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Hippocrates; Archippus, Hipparchus; Anaxippus, Hipponax j Damajippus, Hippodamus; Oleander, An dr odes; Nicojlratus, Stratonicus \ Dojttheus, Theodojius j and nunv bers of others. See Lloyd's Archeologia.
Other alterations arise in words, which have the fame root, or meaning, from the addition of initial letters, whether consonants or vowels j or of middle vowels,. or gutturals, to words in one language, which have them not in the original. And this is what every tongue in Europe is subject to, except the Magogian or Irish; for it is well known, that the Irish have preserved their letters, and orthography, intirely the fame that it ever was, without any change, to this day, in their manuscripts of the most arycient, as well as the most modern times. And hence it is, that their written language seems to differ greatly from what they speak; because they soften, or abridge, the greatest part of it, in the course of converfation. This makes the study of their manuscripts certain; whereas, in most, if not all the others, they vary so much, that a person, well enough versed in a modern book, would be puzzled to make out the fame language, in an author who wrote two or three centuries past; EngliJJj, French, Italian and Spcmish shew this, and so does every one of the Teutonic dialects. This was also the case in the Greek and Latin, while they continued living languages; they were subject to the fame changes, that I have mentioned to be the causes of the mutilation of words j and, with the Greeks, it is so now, where it is yet a national tongue: but, with us, both Greek and Latin remain pure, because we are taught them, as a part of education, in their purity,
from from their finest writers; and will ever remain so, while we acquire them in this manner, and do not use them as our common tongue.
The additions, and omissions of labial letters, palatiak, vowels, mutes, liquids., variations of initial syllables, changes of termination, changes of vowels, changes of labial and of palatial letters, as well as of linguals, although they make such differences as would seem sufficient to cause a total alienation of the relation and sense of words, in both these original languages; yet their affinity to each other, and •their being the parents of others, in various tongues, still are manifest to every impartial and judicious reader, in the midst of such seeming difficulties.
As to the terminations of words, every language, as it was gradually formed, assumed terminations proportioned to its nature, and the arbitrary rules laid down by its learned men; which proceeded from fancy and whim, for there were pedants of old as well- as now; or, in some cases, from necessity: and so it is in the different pronunciation of the vowels, in the several European tongues. But these variations do not alter the specific root, nor^the sense of the word; and the etymology is as easily discerned in the 6ne, as in the other. Thus, when the Greek language was rising out of the Gomerian tongue, and the addition of the Phœnician and Egyptian, as spoken by the issue of Shem and Ham, their grammarians gave to their nouns the terminations os, ou, on, &c. as the cafes required \ and, in like manner, when the Latin began to rife out of the Gomerian, then called Celtic, as spoken by the Aborigines, who were the first Pelafgians that pasted from the istes of
EliJJja into Italy, and were distinguished by authors, in their several settlements, by the*names of Umbri, Ofci, Ausonii, Oenotrii, &c. they imitated the Greeks, in altering the terminations of their nouns, though something different from them; as, for os, us, for on, um, and the like, and nearly followed the fame method of declension and conjugation; which shews, that a colony of the first Greeks, (by which, I mean the mixed people hinted before, that made their encroachments upon the Pelasgians, according to the appellation of the Greeks, or the lonians, Elijhans, &c. Gomers sons, according to Scripture, and there formed the Greek tongue), had settled in Italy about the time of Deucalion s son, or grandson, and, by degrees, contributed to shape the Latin out of the altered dialects of the Gomerian (now Celtic) and their own, which they brought with them; for the Latin is now, for the most part, Gomerian and Greek.
A Few examples, in this place, will make all these astertions very manifest; let us take some words, each of which has the fame signification in every one of the European tongues, and we shall see, at one view, the alterations they have gone through; and also, that, notwithstanding such changes, or deviations, they must be owned to have been originally the fame word.
Magogian Eafbog. Spanish Obifpo.
Gomerian Efgob. Italian Vescovo.
Greek 'EncMo-it®*. Hungarian Pispok.
L 1 Magogian
It may be suppofed, that epifcopusis a modern word, and as it is, by modern lexicographers, derived of im and axonew, some think it to be no older than the first; creation of bishops in the Christian church; but the words, ea/iog, or easgob, which are the very fame, with only the transposition of the last syllable, is an ancient Pelasgic compound word, and signifies an overlooker, one that had the inspection, and superintendency of men or things: es, eas, and uas, for they are wrote either way in ancient manuscripts, signifies above, over; and bogagh denotes a viewer, espyery or examiner. These are, undoubtedly, the roots of epifcopuS) which was afterwards the appellation of the rulers of the church and clergy, and, at present,. in no other acceptation.
Now, great numbers of such will occur, in the coffrse of the list: I promised, which will, in a great measure, reconcile the languages to their original parents; although the corruptions arising from the changes made by the common people, in different parts of their respective countries, are, in each, so vsry many. Again,
Again, it will be curious to examine the mutilation of some other principal words, which, one would imagine, •could hardly be liable to such changes, and yet are so varied, that they would even appear ridiculous. The first we mall take notice of, is father:
Mag. Nathair. All these are derived from the MaGomer. Taad. gogian nathairchanging only the iniGreek sI«T^. tial; and this was the original GomeLatin Pater. rianf the present tad is of later date. French Fere. The Manx ayr is spelt as the Magogians Ita/ianPadve. commonly pronounce it; for, in speakMifp. Padre. ing, they neither use the initial nor sPae. middle consonant, though it is always
'[Pay. written as above; for their orthography Manx Ayr. never changes. Thus, the unlearned Gothic Atta. would write surgeon for chirurgeon, Ci.citer for Cirencester, &c.
This is mutilated by the Germans', and other Northern nations, in chusing another initial letter, and varying it otherwise also: and we have adopted their mode in our English tongue. Some of thofe countries fay, fader, faeder, phadaer j some, fater, fatter\ bader, bater; others, seer, veer, vqyer, vader; others, haita, heite; and we, in England, have had it from the Saxons four different ways, in a course of years, thus: fadiir} fadir, fader, and now father.
These are the variations in the West and North-west of Europe; and it is very remarkable, that, of all the Eastern. nations, not one but the Perstan has a word agreeing with this. The Perjians have Pader and Peder; and this they
L 1 2 had,