelandj and the worship of the True God, for several centuries, in both places.

I Now proceed to the enquiry I propofed, which, I "hope, is naturally introduced by the foregoing anecdotes; now, as we already know the original names according to 7Mosses, let us fee what were the appellations of them •among the heathen authors, the chief of which are Sanchoniatho, Herodotus, the most ancient we know of, and the other Greek writers after them. The most ancient of the first inhabitants of Greece, according to these writers, •were the Pela/gi, who, they allow, had overspread all -Greece, or the greatest part of it; and these were subdivided into several countries under particular names, and were the issue of Japhet.

i. The

i. The most ancient monarchy of these was that of the Sicyonians, and their country was called Sicyonia; situated on the north-west side of the Peloponesus; but the name of this peninsula was first Ægialea^ which, in the opinion of the famous bistiop Cumberland, was so called, either from its sirst king, Ægialeus, or because it lay near the more of that peninsula. And although the Greeks do not seem to have been converfant with the Mosaic history, yet several traces of the names of the patriarchs, as well as an absolute concurrence with it in many parts of their histories, are to be found, upon a careful inspection os them; the name of Japhet^ for example, is as clearly mentioned in the Greek Japetos, and the Latin Japetus, as Ham's or Chams name is in Hammon or Chemia, the old name of Egypt, the land of Ham. And to speak with bistiop Cumberland, "it falls out well that Pausanias, in his Co4< rinthiaca, p. 57, informs us that the Phliasians affirm, "that Ar ans among them was cotemporary with Prome* "theus, the son of Japetus; and three ages (or 100 years << at least) elder than Pela/gus, the son of Arcus or Arans, *< or than the AutoSl hones at Athens. This Arans, "the bistiop believes to be the fame name with Abra** hatris elder brother, though not the fame person.

"This author values that piece of antiquity at Phlius << the more, because, a little before, Pausanias assures us, "that he would only set down the things that were most "confested and agreed about them; and fays also, that "their neighbours, the Sicyonians, agreed with them about "their antiquities, which proves a great confirmation. "Because, fays the bishop, the Sicyonians were the eldest

M "fettled

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