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Rujfia, are under the very fame state, in all respects. Again, there are places which take their names from Mejhech, though he was a subject to his brother Magog: he was called Mosoch by the ancients, and gave name to a chain of mountains, called Mofchici, to the northward of Armenia, for which Bochart quotes several ancient geographers and historians.
The geographical accounts of the several boundaries of Scythia varies excessively, according to the humour and opinions of geographers; but as it is not my business to enter into such a discussion, I shall only in general observe, that all the Tartarys, Rujffias, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, Swede?i, Denmark, Norway, Laponia, and every other Northern territory, whether island or continent, from the most North-eajlern point of land to that of the Northern and North-wejl, may be comprehended under the name Scythia', because from whatsoever part of these vast tracts of country the Magogians swarmed southward, they were all called Scythians, in early times.
Some of them, in the course of their migrations, lived in clans, without building houses, towns or cities; removing from place to place with their families and cattle; whilst others formed themselves into kingdoms, having cities, towns, agriculture, and commerce with other na* tions; so that the nearer they were to thofe parts where commerce was first established, the more they were civilized, and approached the nearer to the civil policy of their neighbouring kingdoms; and it will appear in the sequel, that many nations of the early Scythianswere become examples to other people, for the purity of their laws, philosophy,
music and poetry, as well as a true heroic spirit; and so were their relations, the Gomerians, in all their governments. But when their colonies were driven into more remote parts, they forgot, in process of time, every thing that did not immediately regard their necessities, and were therefore reduced to such a state as we fee the North Americans are now in, living in tribes, or nations, by hunting and cattle, without tillage,. or any other improvement, or constant settlement, and making incursions upon one another like them; and this we fee is the cafe at present, even under the dominion of the Ruffians and Tartars^ in the remotest parts of thofe empires, which are so extensive, notwithstanding. there are emperors, kings, and kans at their head in several of these countries.
They were, however, ingenious enough, and very industrious; for where they were situated near any trading places, they had commerce with their neighbours, and where they had not, in more remote parts, yet they cultivated such trades among themselves, as sufficiently furnished them, with necessaries, for convenience and war.
They were capable of making their carriages,. or waggons, for the use of their families; they had the use of iron, in making their arrows and other necessaries in that metal: and they are faid to have been very expert in dressing, not only the lkins of the animals they fed upon, but also even thofe of their enemies flain in war, wherewith the victors adorned themselves and their horses. Herodotus is very full in his accounts of the customs of some of the Scythians; he tells us, that in order to initiate their young men and women in the feats of war, they. never
suffered, suffered the former to be present at feasts or councils-, till they had killed at least one enemy; nor the latter to marry, till they had done the fame respectively; and the custom wasj to bring the heads of such as they stew to their chief, which, in proportion to the number, increased the honour and character of the person. This author goes so far, as to tell us, that they used to dririk some of the blood of the first prisoner they subdued; arid that they often took off the (kins of the stain, and dressed them for the purpofes above- mentioned.
This, and several others of their customs, would almost persuade one to believe the North Americans were a people of the Scythian race, which I cannot help just mentioning here, though a little foreign to my present purpofe; because, as war was the chief concern of these herds of Scythians, and is so of nations of them to this day, so it is now of the North A?nericans \ and a conformity of manners and customs in the principal objects of different nations would encourage such an opinion; for what is more exactly conformable to the Scythian custom of bringing the heads or skins of enemies to their chiefs, than that of the North A?nerican Indians bringing the fcalps of their enemies to theirs; and pluming them-selves with the number of scalps they cut off, sometimes wearing them as ornamental trophies of honour, and sometimes hanging them up, in view, in their huts, in order to ingrofs the esteem of their brethren and neighbours. And, indeed, one might very naturally suppofe, that the first custom among the Americans was to bring the heads of their enemies, as tokens of their bravery; but that when
they went pretty long journeys, which they often do, to invade their enemies, they found it too troublesome to carry the heads, and therefore thought the scalps, of as many as they killed, as sufficient a testimony of their services, as if they had brought the intire heads.
But to return; in considering the Septuagint translation of Ezekiefs word's: "the chief prince of Mejhecb "and Tubal," which is the common translation; some light might be thrown upon the origin of the Ruffian's and Mofchovites, from that sentence; for, according to these Seventy interpreters, it runs thus: "the chief prince of "Rojh, Mejhech and Tub al." Because, fay the authors of the Univerfal history, in the neck of land between the Euxine and Caspian Seas, there formerly dwelt two sorts of people, the one called Rofci, on the river Cyrus? or rather on the Ros, Ras, or Ar as, called by the Greeks Araxes; the other called Mofchici, inhabiting a long chain of mountains, stretching along the North-wefl part of Armenia, and separating it from Colchis and Iberia. From which two people migrating, or driven over Caucasus, it is suppofed the Ruffians and Mofchovites are descended. And Josephus informs us, that Iberia was first inhabited by Tubal, who, with his brother Mejhech, was subject to Magog, and greatly corroborates that translation of the Septuagint, for the issue of Mejhech and Tubal are by them rendered Mofchi and Iberians.
These were the parts to which they first migrated from Armenia after the flood, from whence they overspread the north quarters of Scythia; and as neighbouring nations will adopt such manners and Customs from
each other as seem best to them; so, according to Strabo, in after-ages, thofe inhabitants of Iberia, long after Scythia was overspread by the Magogians, Mofchici, and the offsprings of these descendants of Tubal, who lived in the low fertile country, understood agriculture very well, and were a most industrious people, following the Medes and Armenians in their manners, customs and dress; whereas, thofe who dwelt in the mountainous parts were barbarous and favage, and in their manners and customs bore a great resemblance to the Scythians and Sarmatians.
Whatsoever pains therefore may be taken in examining the most authentic authors, who have, in the earliest ages, taken up the history of these Northern people, and how scrupulously soever discusted, we may venture to fay, that no other result can be deduced from a due consideration of them, than this: that the offspring of Japheis sons, Magog, Mejhech and Tuba!, peopled all the Scythian territories; and, consequently, as appears by an affinity derivative of their names, produced the Moguls, Mofchovites and Tartars. Mogli, shortened from Magogli, are the sons of Magog. Moschi, from Mejhech; as it is generally agreed by authors, from Herodotus and the Scriptures; and the people called Tibereni, from Tubal. If this last mould be thought a forced derivation, we must consider that the Greeks, as I have before hinted, had a very good hand at changing the names of persons and things; we must observe that Tubal, in the Hebrew, was called Tubar, and Tibar by the Greeks, which the Septuagint translation warrants and supports; and, from Strabo and others, the country of the Tibareni was called Tibar and Tubar\