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m pannag, honey, oil, and balm, or rosin. Damascus, in wine and white wool; bright iron, caflia, and calamus came from Dan and Javan; fine cloths for chariots, from Dedans lambs, rams and goats, from Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar. Sheba and Raamah sent their merchants with all manner of spices, precious stones and gold. And Haran, and Canch, and Eden, the merchants ot Sheba, Afljur and Chihnad, were faid to deal in all forts of merchandize, as well as blue cloths, embroidered work, and in chests made of cedar, filled with rich apparel.
This was the state of that most magnificent city, when the pride of their nation brought on them the desolation the- prophet pronounced against them, which was punctually fulfilled, in the ruin that came upon them, according to the word of God.
. I Have here been the more particular in recounting the several countries which traded to Tyre, because it points out to us the places. where the descendants of Shem, Ham^ and .yaphet went to, and were established in, so many hundred years after the flood; retaining the ancient names, and no doubt the languages they severally carried with them under their different heads, and, as the Scripture lays, after their nations; from whence it will be no difficult matter to trace thofe of them, which are the subjects of my design, to their utmost habitations; where the remains of the sons of Gomer, and of his brothers, are yet unmixed with any others, with respect to their language, to this day; which I shall endeavour to make appear,. when I come to treat of the language of the Celts, or rather Gomerians and Magogians. We shall, however, first
follow follow them from the places the Scripture settles them in^ till we find the remains of them in the ne plus of their migrations.
It has been thought, by the Chaldee paraphrasts, that Gamer went to Africa; but this mews, that they took a Jibe rty not at all to be countenanced, because it directly - contradicts the Mosaic, as well as the prophetic, account or Ezekiel, which place him north and north-east; as does 'Jeremiahs in his 51st chapter, verse 27, place AJkenaz with Minni and Ararat, kingdoms far enough from Africa, and in the neighbourhood of Armenia: nor is it improbable, that part of his issue fettled about the Euxine Sea, or, according to Bochart, Axine Sea, which he supposes to be a corruption of AJkenaz by the Greeks. See his Phaleg. 1. iii. c. 9.
The families of Riphath, Gomers second son, seem to be situated about Paphlagonia, from the opinions of Jossephus, Bochart, Stephanus and Pliny; the former of these two mentions a country of the fame name, whofe people were called Rhebæi; and Pliny places here a nation, called Rhiphœi.
As to Togarma, the Sacred Scriptures have, as I have mentioned it already, been very clear in declaring his situation; and it was from him and his fucceflbrs that that great country, called "Tibet, was peopled, who being either forced to file off that way, for want of room, or from feuds and discords, fettled in, and extended over, it with their language and religion, which is now corrupted into the idolatrous worship of the lamas, of which I mall mention more hereafter; thus his, and the children of 2 some some others of his relations, spread over the north-east quarters of the world.
We must now follow Magog, and his offspring, to the north-west, and spread them all over Rujfia, Poland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany, as well as to the borders of North Tartary: -we must remark, that these were very numerous, and made a rapid migration through all these parts; because his brothers, Me/hech and Tubal, were with him, and all their offspring; for it appears, by the prophet Ezekiel, that they were his. subjects, and their offspring, that still occupied thofe northern parts, continued to be so, even to the time of that prophesy; while, in the mean time, which included the space of eighteen hundred years, and upwards, the descendants of them all had gone and peopled all the north and north-western parts of Europe, mentioned above, even into Ireland and Scotland, as did the descendants of Togarmah, and others of his relations, all Southern and Eafiern Tartary, even to the land now called Camfchatfchi. And these descendants of Gog and his brothers, were the people which, in after-ages, had the appellation of Scythians, as it is agreed on by many authors of authority, as Jossephus, Jerom, and most of the fathers.
Having now, in a general way, distributed the two brothers, Gomer and Magog, with Mejhech and Tubal, and the migrations of their descendants; let us now follow the other three brothers, Madai, yavan and Tiras. And in this we shall be led by the Scripture account, which is so clear, however short, that there is no missing the way:
. Madai was the third son of Japhet, and'is by many faid to be the sounder of the Medes, whofe country was, after liis name, called Media; there are many reasons to support this opinion, notwithstanding that a learned author has endeavoured to place him in Macedonia; but the situation of Media best suits him, because it places him in the neighbourhood of his two elder brothers, Gomer and Magog, who, according to his right of seniority, must have had the third lot; and, in general, this was the rule observed by Noah; for his own three sons dwelt with him, and the sons of each of these round about them, a little farther off in the countries adjacent; besides, there is an . eafy similarity in the etymology of the word Media, from Madai, in which opinion I have easily concurred with the learned authors of the Univerfal History, by the change of the first a into e; whereas, it must be very hardstrained, to derive Macedonia from Madai. But there is yet a stronger argument to prove he had nothing to fay to Macedonia; because this country, lying contiguous to Greece, of which it was once a province, would rather fall to Javans lot; or the western part of Lejfer Asia, from whence he and his sons had an easy passage into Ma. cedonia, and the istes of the Gentiles, which was all Greece, and other parts, where the Scriptures place them, ver. 5 of the tenth chapter of Genesis, and where we find them trading to Tyrus eighteen hundred years after the flood, under the appellation of "Javan ssons, from whom they descended. See Ezekiel, quoted before. Now some have thought that the fifth verse, which fays, "By these were the istes of "the Gentiles divided in their lands j" had reference to
ail all the sons of Japhet; but this opinion is contrary to the facts laid down in Ezekiel, 27 th and 38 th chapters, wherein it appears, that some of his sons were called from the north quarters, where they and their descendants dwelt, both on account of fulfilling the prophesy with respect to the children of Israel, and to trade in horsemen, horses and slaves, with the merchants of Tyrus: from which circumstances we must conclude, that Javan and his sons only were referred to, in the words cited above.
Javan, therefore the fourth son of Japhet, undoubtedly settled in the southern and western parts of Asa Minor, from whence, as I have just observed, his four sons moved gradually into the istes of the Gentiles, spreading over and possessing all Greece, which Were called the istes of Elifha, from his eldest son; as was another part called Tarsus, or Tarshi/h, from his second son, as it is mentioned expressly by the prophet; and near him Kittim, the third son, planted his colony; this was in Macedonia, which is clearly pointed out in the history of the Maccabees, in two places. In the first verse of the first chapter, book the first, we find these words: "And it happened after "that Alexander, son of Philip the Macedonian, who u came out of the land of Chettim, had smitten Darius, "king of the Persians and Medes, that he reigned in his "stead the first over Greece." This is a very plain hint for ascertaining the land of Kittim; but it is confirmed, in the fifth verse of the eighth chapter, in the following terms: where "Judas Maccabæus is informed of the power of the Romans, and resolves to fend ambasiadors