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for making a treaty of friendship with them, "Besides "this, how they had discomfitted in battle Philip, and "Perseus, king of the Citims." And in the eighteenth. verse of the fame chapter, the business of his messengers is partly declared thus: "and to intreat them that they w would take off the yoke from them; for they faw that "the kingdom of the Grecians did oppress Israel with << servitude." How wonderfully was Noah's prophetic promise fulfilled, of the enlargement of yaphet; and how conformably to that has Moses informed us, that the istes of the Gentiles should be possessed by Javans posterity, who accordingly were the sounders of the governments and language of all Greece, as I shall endeavour to prove it hereafter more fully. There is no other account of the fourth son of Javan, than what is suggested from the Septuagint by the ingenious authors of the Univerfal History, and seems probable enough; which changes the name Dodanim to Rodanim, and settles him in the island of Rhodes', this, in the opinion of these historians, seems a more likely derivation, than to extract the name Doris from Dodanim, which, in my sentiment, can have no natural relation to one another.
The seventh son of Japhet, Tiras, or, according to Josephus, Thiras, was the sounder and planter of the people called from him the Thiræans, or, as the Greeks afterwards altered it, Thracians. This historian upbraids the Greeks in his time for taking the liberty of altering names and terms of persons and things to their own fancy: M They have, fays he, gotten a method of changing names "to tickle the ear, and carry the word glibber off the
<< tongue; but our people neither allow, nor practise "any such thing. The Greeks have turned Noe into No<( chos; but we keep to the fame form and syllables, "without varying the termination."
A particular view of the farther migrations and changes of the offspring of Japhet in their passages northwards north-wejlward and wejtward.
Having now brought the descendants of Japhet regularly to the places where the Scriptures settle them, let us proceed to follow them severally to their remotest, though very early settlements; and this will chiefly regard the colonies which proceeded from Magogs and his brothers, Mejhech and "Tubal, who were his subjects, in their advances to the northwest, on the one hand; and thofe which came from Gomer, and his brother *Javaris istiie, who spread over the western parts of Europe, on the other hand. We must, however, remind our readers, that Tbgarmah, one of Gomers sons, went off north-eastward, and peopled Eastern Tartary, great part of the Mogul's country, and other parts of India, whom we shall have occasion to mention in the sequel of this work.
Thus there appears to be two grand routs, by which all Europe was inhabited in due time, by Japhet's successors; and it will appear, that the migrations of Magog's subjects was much more rapid than thofe of Gomers issue, and that consequently all the Northern countries of Europe were much sooner inhabited by the former, than the most Southern were by the latter.
G 2 CHAP. CHAR II.
The progress of the Gomerians, or offspring of Gomer.
f^y^ E T us begin with Gomer, who, being the eldest 85 L fon> claims our notice, and examine the ^jS^A different appellations by which his descendants were known in the world. They were first called Gomerians, from his name, and were known by that appellation for several ages; even after their mixing with their brethren, the Scythians, in peopling Germany, Poland, and other Northern countries. They were indeed called in these countries Cimmerii, Cimbri, Coimbri; for it was a very ancient colony of these that gave name to the Cimbric Kersonesus, now part of the Danish territory, after their conjunction with the Scythians; but this word, Cimmerians, is no other than a corruption of Commerians, changed from Gomerians; such changes being common, through all languages and nations of the world, to this day.
While they were in Afia, a colony of them were called Sace, Saces, or Saques; the occasion of which, as it is related by authors of great credit, such as 7rag. Pompeius, /Irian, in Parthicis apud Photium, and several others, was, that the Gomerians increasing, and migrating through Margiana in great multitudes, had many quarrels and dissensions among themselves, and the stronger, driving out the weaker parties, forced them into neighbouring countries, some of which were then in the possession of
the'Medes, who sprung from Madai\ where, from their being a banished people, and fugitives, they were called Parthians, Parthu signifying divided, or separated from another people, in the Gomerian language; from hence thofe parts where they settled were called Parthia, and from these arofe the Persians, who were also called Elamites, from one of the sons of Shem; so that Persia had its inhabitants from the North by the Parisians, and in the Southern parts by the sons of Elam, much about the fame time, who, at length, became a mixed people whom we shall mention hereafter.
Now these Parthians, in resentment for having been forced away to shift for themselves, gave their enemies the scandalous name, Sacœ, which signifies to rob or commit great violence, and which, among historians, remains upon them at this day. Now as these were a part of the people of Margiana, though sprung from Gomer, they, and indeed all the Northern people, were called Scythians very early; and the Perjians afterwards gave all the Scythians the name of Sacœ, according to Herodotus.
If we were to enumerate all the names given to the first people inhabiting the ifles of Elisha, by thofe writers who blended their histories with fables and allegories, and many times invented matters that never existed, this work would be swelled to a greater bulk than is intended; but our. purpofe is to be as concise as possible, and to adopt nothing fabulous. It would indeed have been happy, if mythologic fables had never been handed down to us; because it is very evident they have occasioned many errors among writers, who were not always able to weed out 6 falshoods falfhoods from truth; and often were induced to lay hold of what pleased their own fancy, rather than what was conformable to truth; besides other evils, which even the true revealed religion of God has not shaken off, in but too many places, at this time.
When Javan and his sons settled in these ifles, the whole people were, from him, called ybnes, and Jaones, which name other nations also always gave them, ages before they were called Graii, or by any other appellation whatsoever. And yet among themselves, and by some neighbours, they were still called Gomerians, which never was quite taken off, till, in after-ages, when the descendants of that family, by commerce with the Phænicians, had blended the yonian or Gomerian tongue with thofe of that conflux of people, who afterwards traded from all parts to Tyrus, and who formerly, being subject to the confusion at Babel, were called Grecians, and then they began to call their former brethren Galatai and Keltai, from which arofe the names Celtœ and Galli among the Latins.
But we have the best proofs of their being long called yonians from authorities not to be questioned. It is, in the first place, but natural to derive this name from that of the patriarch, its sounder, Javan, by a very easy alteration; and, as he was the father of the first inhabitants of Greece, he had a right to have his people called after his name. Josephus makes this very derivation, and him the father of the Grecians; and the Scriptures, as I have before faid, gives the Grecians the name of yones, or yavans in the Hebrew tongue, and call the Greek language yavanith to this day. All