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that central trading spot of the world; the Magogians, who' went by land, had no such advantage in their flights from their enemies; and, no doubt, lived all along in the simple original manner, upon hunting and cattle, as we find people in the more remote Northern nations at this day, and indeed in every other unfrequented part of the world, where commerce was never introduced, nor incursions of strangers yet begun; whereas, thofe Magogians, who arrived in Ireland by sea, immediately from the Mediterranean, were versed in arms, had sublime notions of government and preserved their records by their bards and historians, as the Gomerians did.; but of this we shall fee more in the sequel. However, that it may not seem strange for either Gomerians or Scythians to fail to Britain or Ireland, it is pretty certain that the Greeks were very early well acquainted with both Britain and Ireland; for several ancient authors astert it: and Orpheus, or whoever wrote the Greek poem on the Argonautic expedition, fays, that Jason, who manned the ship Argos, failed to Ireland, and Adrianus Junius fays the fame thing' in these lines:
"Ilia ego sum Graiis, olim Glacialis Ierne "Dicta, et Jasoniœ puppis bene cognita nautis." And Tacitus, in his Life of "Julius Agricola, in speaking of Britain and Ireland, fays, that the harbours of Ireland were better known to the trading- part of the world than thofe of Britain, on account of their commerce: "Solum "cœlumqueet ingenia cultufque hominum, haud multum "a Britannia differunt; melius aditus, portusque per "commercia et negociatores cogniti."
Now the Argonautic expedition is faid, by Chitræus, in his Chronologia Hijloriœ Herodoti et Thucydidis, to have happened anno mundi 2737 from which, if we fubstract 1656 the years from the creation to the flood, the re- . mainder will be 1081 which is about the number of years from the flood to the beginning of the reign of the Milesians in Ireland \ so that if Jason did fail to Ireland, it must be soon after the establishment of the Milejians in that kingdom. See Chitræus, p. 126. Yet, from a very remarkable pastage in DiodoruS, one would be induced to believe the early inhabitants of Greece were well acquainted with both Britain and Ireland. It is, however, something difficult to fay which of these is meant by this author, or by a very ancient author, Hecatœus, whom he quotes, and who was a Pelasgian, or, in other words, was. not an European Grecian. But surely no other island in the world can be meant than either Britain or Ireland, from the description of Diodorus:. he fays, <c that among the writers of "antiquity, Hecatæus and some others, relate that there is an island in the ocean, opposite to Galle, or the Celtœ, not less than Sicily; which is inhabited by a people called Hyperboreans, under the ArElic regions; so called, "because they are more remote than the north wind. It "is a very fertile place, for they have a harvest twice a "year; that they have a great forest, and a noble temple, "where the men, many of whom are harpers, sing forth "the praises of Apollo \ that they had a language proper "to themselves, or the Greek was their tongue; and 6 "that
"that they had a great regard for the Greeks, which "friendship had been confirmed from ancient times, par<< ticularly with the Athenians and Delians; and that u some of the Greeks came over to the Hyperboreans, and "made them rich presents, inscribed with Greek letters: << and also that Abaris formerly went from thence into << Greece, to renew their ancient friendship with the "Delians." See Diod. lib. ii. towards the end.
In this account, there is reason to believe Britain or Ireland to be the habitation of Hecatœus s Hyperborei.: both had temples for the worship of the gods, the vestiges of which are now remaining in both islands. The harp was the instrument both of the ancient Britons and Irish, and is now used in both nations, and scarce any where else, in our time. Both islands are fertile, and are situated in the ocean opposite to the Galles, or Celts, and near the Ar Site region; and many other accounts of the early correspondence held between these islands and the inhabitants of Greece, are certainly corroborated by this. And if we add to these, that the harp was in so much esteem in Ireland, that from their skill in playing upon it, and their great proficiency in music, they were called Citharedi, or Cithariftæ, and have, from ancient times, held it the chief ensign of their national arms. These are sufficient connotatives to point out who the Hyperboreans were; for no other islands in the world can answer these characters of situation, customs, &c. but Britain and Ireland. This account also marks the country of that fa* mous philofopher, Abaris, who is mentioned by several writers, of whom we shall iay something more hereafter.
There is also another very remarkable passage from Plutarch, in his treatise on music, which, in a great measure, corroborates what Diodorus had delivered concerning the embassy to the Deli Ans by Abaris: he fays, " that "the presents that were sent to them from the Hyperbo"ream were accompanied with haut-boys, harps, and "guitarsand though the harp seems to have been the favourite instrument with both Britons and Irish, yet they were performers upon various others, and faid by authors to be even the inventers of them; and besides the above, they used trumpets; of these, there were some discovered in Ireland in digging, a few years ago, and shewed at the Society of Antiquaries, of fine brass,. which were so curious, as to their form and great antiquity, that they were thought very worthy of being ingraved and described among the works of that learned body. They were brought over, with some other specimens of antiquity, by the late learned Dr. Pocock, Lord Bishop of Meath.
Cæsar and Tacitus think it very probable, that Britain had its first inhabitants from Gaul, for no other reasons, but because of the propinquity of them to each other; and from the Galls having sent colonies into Italy, Spain, &c. concluding that therefore they must also have peopled Britain. I will allow, that when the Galls came first into France, and had spread themselves to the coasts, they might have had an intercourse with thofe who inhabited this island before, and that they might reciprocally pass over to each other: but, that the first people came into Britain from thence, can be no way allowed; not even though a great number of authors may have said the fame
thing; thing; founding their reasons upon the agreement of the manners and customs of the inhabitants of both countries. Now there is no wonder in such agreement, because no one can deny that they were both colonies from the feme stock, having undoubtedly language, manners and customs alike, as they were in fact all Celts: but if thofe authors had attended to the particular traffic carried on by'the Greeks with the "Cajftterides, for tin, lead, and copper, they would scarce have thought thus of the matter; besides, the learned Bochart seems to me to have absolutely mistaken the fact of the discovery of those istes by the Phœnicians; and afterwards by the Greeks; whereas, we have better authority for reversing this opinion, in Holy Writ. Thave before shewed, from the prophet Ezekiel, that Tar/hi/h, part of the 'isles of Eli/ha, afterwards called Greece, fold tin and lead to the merchants of Tyrus, and were therefore more likely to be the first discoverers of the Cajftterides, and that having in time found out the mines, invited their own brethren to come over for it; for it is not probable that the Phœnicians would have suffered the Greeki to import tin and lead, and let these commodities be fold in their fairs, if they could have had it brought to them in their own mips at the first hand; and therefore I cannot help being of opinion, that -the people of Tar/hiJh, that is, the Pelasgians, discovered and concealed these islands from the Phœnicians as long as they could, instead of the contrary; and that it was from thence the first people of the Gomerian race came into the Southern parts of Britain. The Greeks called the tin islands, Cajftterides, and perhaps the Phœnicians coming thither afterwards,