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only failed round it, and arrived at Kamptffchatka. It was then known, that the two continents were not contiguous; but, at the fame time, it was made manifest, that the sea that divided them was but a very narrow streight, in comparison of the vast distance that was formerly suspected. The following notices of the distances in the nearest points of their approximation, as laid down by Muller, will be both agreeable and necessary, in this place; in order to shew how practicable a passage the Tartars had to the American shore, and that in several places, and in different latitudes.
To begin then, we shall take notice first of the distance between the most eastern promontory of Asia, to the American coast, and this is a part of the land of the Tschutkschi, which lies between the seventy-second and seventyfifth degrees of north latitude, and is a peninsula, being •divided by a narrow neck from the more southern parts of the land, which these people inhabit, down to the river Anadir, and the country of the Jukagiri, a people situated above the northernmost parts of Kamptffchatka, which is divided from that people by this river. Now, from the most eastern point of this peninfula, to the opposite shore of North America, according to the scale laid down in Mr. "Jefferiess map, it is not more than 150 English statute miles, being exactly at the end of the 73d degree of north latitude, longitude about 206: below this, the streight widens to about double that breadth; but in the latitude of 67, it grows narrower again, where, from twp points of land, over to the American coast, discovered by Surveyor Gwosdew, in 1730, the distance is less than that
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mentioned above: and, is we consult Mr. Green s remarks upon the new chart of North America, in six sheets, printed in 1763, for Mr. Thomas Jefferies, we find, in the note, page 25, that, "according to later informations, "the distance is twenty-four leagues scarce, from the most "east part of Siberia, to the nearest land opposite; but << whether it be America, or an island, is yet uncertain." Now, if it be an island, it cannot be at a very great distance from the American more; because the Tfchutkfchi have an intercourse with the Americans, as was mentioned before, in trading with each other for several necestaries. In going further south, to the sea of Anadir, so called from the river taken notice of above, there is a land's end', near which an island, called St. Laurence, projects, from the eastern coast of which, it is no more than two hundred miles to the American continent, and this is in the latitude of about 64. It was here, that eight men of the 'Tfchutkfchi came on board Captain Bering, while he was on his course, by this island, into the sea of Anadir, to Kamptschatka. This commander failed along the coast of the Korjacks, till he passed the land's end of this country, called Olutoroivjkoy Nos, which is the beginning of the Kamptschatcan Sea\ and when he had doubled this cape, he steered till he arrived upon the coast of Kamptfchatka, between the 56th and 57th degrees of north latitude.
From this place, due east to the opposite American shore, it is about 500 miles; but there are four islands situated nearly in the middle of this sea, between the two mores, by which a frequent communication might be
kept kept up, between the inhabitants of Kamptfchatka and thofe of North America: the most eastern of these is called Bering's Island; because here he was cast away, and died. Now, the American land, due east of this island, was indicated by the inhabitants of Kamptfchatka; and it is asserted,. by navigators, that it may be seen from that islands There are several more islands to< the southward of these sour, which lie east of the land's end of Kamptfchatka, at very trifling distances from each other, running due east and west, in a chain, till the most eastern of them comes clofe to America. There are ten or eleven of these islands; round which, both captains Bering and Tfchirikow failed into the Pacific Ocean, and, in 1741,both of them discovered the American snore; the former,. in the latitude 60; and the latter,. in latitude 56, and much about the fame time, ten or twelve degrees to the northward of Neva Albion, which lies north of California* Now this chain of islands mentioned, and the southern part of the American land, to which they run, are in the latitude of 51 and 52, aud, the latter, longitude 194; for that land, at this place, projects thus far to the southwest; but then, the coast begins to run back again northeast, till it comes to the 62d degree of latitude, and of longitude 23.0^ and is the northern bound of the great Pacific Ocean.
From the land's end of Kamptfchatka, a chain of islands, called the Kurilian Islands, begins, whofe inha.bitants trade and correspond with one another, and with those of the continent of Kamptfchatka; and these islands run in a southwest direction, till they fall upon the Japan
isles. isles. For their particular description, I refer the reader to Mr. Mullers account, and shall only observe further here, that these islands, perhaps, have trade and correspondence, with that chain of islands which runs over eastward from them to the American shore, mentioned above; for, from the first and second of the Kurilian Islands, over to SeduSlion Island, which is the first, in an eastern direction, is but 300 miles, and the respective distances between this whole chain so litttle, that they might easily pass from one to another, in order to reach the American coast, some of them being very clofe to it, as well as near one another. Thus I have enumerated several places, which the inhabitants of these parts of Asia might have passed over to North America, with great ease; and, indeed, there is scarce a point, from the latitude of 51, along the whole streight, to 74, north, that can be thought at too great a distance for such a passage.
It is, however, no great wonder that authors were so incredulous, as to the probability of inhabitants palling over from Asiatic Tartary to North Americai considering the vast distances which two eminent geographers, Moll and Senex, have laid down between them; but a comparative view of the differences between them and jfefferiess chart of North America, as projected from the Ruffian discoveries, will remove all manner of difficulties about it; for there appears to be sixty degrees difference of longitude, between Moll and the chart laid down in the Ruffian discoveries, of the most eastern coast of Siberia; and twenty degrees difference of the most west coast ot America, which makes a vast extent of country gained by the latter, where
by by the intervening sea is reduced to a streight, for several degrees of north latitude: so that these later observations have reduced the passage from Asa to America^ to less than ioo, in several places, which Moll and Senex have made more than 1000, leagues.